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Baluchistan  District  Gazetteer  Series. 


VOLUME  III, 


SIBI    DISTRICT. 


TEXT 


COMPILED   BY 

MAJOR  A.   McCONAGHEY,   I. A., 

ASSISTED  BY 

RAI    SAHIB    DIWAN    JAMIAT    RAI,    E.A.C. 


Price  Re.  3-8  or  5  Shillings. 


BOMBAY: 
PRINTED     AT    THK    TIMES    PRESS. 


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Agents  for  the  sale  of  Government  Publications. 


IN     ENGLAND. 


Mr.   E.  A.    Arnold,    41   and  43,    Mad- 
dox  Street,  Bend  Street,  London,  W. 

Messrs.  Constable    &  Co.,    16,    James 
Street,  Haymarket,    London,  W. 

Messrs.  Kegfan  Paul,  Trench,  Trubner 

&   Co.,    43.    Gerrard    Street,    Soho,        Mr.  B.  H.  Biackwell,  50  &  51.   Broad 
London,  W.  Street,  Oxford. 

Mr.  Bernard    Quaritch,  15,  Piccadilly         Messrs.    Deighton   Bell  &   Co.,    Cam- 
London,  bridge. 


Messrs.  P.  S.  King  &  Son,  2  and  4, 
Great  Smith  Street;  Westminster. 

Messrs.  H.  S.  King  &  Co.,  65,  Corn- 
hill,  and  9,  Pall  Mall,  London. 

Messrs.  Grindlay  &  Co.,  54,  Parlia- 
ment Street,  London,  S.  VV. 


ON     THE     CONTINENT. 


Messrs.  R.  Friedlander  &  Sohn,  Berlin,       Mr.  Ernest  Leroux,  23,  Rue  Bonaparte, 
VV.  N.,  Carlstrasse   11.  Pans. 

Mr.    Martinus     Nijhoff,    Hague,    Hol- 

«r      /-».^     Ti  •.  land. 

Mr.  Otto  Harrasowitz.  j 

;  Leipzig.  Mr.    Rudolf   Haupt,    Halle-A-S.,    Ger- 


Mr.  Karl   Hiersemanii, 


many. 


IN     INDIA. 


Messrs.  Thacker,  Spink  &  Co.,  Cal- 
cutta and  Simla. 

Messrs.  Newman  &  Co.,  Calcutta. 

Messrs.  R.  Cambray  &  Co.,  Calcutta. 

Messrs.  S.  K.  Lahiri  &  Co.,  Calcutta. 

Messrs.  Higginbotham  &  Co.,  Madras. 

Messrs.  V.  Kalyanarama  Iyer  &  Co., 
Madras. 

Messrs.  G,  A.  Natesan  &Co.,  Madras. 

Messrs.  S.  Murthj-  &  Co.,  Madras. 

Messrs.  Thompson  &  Co.,  Madras. 

Messrs.  Temple  &  Co.,  Madras. 

Messrs.  Combridge  &  Co  ,   Madras. 

P.  R.  Rama  Iyer  &  Co.,  Madras. 

.Messrs.  A.  R.  Pillai  Sc  Co.,  Tri van- 
drum. 


Messrs.  Thacker  &  Co.,  Ld.,  Bombay. 

Messrs.  A.  J.  Combridge  &  Co.,  Bom- 
bay. 

Messrs.  D.  B.  Taraporevala,  Sons  & 
Co.,  Bombay. 

Mrs.  Radhabai  Atmaram  Sagoon, 
Bombay. 

Mr.  Sunder  Pandurang,  Bombay. 

Messrs.Gopal  Narayan  &  Co.,  Bombay. 

Superintendent,  American  Baptist 
Mission  Press,  Rangoon. 

Rai  Sahib  M.  Gulab  Singh  Sc  Sons, 
Mufid-i-Am  Press,  Lahore. 

Mr.  N.  B.  .Mathur,  Superintendent, 
Nazair  Kanun  Hind  Press,  Allah- 
abad. 

Messrs.  A.  M.  &J.  Ferjjusoa.    Ceylon. 


PREFACE. 

This  volume  deals  with  the  administered  areas  of  the  Sibi 
District,  including  the  Nasirdbad,  Sibi,  Shdhrig  and  Kohlu 
tahsils,  as  well  as  with  the  Marri  and  Bug-ti  tracts,  which 
are  under  the  control  of  the  Political  Agent,  Sibi,  and  of 
which  a  separate  description  is  given  in  Chapter  V.  The 
same  officer  also  exercises  political  control  over  the  Domb- 
kis  and  Kah^ris,  but  as  these  tribes  reside  within  the  limits 
of  the  Lahri  Nidbat  of  Kachhi  in  Kaldt  State  territory, 
their  affairs  are  only  briefly  touched  upon  in  this  volume, 
and  a  more  detailed  account  will  be  found  in  the  Gazetteer 
of  Kachhi. 

The  greater  part  of  this  work  consists  of  original  matter 
collected  and  collated  by  Rai  Sdhib  Diwdn  Jamiat  Rai  with 
the  help  of  the  Gazetteer  staff.  The  Rai  Sdhib  has  also 
personally  served  in  the  district,  and  his  varied  and  intimate 
knowledge  of  the  country  has  been  of  the  greatest  assistance. 

Much  useful  information  has  been  derived  from  Dr. 
Duke's  Report  on  the  Thai  Chotiali  and  Harnai  Districts 
(1883),  Mr.  Bruce's  Report  on  the  Marri  and  Bugti  tribes 
(1884),  Mr.  Dames'  Report  on  the  Sibi  District  (1879), 
Mr.  Colvin's  Note  on  the  Administration  of  the  Nasirdbid 
N'dbat  {1898),  the  Settlement  Reports  of  the  Shdhrig  and 
Sibi  tahsils  written  by  Mr,  E.  G.  Colvin,  C.S.I.,  I.C.S., 
and  Khdn  Bahddur  Mir  Shams  Shdh,  and  from  the  Baluchis- 
tan Census  Report  of  1901  compiled  by  Mr,  Hughes-Buller, 
I.C.S,  The  articles  on  the  Khost  Colliery  and  the  Petro- 
eum  borings  near  Khattan  have  been  supplied  by  Mr.  A, 
Mort,  Mining  Manager,  Khost  Colliery  in  Baluchistdn.  Much 
of  the  material  has  also  been  reproduced  with  the  necessary 
local  adaptations  from  Mr,  Hughes-BuUer's  Gazetteer  of  the 
Quetta-Peshin  District. 

My  thanks  are  due  to  Major  Macdonald,  the  Political 
Agent,  Sibi,  who  has  passed  and  corrected  the  drafts,  to 
Diwdn  Ganpat  Rai,  C. I.E.,  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner  of 
Sibi,  for  much  useful  information  furnished  in  connection 
with  the  Marri  and  Bugti  tribes,  and  to  the  local  officials 
for  the  prompt  manner  in  which  they  attended  to  the  nume- 
rous references  made  to  them, 

A.  McCONAGHEY,  Major. 

2nd  December  1906. 


TABLE   OF   CONTENTS. 


SIBI    DISTRICT. 


CHAPTER    I— DESCRIPTIVE. 


Physical  Aspects. — 

Situation  and  dimensions 

Origin  of  name     ... 

Boundaries 

Configuration 

Hill  ranges 

Central  Brihui  range 

Subsidiary  ranges 

Zarghun      

Khalifat      

Sulaim/in  range 

Ranges  in  the  Marri  country 
Bugti  ranges 

Rivers         

The  Nari 

Tributaries  of  the  N;iri. 

Ddda  river 

Siingan  river 

Talli  (Chdkar)  river 

Lahri  river... 

Chattar  river 

Other  streams 


Page 

I 

ih 

ib 

3 

4 
ib 


lb 
6 
8 

ib 
9 

lO 

lb 

12 

ib 

ib 
ib 

'3 
ib 

ib 


CONTEXTS. 

Physical  Aspects — (continued). 

Geology     .           ...         ...         ib 

Botany        i6 

Fauna         •••         •••  17 

Fishes         •••  i^ 

Climate      ih 

Season>                  ...         •..         ...         ...         ...         •■.•  19 

Rainfall      19 

Winds          ib 

Floods         -■  21 

Earthquakes          ...         ..           ib 

History. — 

Early  history         22 

Brahman  dynasty           ib 

The  first  Muhammadan  invasion  A. D.  711 23 

Second  Muhammadan  Invasion    A. D.  978  ...         ...  ib 

A.D.  1004 .•  ib 

A.D.  1225 ib 

A.D.  1250 ib 

A.D.  1470 ib 

Arghun  dynasty  A.D.  1511       24 

A.D.  1519 ib 

A.D.  1543-4 ib 

A.D.  1554 ib 

A.D.  1595 ib 

A.D.  1700             ... 25 

1712   Kalhora  dynasty  of  Sind ...  ib 

A.D.  173010  1731            ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

1739  N.'idir  Shall 26 

Durrani  dynasty  A.D.  1747      ib 

A.D.  183c, ib 

A.D.  1841 ib 

The  Marri.s  and  Bugtis  A.D.  1843      27 

A.D.  1839 ib 

Expedition  against  the  Bugtis,  1845 28 

Bugti  raids. — 

A.D.  1846 .  ib 

A.D.  1862 29 

Sir  Robert  Sandeman  .A.D.  1867        ib 

A.D.  1875-6           ib 


CONTENTS. 


History — {continued). 

The  Kuchali  raid  A.D.  1880    ...          29 

Formation  of  the  District          3° 

A.D.  187S if> 

Murder  of  Captain  Showers     3' 

The  Bozddr  column         ?^ 

1882 ib 

1883 ^'^ 

1886 32 

1887 ^b 

1890 ib 

List  of  Political  Agents ib 

Archaeology           ib 

Damb  or  Kuhna  Kila     ...         ...         -..         •••         •••  ib 

Old  mud  forts                   34 

Cairns  in  Kohlu  ...         ...         ...         •••         ..•         •••  ib 

Armenian  inscriptions    ...         ...         ...         •■•         •••  ^b 

Population.  — 

Ethnographical  history •.•  36 

Density       •••         •••  37 

Towns  and  villages         ib 

Growth  of  population      .  .         38 

Migration -.                       ib 

Imigration  from  India •••  39 

Age  statistics,  vital  statistics,  infant    mortality,  and 

infirmities          ...         ...         •..          ••  ib 

Comparative  number  of  sexes  and  civil  condition...  40 

Marriage  customs           ib 

Marriage  ceremonies     ...         ...         ...         -..          ■..  41 

Baloch  marriage  customs         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Marriage  customs  among  the  Afghans          ...         ...  43 

Bride  price  ..         ...         ...         •.-  44 

The  Zarkuns         ...          ..           ...         ...          ...          ...  ib 

The  Pannis            ...          ...          ...          ...         ...          •••  45 

Saiads         ...         ib 

Jats               ib 

Divorce       ...         ...         ...         ..•         ■-•  46 

Penalties  for  adultery    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

The  status  of  woman  and  rights  to  property          ...  47 


iv  CONTEXTS. 

Pot'iLATiON — (continued). 

Inheritance  ...  ..  48 

Languaije  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ••■         •■■  ib 

Baluchi       49 

Pashtii         ib 

Jatki  ...         50 

Races,  tribes  and  castes  ...  ib 

Tribal  constitution  ...  ...  ...  ..  ...  51 

-Afghan  tribe         ...         ...  ...  ..  ib 

The  origin  of  the  Baioch  ..         ...  52 

Marris        ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ..         ...  54 

But^-^tis         ...  ...  ...         ...  ...  ib 

Dombkis    ...         ...         ...  ..         ...  ...  ...  ib 

Kahtris      ...  ..         ...  ..         ...         ...         ...  55 

Baioch  tribes  in  the  administered  area  .         ...  ib 

Baioch         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...         ...  ib 

The  Rind  ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  ib 

The  Jamali  ...         ..  ...         ...         ...         ...  56 

Kliosa         ...         ...         ..  ,.         ...         ...         ...  ib 

The  Khiloldni       ...  ..  ...  ...  ...  57 

The  Umninis        ...  ..         ib 

The  Golas ...         ...         .  ...  58 

Other  Baioch  tribes        ...         ...         ...         59 

Character  and  disposition  of  the  Balocli      ..  ...  ib 

.Afgh.ins      ...  ..         ...  60 

K-ikars       ...  ..         ...         ...  ...  ib 

.Sanatia  clan         ...  .  ...  ...  61 

Pannis  or  Panris...         .  .         ...         ...  ih 

The  Tari'ns  ... 64 

Spin  Tan'n  ...         ...         ...         ..  ..  ...  ib 

Tor  Tan'n  ...         ...         ...         ...  .,         ...         ...  65 

Zarkuns  ..         66 

Brdhuis      ...         68 

Khctnins    ...  ...  ...         ...  ,.  ...  ib 

Saiads        ib 

T;irans       ...  ib 

-Maudiidi  Chisti ib 

.Ahmaoiinai  Saiads         ...  ...         ...         ...  69 

Pcchi  ib 

K4di.'in       ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ..  ib 

Bukh;iri  Saiads ib 


CONTENTS.  V 

PoPVL.xTios  —  (coniimted). 

Other  Saiads        ...         ...         70 

The  Jats /V^ 

Hindus        ...         ...         ...          ...         ••.  72 

Religion     -.          ••  if> 

IslAm           ..           ••  i^' 

Occupation            ...         ...         ...         ...         74 

Social  life    ...         ...          ..         ...         ■•■         ■..         ...  75 

The  custom  of  A«7           ...         ...         ...         ...          -.  76 

Custom  of  hospitality      ...         77 

Co-operation  amongst  the  tribesmen ...  1^ 

Food            ••         •••  78 

Fruit  and  vegetables      ...            •         -..         •-•         •••  79 

Meals           '^ 

Utensils                  'b 

Dress          '^ 

Hair 80 

Dwellings J^ 

Disposal  of  the  dead       ...         ...         ...         .            ■-•  81 

Amusements  and  festivals         ...          .          ...          ••  tb 

Shrines        ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...          .•  S2 

Shrines  in  Shahrig          ...         ...         ...         ...          -.  /^' 

Mano  Nika           ...         ...          ..         ...          ib 

Shrines  in  Kohlu...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  /b 

Shrines  in  Sibi                   ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  ib 

Names  and  titles ...         83 

Rules  of  honour   ...         ...  84 

System  of  reprisals          ...          ...         ...           .           ...  85 

Blood  compensation        ...         ...         ...         ...         .-.  ib 

CHAPTER    II.— ECONOMIC. 
.Agriculture — 

Soil             86 

Rainfall    and    system    of    cultivation    in    relation 

thereto ...         ...                     ...  ■"7 

Irrigated  and  unirrigated   areas  in  the   District  and 

sources  of  irrigation   ...          ...          ...         ...         ...  ib 

Population  dependent  on  agriculture...         ...         ...  88 

Seasons  of  the  year          --         ...         ...         ...          ...  ib 

Sowing  and  harvest  times         ...           ..         ...         ...  ib 

Staple  food  grains            ...         90 


i  CONTENTS. 

Agriculturk — {contin  ued). 

Judr              90 

Wheat          91 

Wheat  in  unirrigated  land                     ...         92 

Diseases     ...          ...         ...         ...         ...         •••         •.•  ib 

Rice             ib 

Maize           93 

Oil  seeds,  sarshaf  i\.ndi  jamba    ...         ...         ...         ...  94 

Til               ib 

Gram          .  .           ..         ...         ...         ...         ..          ...  ib 

Cotton         95 

Indigo         ...  96 

Rotation  and  outturn  of  principal  crops,  etc.         ...  ib 

Fruit  and  vegetable  production            98 

Pdlt'znt         ib 

E.Ktension  of  cultivation    ..         99 

Agricultural  implements            ...         ...         ...         ...  100 

Agricultural  advances     ...         •.•         ...  ib 

.'\gricultural  indebtedness          ...         ...         ...         ...  102 

Domestic  animals            ...         ...         ...  104 

Horses         105 

Sibi  Horse  Fair    ■..         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Cattle          ...  107 

Camels        ...         ib 

Donkeys     ...          ...          ...           ..          ...  ib 

Sheep  and  goats  ...         ..  108 

Average  value  of  each  kind  of  animal           ib 

Pasture  grounds  and  grazing ib 

Cattle  diseases      ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  109 

Canals         ...  m 

Ndri  Gorge  scheme          113 

Sources  of  irrigation        ...  ib 

Streams      ...         ...         ...         ...                     ib 

The  Ndrl  stream ib 

Flood  irrigation     ...         ...         ...          ...  114 

Springs       ,.  ib 

Karizes       H 

Depth  of  channels           115 

Wells              .          116 

Division  of  water...         ...           ..          ...          ...         ...  117 

Water  mills                        ..         ...  nS 

Hand  mills             ...         ...         ...         ...  ny 


CONTENTS.  jW 

Rents,  Wages  and  Prices — 

Rents           ...         ...         ...         ...  I  ig 

Produce    rents,  method  of  distribution  of  the  grain 

heap        ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  //; 

Nasir.ibdd  tahsi'l  ...         ...         ih 

Dry  crop  lands  in  the  Nasi'rabdd  tahsi'l         120 

Sibi  tahsi'l  ...         ...         ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  lb 

Sh4.hrig  tahsi'l       ...          .          ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Kohlu  tahsil          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Cash  rents             ib 

Wages        121 

Shepherds,  goat  herds  and  cattle  herds        ...         ...  ib 

Camel  herds          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  122 

Village  servants  ...         ...         ..          ...         ...         ...  ib 

Sweepers    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  124 

Labourers  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

A'rt>f%  diggers       ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  125 

Prices           ...          ...           ..         ...         .  .          ...          ...  ib 

Weights  and  Measures — 

Measures  of  weight        ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  126 

Troy  weights         ...          ...         ...          ...          ...         ...  127 

Measures  of  grain           ...         ...         ...  ib 

Miscellaneous  measures            ...         ...         ...         ...  130 

Linear  measures              ...         ...         ...  ib 

Superficial  measures      ...         ...         ...  ib 

Measure  of  time   ...         .-.         ...         ...         ...         ...  131 

Currency ,„  132 

Material  condition  of  the  people            ...         133 

Forests — 

Area  under  forest i^^ 

Juniper  reserves ...  135 

Juniper       ib 

Shisham  and  olive  reserves       ...         ...         ...         ...  136 

Mixed  forests  in  the  Sibi  tahsi'l            ..  137 

Reserved  trees      ...         ...          ...         ...         ...         ...  138 

Minor  products     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Cumin  seed           ...         ...         ...         ...           .          ...  139 

Hyssop ib 

Liquorice    ...         ...          •-.          ...          ...                      ...  H 

Game  rules            ...         ..-                     ..  H 


iii  CONTENTS. 

Forests — [continued). 

Forest  establishment      ...         -.  139 

Arboriculture         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  140 

Mines  .and  Minerals — 

Coal             ...         ...         ...         ..  ...  140 

Petroleum  ...          ..         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  142 

Khattan      ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  ib 

Other  possible  oil  supplies  near  Spintanj;^    ...  ...  144 

Gypsum if? 

Limestone  and  building  stone...         ...         ...  ...  ib 

Mini           id 

Earth  salt ...  ...  ib 

.■\rts  and  Manufactures — 

General  conditions           ...         ...         ...  145 

Balocli  woollen  weaving            ...         ...         ...  ...  ib 

Embroideries         ...         ...  ...  146 


Felts 


147 


Dwarf  palm           ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Pottery        ...  ib 

Leather  work        ...  ib 

Steam  flour  mills...         ...         ib 

Potash         148 

C0M.MERCE  and  Trade  — 

Character  of  trade           ...         ...         ...         ...            .  150 

\asi'r;ibdd ib 

Kohlu         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Sibi               ., ...  ib 

Classes  engaged  in  trade           ...          153 

.Means  ok  Co.mmlnication — 

Sind-Pishi'n  Railway       ...          ...          ...          ...           ..  153 

Description  and  early  liistory  ...         ...          ...         ...  ib 

RO'^ds         15- 

.Sibi-Quetta  Road            ...          ...           ..          ...          ...  ib 

Harnai  Road         ...         ...          ...         ...          ...  ib 

Kach-Ziarat  Road             ib 

Marri  and  BuL;ti  routes  ...          ...          ...         ...         ...  i-s 

Other  routes          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  i/, 

Tr.-tn-,port               ...          ...         ...          ...          ...          ...  ^y, 


CONTENTS.  ix 

Mhans  of  Communication— (^o;/^?««<v/). 

Camel  contracts ...         ...          ..  159 

Telegraphic  offices           ...  160 

Post  offices            ih 

F.AMI.VE. — 

Scarcity  and  its  causes ...         ...         ...  161 

Periods  of  scarcity          ■••         •••         ...  ih 

Visitations  of  locusts     ...         -.         162 

Protection              ...         ...          -.         163 

CHAPTER  III.— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Administrative  divisions  and  staff      ...          ...          ...  164 

Control  in  tribal  areas    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  165 

Marris  an  I  Bugtis          ...         ...         ...          ..         ...  ib 

Donihkis     ...          ...          ...          ...           ..          ...          ...  166 

Kaheris      ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...          ..  167 

Judicial       ...         ...  ib 

Special    laws         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Administration  of  Civil  and  Criminal  Justice         ...  168 

Civil  Justice           ...         ...          ...           ..          ...          ...  170 

Criminal  Justice    ..          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  171 

Jirga  cases            ...         ...         ...         ...         ...          ...  172 

Local,  joint,  shdhi  and  interprovincial  Jirgas       ...  17-^ 

System  of  selection  of  members          ...         ...         ...  175 

Prevalent  c-ime  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Fanatical  outrages         ...          .•         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Registration          ...         ...         ...         ...          ...          ...  176 

Finance      ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...           ..  17S 

Historical  ...         ...          ...          ...          ...  ib 

Lano  Revenue. — 

Early  Revenue  History            ...         ...         ...         ...  179 

Shdhrig  tahsi'l      ...         ...         ..           ..            ..          ...  ib 

Modern   Revenue  History        ...         ...         ...         ...  igj 

Sibi  tahsil              ...          ...          ig^ 

Early  Revenue  History            ...         ...         ...         ...  n, 

Modern    Revenue   History         jg, 

Kohlu  talisi'l          ,w- 

Early  Revenue   History            .  .          ...         ib 

.Modern   Revenue  History        igg 

Nasi'rab id  lahsil igu 


CONTENTS. 

Lano  Revenue  {continued). — 

Early  Revenue  History             i^9 

Modern  Revenue  History          ...                     ib 

Sale  of  revenue  grain  ...                     ...         190 

The  Batai  system           191 

Recapitulation       192 

Settlements  and  their  periods ih 

Shdhrig  settlement         ib 

Sibi  Settlement i93 

Review  of  existing  assessments  (1905)       194 

StHtistics  of  land  revenue         ...                      195 

Land  tenures        "46 

Jagirs          ...         ...         .••          ••'          ■••  tb 

BAruzai  jdgifs     ...          ...         ...                      ib 

Kurk  ]dgir            ••  t-b 

Siingdn  jnqir       197 

Quat-Mandai  valley       ...         198 

The  origin  and  the  character  of  the  tenants        ...  ib 

Custom  of  periodical  distribution        ...         ...         ...  199 

Tenants  and  tenancies  ...         ...         ib 

Size  and  holdings            ...         ...         ...  200 

Headman,  malih  or  Ti'adera    ...                     ...         ...  joi 

Remuneration  of  headmen      ...         ...          ..          ...  ib 

Incidence               ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Distribution          ...         203 

Date  of  payment            ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

System  of  remissions  and  suspensions        ...         ...  /J 

Exemption  from  revenue  of  improvements           ...  204 

Waste  lands         ...         ...         ...         ...                     ...  205 

Restrictions  against  transfer  of  lands  to  non-agri- 
culturists           ...         ...         ..          ...         ...         ...  ib 

Government  lands          ...          ...         ...          ..         ...  206 

Water  mills          ...  ib 

Grazing  tax  or  tirni      ...          ...          ...         ...          ...  207 

Revenue  free  grants  in  Shihrig       ...         ...         ...  208 

Saiad  mudfi  in   Miin   Kach,  ShAhrig  tahsi'i          ...  ib 

Revenue  free  grants  in  .Sibi   ...          ...          ...          ...  ib 

Revenue  free  grants  in   Kohlu          ...         ...         ...  209 

Grain  allowances             ...         ...         ...  210 

Total   value  of  the  mud/is         ...         ...  ib 

Financial  results             ...         ...         ...          ..         ...  ib 

Record  of  rights  and  its  maintenance        ...         ...  211 


CONTliNTS.  xl 

Miscellaneous  Revenue — 

Salt             212 

Khcir           HI, 

Opium        ...  ib 

Intoxicating  drugs         ...          ..          ..                    ...  214 

Country  spirits  and  rum           ib 

Distillation  of  country  liquors              ..         ...          ..  21 

Foreii^n  liquors    ...         ih 

Methylated  spirits           ...         ...         ...  216 

Consumers,  consumption  and  aggregate  revenue...  ib 

Stamps        ..  ib 

Income-tax ...  217 

Local  Funds         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Sibi  Municipal   Fund     ib 

SUahrig  Bazar  Fund     218 

Ziarat  Improvement  Fund        ..         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Public  Works — 

Important  works            ...         ...         ...         220 

Levy  posts            ...          ..          ...         ...         ...         ..  221 

Army           ib 

Le\ies,   Police  .and  Jails  — 

Levies         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  222 

Duties  of  levies 224 

Police          ...         ...         -.•         ...         •••         ■••         ...  //.' 

Total  strength      226 

Sibi  Municipal  and  Shahrig  Bazar  Fund  Police     ...  ib 

Railway  Police 227 

C/uiukidars             ...          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  //' 

System  of  recruitment  and  training...         ib 

Measures  taUen  to  improve  the  status  of  the  Police, 

etc.           ib 

Arms           ib 

Cognizable  crime...                     ib 

Trackers    ...         •••  229 

Prevention  of  crime  on  the   Punjab  border           ...  ib 

Cattle  pounds       230 

Jails ib 


ii  rOXTEXTS. 

Education — 

liarly  methods     ...         231 

Growth  of  Schools         ...  il> 

The  Barnes  School        ..          il> 

Education  of  Europeans  and   Eurasians     ...         ...  ib 

Female  education           ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  232 

Education    of  Muhammadans             ..         ...         ...  ib 

\'illage  schools      ...  ib 

Miscellaneous       ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  //' 

Libraries    ...         ...         ...          ..         ...         ...         ...  233 

Mkdical. — 

The  Sibi  Civil  Hospital            233 

The  Sibi   Female  Dispensary...         ...  234 

Other  Dispensaries        ib 

Principal  diseases  and  their  causes...         ...         ...  ib 

Malaria        ...         ...          ...          ...           ...  ib 

Smallpox  and  measles    ..         ...         ...         ...         ...  235 

Cholera       ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Typhus       ...         236 

Plague  precautions         ...         ...            .         ...         ...  ib 

Vaccination  and  inoculation     ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Indigenous  remedies      ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  237 

Working  of  the  pice-packet  system  of  sale  of  quinine.  238 

Village  sanitation  and  water-supply  ...          ...           ..  ib 

Surveys 239 


240 


CHAPTER  IV.— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

Sim  suB-i)i\isioN — 

-Sibi  tahsi'l  ... 

General  description                    ...         ...  ib 

Boundary  of  tahsi'l         ...            ,         ...  ib 

.Singan  valley      '...         ...           ..          ...          ...          ...  •  ib 

Qual-Mandal        ...         ...          ...          ...          ...         ...  241 

Pur  valley ib 

Hill  ranges                                    ...         ..          ...         ..  jb 

Drainage  and  rivers       ...         ...         ...         ib 

Forests         ..         ...         242 

Climate,  temperature  and  rainfall       ...         th 

History       ...                     ,         ...  ib 


CONTENTS.  xiii 

SiBi  SuB-mvisioN — (coii/innci/).  , 

l^opulalion              ...          ...          ...           ..  ...  ...  2^] 

.\i;ricullure           ...         ...  ...  Hi 

Communications    .          ...         ...         ...  ...  -'^4 

Administrative  stall        ...          ...          ...  ...  ...  ib 

Land  Revenue     ...          ..         ...         ...  ...  ...  ih 

Sibi  Town              245 

Kohlu  Tahsii          247 

General  description           ..          ...          ...  ,..  ...  ib 

Forests       ...         ...  ...  248 

Climate,  temperature  and  rainfall      ...  ...  ...  ih 

History        ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  ...  ...  ih 

The  .Muranj  settlement ...         ...         ...  ..  ...  249 

Population              ...          ...          ...          ...  ...  ...  250 

.Agriculture            ...         ..           ...         ...  ...  ...  ib 

Communications              ...         ...         ...  ...  ...  ib 

•Administrative  staff        ...         ...         ...  251 

Land  Revenue      ...          ...                      ...           .  ib 

Shahrig  tahsii        ...         ...  ...  ib 

General  description         ...         ...          ...  ...  ...  ib 

Rivers         ...  ...  252 

Forests       ...         ...          ..         ih 

Climate,  temperature  and  rainfall     ...  ...  ...  iJ> 

History       ,  253 

Population              ...         ...          ...  ...  iJ) 

Shahrig  town         ...          ..          ..         ...  //; 

Agriculture            ...         ...  ib 

Communications  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  254 

.Administrative  staff         ...          ...          ...  ib 

Land  Revenue      ...         ...         ...         ...          ..          ..  ib 

Miscellaneous       ...         ...         ...         ...          ..  ..  ib 

Harnai         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  255 

Kach  or  Kachh       ...          ...         ...                      ...          ...  //' 

Kowas         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  256 

Khost           ..         ...         ...         ...         ...          e.          --  257 

Spintangi    ...          ...          ...          ...         ...          ...  ...  258 

Ziarat          ...          ...         ...          -.         ...  ...  ...  ib 

Nasir.ab.\u  sub-uivisio.\  anu  tahsii. — 

General  description         ...         ...         ....         ...         ...  259 

Forests       ...                     ..         ...         ...  ib 

Climate,  temperature  and  rainfall      ...  260 


i\  CONTENTS. 

NaSI'rAB.U)    SIB-UIVISION    ANP    1  AllbIL-  (tc/z/Zw//**/). 

History       260 

l"'i)pulation             261 

Villages      ib 

Agriculture            262 

Communications              ...          ...          ...         ...         ...  ih 

.\dministration  and  staff           ih 

Land  Revenue      263 

Christian  cemeteries      ib 


CHAPTER  v.— MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 

Physical  .Aspects — 

Situation ...         ...         -..  264 

Boundaries            ...         ...         ...  ib 

Configuration       ...         ...         ...         ..           ...         ...  ih 

Hill  ranges             ..         ..  265 

Rivers         ..         ib 

Water  pools  and  kumhs            ...         ...         ...         ...  266 

Geology     ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Botany       267 

Fauna        ...         ...         ...         ...          ..         ...         ...  ib 

Climate,  temperature  and  rainfall      ,,,         ...         ...  ib 

Population. — 

Villages  and  their  character 269 

Migration  ...         ...          ...          ...                      ...          ...  ib 

Marriage  customs                      ib 

Language  ...         ...         ...         ...          ..  270 

The  .Marri  tribe    ...         ...          ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Early  history         ...         ,         ...         271 

Location  of  the  tribe  and  origin  of  their  name        ...  ib 

Formation  of  the  clans 272 

List  of  sard;irs  and  their  history         ..          ...  273 

The  Bijar;ini  and  Aliani  Sard.irs        ...                     ...  ib 

Ghazani  Sardars,     Sahtak,  5th  Sardar         274, 

Bahawahin  or  Bah;i\val  Kh;in,  nth  .Sardar              ...  ib 

Doda  Khan,  13th  Sardir  (about  1805)          275 

Constitution  of  the  tribe             Hj 

Di'n  .Muhamad      ...          ..          ..  ifj 

Nur  .Muhamad     ...         276 

Gazan          ^  ,7, 


I 


CONTENTS.  XV 

I'oi'Ui.A  HON — {cuntinuid). 

Mchrulla  Kh;in    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  jj'j 

Khair  Bakhsli        ..         ...         ...         //.' 

General  history    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ih 

1840  A.D ill 

1845  A.D J77 

.Sir  Robert  Saiidcman     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  279 

Mitliankot  Conference  1871      ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Formation  of  Baluchistan  Ayency      ..         ...         ...  280 

Kuchali  raid          ...         ...         ...         ...  ih 

MacGregor's  expedition            ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

The  Buzdar  column        ...          ...         ...         ...         ...  281 

Bugti  raid  of  1883           ...         ...         ...         ib 

Kohlu  valley          ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Modern  events      ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

The  Marri-Luni  case,  1895       ...         ...         ...         ...  282 

Sunari  raid,  189b  ..         ...         ...                     ...         ...  ib 

Second  outrage  at  Sunari,  1899          ...         ...         ...  ib 

Murderous  outrage  at  Sibi,  1900         283 

Relations  of  the  Marri  Chief  with  his  U'ai^/V           ...  ib 

Migration  to  Kabul         ...            ib 

Levy  service          ...         ...                     ...         ...         ...  284 

Kahan         ...         ...                      ..         ...  ib 

Bugtis         285 

Historical  ...                     ...         ...         286 

Bugti  Sardiirs                   //; 

Relations  with  the  Marri  tribi...         ...         ...         ...  287 

The  Mazaris           ..         ...         ...  ib 

The  Drishaks        ...         ...  ib 

The  Brahuis            ..                     ib 

The  Sikhs              ...          ..  ib 

Billamore's  expedition,  1839  .\. D.       ...         ...         ...  288 

Napier's  campaign          ...         ib 

Mi'rpur  raid            ...  289 

Kunri  raid             ...         ...         ...                                 ...  ib 

Defeat  of  the  Bugtis  ai  Piirb ...         ...  ib 

Battle  of  Chambri           ...         290 

Ghuldm  .Miirtaza,  1861  .\.D.     ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

The  Harrand  raid            ...                     ...         ...         ...  291 

.Mithankot  Conference,  1871      ib 

Expedition  against  the  Zarkuns          ...         .-          ...  ib 

Sir  Shahbaz  Khan            ...         ...  292 


n  CONTENTS. 

I^OIMLAIION — (Culltinittd). 

General       ...         ...         ...                     -()2 

Levy  service                      ...         ...         ...         ...         •..  ib 

Places  of  interest ..  2q^ 

Dera  Bugti             ih 

Uch              ib 

.Social  life 295 

Religion      ...          ...          ib 

Treatment  of  women      ...         ...         ...                     ...  ib 

Hospitality            ..           ...         296 

Food            ib 

Dress                       ...         ...          ..         ...         ib 

Dwellings ...         ... ib 

.Svicial  precedence             ...         ...         ...  ib 

Reprisals  and  commutalion^  for  murder      ...         ...  297 

Baloch  method  of  warfare        ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Shrines       ..          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ..  298 

Economic. - 

•Agriculture             ...          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  298 

Camels        ...         ...          ...         ...         ...  301 

Cattle          ib 

Sheep  and  goats ...         ib 

Pasture  grounds  and  feeding  cattle ib 

Water-mills           ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

Hand-mills             ...         ...         p2 

Rems,  Wages  a.nu  Prices. — 

Rent           -02 

^Vages        ib 

Shepherds,  goatherds  and  caltltherds          ib 

Carpenters  and  blacksmiths     ...          ...  ib 

Prices          ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

W'EiLiiiis  AND  Measures. — 

Linear  measures  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  -50^ 

.Superficial  measures       ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ib 

.\rts  and  manufactures  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  -04 

CO.M.MKRCK    .\Nn   TkAPE.— 


Octroi  and  transit  dues    ,, 
.Means  of  communication 
Famine 


306 


CONTENTS.  '^vii 

Administration. —  -* 

Tribal  constitution           ^°' 

Statistics '^^^ 

Fanatical  outrages         3>o 

~                                                                         //' 

Finance      .-•         ■•-         •••         


Sliare  of  plunder 

Division  of  land    in  the  Man-i  country  '" 

Division  of  land  among  the  Bugtis 3" 

General      ^^ 

Bibliography         "       ^^^ 

Appendix  I.     Botany      3^^ 

Vegetation  of  the  plains  at  Sibi         "' 

Botany  of  the  Harnai  valley 3^9 

Botany  of  the  Shahrig  valley •■         —       32> 

Vegetation  of  the  juniper  tracts         ■■  ''' 

Alphabetical  list  of  common  trees  and  plants  in  the 

Sibi  District      323 

Appendix  II.    List  of  agricultural  implements  in  use 

in  the  Sibi  District       335 

Appendix  III.  Alphabetical  list  of  agricultural 
revenue  and  shepherd's  terms  used    in    the    Sibi 

District •         ■"       33^ 

Appendix  IV.  Rules  framed  by  the  intertribal 
Jirga  at  Fort  Munro  in  1900  in  connection  vi^ith 
the  prevention  of  crime  between  Baluchistan  and 
the  Baloch  tribes  on  the  Dcr;i  Gh;izi  Kh;in  border.       372 

Cattle  lifting,  prevention  of 374 

Appendix  V.  Agreement  entered  into  by  His 
Highness  the  Khan  of  Kalat  and  by  the  Hon'ble 
the  Agent  to  the  Governor-General  in 
Baluchistan  in  connection  with  the  management 
and  administration  of  the  niabat  of  Nasfnibad  ...  376 
Appendix  VI.  The  clans,  main  sections,  localities 
occupied  and  headmen  of  clans  and  sections  of 
the  Marri  and  Bugii  tribes  together  with  the 
genealogical  tabic  of  the  Chiefs      .379 


SIBI    DISTRICT. 


CHAPTER    I 


DESCRIPTIVE. 

'T^HE  District  of  Sibi  is  situated  between  north  latitudes      ^"peJ^ts'' 

■*-       27°^5'  and  3o°38'  and  east  longitudes  67°  17'  and  69°5o'. 
™,  r  •  ,-,  -1  ,  1  •      •      ,     ,  ,  Situation 

The  total  area  is  11,281   square  miles,  but  this  includes  the     and  dimen 

Marri  and  Bugti  country  (7,129  square  miles),  which  is  only  sions. 
under  political  control,  leaving  4,152  square  miles  of  directly 
administered  territory.  The  Dombki  and  Kah^ri  tribes  of  the 
Lahri  nidbat  of  the  Kaldt  State  in  Kachhi  (1,282  square 
miles)  are  also  politically  controlled  from  Sibi.  The  por- 
tions under  political  control  occupy  the  centre,  east  and  south 
of  the  District  ;  and  the  areas  under  direct  administration 
form  protrusions  in  the  north-western,  north-eastern  and 
south-western  corners. 

The  District  derives  its   name   from   the   town  of  Sibi,  or      Origin  of 
Slvvi  as  it  was  written  in  earlier  times,  and  local  tradition  name, 

attributes  the  origin  of  the  name  to  Siwi,  a  Hindu  lady  of 
the  S^wa  race,  who  is  said  to  have  ruled  over  this  part  of  the 
country  in  former  times. 

The  District  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Loralai  Dis-   Boundaries 
trict ;  on  the  south    by  the  Upper  Sind  Frontier  District ;  on 
the  east  by  the  Dera  Ghdzi  Khiin  District  of  the  Punjab  and 
on  the  west  by  Kachhi,  the  Boldn  Pass  and  Quetta-Pishin. 

The  northern  boundary  has  never  been  formally  delimited, 
but  the  following  rough  line  is  recognised  for  purposes  of 
administration.  Starting  from  the  western  corner  at  Kach 
Kotal,  the  first  portion  separates  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  from 
Pishi'n,  and  runs  in  a  north.-easterly  direction  to  Si'irghund 
where  it  meets  the  Loralai  boundary.  It  then  turns  in  a 
south-easterly  direction  to  the  Sialu  peak,  whence  still  pro- 
I 


2  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Fhvsical  ceeding  in  the  same  general  direction  it  follows  the  water- 
AspECTs.  gj^gjj  ^^f  ^.j^g  jQ^y  range  of  hills  separating  the  Thai  plain  from 
the  Marri  country  as  far  as  the  Han  Pass;  it  then  turns 
abruptly  to  the  south-west  forming  the  apex  of  an  acute- 
angled  triangle,  and  follows  the  watershed  of  the  Jandrin 
range  as  far  as  Bor,  dividing  Kohlu  from  Bdrkhdn  ;  at  Bor 
it  again  turns  sharply  to  the  south-east,  and  subsequently 
proceeding  in  a  general  easterly  direction  joins  the  Punjab 
boundary  at  the  Pikal  peak  to  the  south  of  Chacha  Mat, 

The  southern 'boundary,  which  divides  Nasirdb;id  from  the 
Upper  Sind  Frontier  District,  was  finally  demarcated  in  1886, 
and  forms  a  general  line  running  west  and  erist.  Starting 
from  the  L^ni  tower,  which  forms  the  tri-junction  of  the 
Sind,  Punjab  and  Baluchistiin  boundaries,  it  runs  due  west 
for  about  50  miles  to  Murdd  Ali  ;  it  then  turns  to  the  south- 
west to  a  point  about  2  miles  south  of  Mamal,  where  there 
is  a  landmark  erected  by  General  John  Jacob.  From  Mamal 
it  proceeds  in  a  south-westerly  direction  to  Khaira  Garhi, 
following  the  main  road  between  that  place  and  Rojhdn  ; 
from  Khaira  Garhi  it  continues  in  the  same  direction  to  Panj 
Khabar  where  it  meets  the  junction  of  the  Sind-Kaldt  bound- 
ary.    The  total  length  is  about  120  miles. 

The  eastern  boundary  separates  the  Marri  and  Bugti  country 
from  the  Dera  Ghdzi  Khdn  District  of  the  Punjab.  It  has 
been  demarcated  for  its  whole  length  by  officers  deputed 
from  time  to  time,  by  the  Punjab  and  Baluchistdn  Govern- 
ments, and  runs  northwards  from  the  tri-junction  of  the 
Punjab,  Sind  and  Baluchistan  boundaries  near  the  L^ni 
tower,  along  the  Sulaiman  range,  sometimes  following  the 
watershed  and  sometimes  the  eastern  base  of  the  hills,  as 
far  as  the  Pikal  peak  which  forms  the  junction  of  the  Sibi, 
Loralai  and  D^ra  Ghdzi  Khdn  districts. 

The  southern  portion  of  the  western  boundary  divides 
Nasirdbdd  and  the  Marri  and  Bugti  country  from  Kachhi. 
From  Panj  Khabar,  it  runs  in  a  north-easterly  direction  to 
Shdhpur,  whence  it  proceeds  almost  due  norih  until  it  strikes 
the  boundary  of  the  Sibi  tahsil,  when  it  turns  to  the  west 
and  crosses  the  Sind  Pishin  Railway  at  Pirak  Pir  Takri 
about  7  miles  south  of  Sibi  (mile  444J  from  Karachi).  After 
Sibi  it  runs  in  a  north-westerly  direction  along  the  water- 
,  shed   of  the  Takri,    J;  habdn  and  Nodgwar   hills  to  a  point 


CONFIGURATION.  3 

above  Pir  Ismjiil,  where  it  forms  the  boundary  between  the  Phvsical 
Quetta-Pishin  District  and  proceeds  in  a  northerly  direction  Aspects. 
to  Kach  Kotal. 

No  area  in    Baluchistdn   presents   such  strongly    marked     Con»ig-ura- 
variations,  both  pliysical  and  climatic,   between  its  different  ''°"' 

parts  as  the  Sibi  District.  Two  portions  of  it,  the  Sibi  and 
Nasirdbdd  tahsils,  which  lie  respectively  at  the  apex  and 
base  of  Kachhi,  consist  chiefly  of  a  level  plain  of  alluvial 
soil  formed  by  the  clay  deposited  by  the  Boldn,  the  Ndri 
and  other  hill  torrents.  This  part  of  the  country,  o^  pat  as 
it  is  locally  termed,  is  extremely  low  as  regards  elevation, 
no  portion  of  it  being  much  higher  than  500  feet  above  sea 
level,  and  its  chief  characteristics  are  its  dead  level  surface, 
excessive  heat  in  summer  and  a  scanty  and  uncertain  rain- 
fall. 

The  /»a/ is  described  by  Hughes*  as  "a  boundless,  treeless, 
level  plain  of  indurated  clay  of  a  dull,  dry,  earthy  colour, 
and  showing  signs  of  being  sometimes  under  water.  The 
soil  is,  in  general,  a  hard  baked  clay,  quite  flat,  probably  de- 
posited by  the  numerous  torrents  holding  their  transitory 
but  violent  courses  over  the  surface  parched  up  in  the 
intensely  hot  summer  season,  where  water  is  scarce,  but 
highly  productive  when  a  careful  system  of  irrigation  can  be 
brought  to  bear  on  it." 

The  remainder  of  the  District  consists  entirely  of  moun- 
tainous country  rising  in  a  series  of  terraces  from  the  lower 
hills  of  the  Sulaimdn  range.  These  hills  include  Zen  (3,625 
feet)  in  the  Bugti  country,  and  Bamoor  (4,890  feet)  and 
Dungdn  (6,861  feet)  with  Butar  (about  6,000  feetj  in  the 
Mam  country.  North-westward  the  mountains  .stretch  to 
the  watershed  of  the  Central  Brdhui  range  in  Zarghiin 
and  Khalifat  with  an  elevation  of  11,440  feet.  The  lower 
ranges  of  the  Sulaimdn  mountains  which  stretch  to  the 
boundaries  of  Kachhi  and  Nasirdbdd  with  a  general  descent 
to  the  plains  consist  of  what  are  well  described  by  Sir 
Thomas  Holdich  as  "narrow,  rugged,  sunscorched  tree- 
less ridges,  composed  chiefly  of  recent  clays  and  conglo- 
merates, which  preserve  an  approximate  parallelism  in  their 
strike,    likening   the   whole    system    to  a  gigantic    gridiron. 


*  Hughes'  Baluchistan,  Chapter  I,  pag-e  13. 


4  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Physical  Narrow  little  'subsequent'  valleys  between  these  sharp 
banked  ridges  contribute  an  intermittent  flew  of  brackish 
water  to  the  main  arteries,  and  these  again  break  transversely 
across  the  general  strike  of  the  minor  ridges  ere  they  debouch 
into  the  Indus  plain.  And  if  we  transfer  the  general  view  of 
a  system  of  steep  narrow  parallel  ridges,  alternating  with 
equally  constructed  valleys,  and  give  an  altitude  to  the  hills 
such  as  will  carry  their  peaks  8,000  feet  above  sea-level  ;  clothe 
them  with  a  scanty  vegetation  of  grass,  wild  olive,  and 
juniper;  widen  out  certain  intermediate  valleys,  and  fill  them 
with  occasional  bunches  of  tamarisk  jungle  and  coarse  grass, 
admitting  narrow  bands  of  cultivation  bordering  streams 
that  are  occasionally  perennial,  we  shall  gain  a  fair  general 
conception  of  the  Baluchistdn  of  the  highlands  lying  west  of 
the  Sulaimiin  and  extending  to  the  newly  defined  frontier  of 
Afghiinistdn.'"  * 

With  the  exception  of  the  eastern  side  of  the  Marri  and 
Bugti  country,  the  drainage  of  the  whole  of  this  area  is 
carried  off  by  the  Ndri,  which  in  traversing  the  Marri  country 
is  known  as  the  Beji.  On  the  south  it  is  joined  by  the  three 
considerable  hill-torrents  known  as  the  Chdkar  or  Talli,  the 
Lahri,  and  the  Chhatar  rivers.  All  of  these  streams  are 
subject  to  high  floods,  which  irrigate  the  fertile  lands  of 
Kachhi. 
Hill  Ranges.  This  mountain  range  occupies  the  northern  pari  of  the 
Br-ihui  Jhalawdn  and  the  whole  of  the  Sarawan  country  in  the  Kalat 
Range.  State  and  pari  of  the  administered  areas  of  Baluchistan,  and 
forms  the  upper  portion  of  the  great  systems  to  which 
Pottinger  gave  the  name  of  the  Brahooic  mountains.  The 
range  lies  between  27^57'  and  30° -^6'  N,  and  between  66°3i' 
and  67^52'  E,  and  includes  the  whole  mass  of  mountainous 
country  between  the  Miila  river  on  the  south  and  the 
Pishin  Lora  and  Zhob  rivers  on  the  north.  Between  the 
Mula  and  Quetta  the  strike  is  north  and  south,  but  a  few 
miles  north  of  the  latter  place  the  range  turns  sharply  to 
the  east,  and.  continuing  in  a  gentle  curve  gradually  turning 
north-east  and  northwards,  becomes  at  length  merged  into 
the  system  of  the  Sulaimdn  range  which  forms  the  mountain-  m 
ous  barrier  between  Baluchistjin  and  the  Punjab.  ^ 

'  India,  by  Colonel  Sir   Thomas  Hungerford    Holdich,  K.C'M.G., 
K.C.I.E.,  C.B.,  R.E.,  Chapter  II,  page  37. 


ZARGHUN.  5 

The  1,'eiieral  formation  is  a  series  of  parallel  ranges  which,  Phvsical 
as  already  described,  contain  in  their  midst  the  narrow  Aspectb. 
valleys  which  form  the  upper  highlands  of  Baluchistdn. 

The  principal  valleys  in  this  part  of  the  District  are  the 
Zawar"^'  or  Harnai  valley,  which  extends  from  the  Chappar 
mountain  to  the  Ganeji  Rift  or,  as  it  is  now  called,  Spintangi, 
wiih  a  length  of  56  miles  and  an  average  breadth  of  6  miles  ; 
the  Kach  valley,  about  4  miles  long  and  i^  wide,  which  lies 
between  the  Pil  and  Bibai  hills  ;  the  Kowds  valley  which  is 
separated  from  Kach  by  the  Lawarai  Kotal ;  and  the 
Ziarat  valley  which  lies  near  the  north-east  end  of  the  range 
and  is  the  summer  head  quarters  of  the  province. 

The  hills  of  this  range  in  the  District  are  composed 
chiefly  of  massive  limestone,  well  exposed  in  Khalifat,  which 
passes  into  an  enormous  thickness  of  shales.  Zarghun  con- 
sists of  conglomerate  belonging  to  the  Siwdlik  series  and 
coal  is  found  in  the  hill  ranges  south  of  the  railway  between 
the  Chappar  Hills  and  Harnai. 

The  name  of  Zarghun  is   derived    from    the    Pashti'i    word     Subsidiary 

meaning  "  flourishing."     It  lies  about   \z.    miles    east-north-      „'^^"f'^^' 
°  °  '^  Zarghun. 

east  of  Quetta  and  forms  the  apex  of  the  Central  Brahui 
range,  which  here  spreads  out  eastward  and  south-east- 
ward on  either  side  of  the  Harnai  valley  The  main  ridge 
which  separates  Quetta-Pishin  from  Sibi,  stretches  in  a  half 
circle  from  west,  through  north,  to  the  south-east  ;  from 
the  centre  of  this  curve  another  ridge  stretches  in  a  south- 
westerly direction,  thus  forming  three  ridges  in  ore  or  less 
parallel  to  one  another.  Between  these  ridges  are  deep 
tangis  or  ravines  with  precipitous  sides  which  can  only  be 
crossed  with  the  greatest  difficulty.  The  two  highest  peaks, 
known  locally  as  Loe  Sar  or  big  peak  (11,738  feet),  and  the 
Kuchnae  Sar  or  little  peak  (11,170  feet),  are  both  on  the 
Quetta  side  of  the  boundary.  The  drainage  on  the  Sibi  side 
is  carried  off"  by  numerous  torrents  flowing  in  the  direction  of 
ScLngan.  The  lower  slopes  are  thickly  wooded  with  juniper 
and  an  area  of  about  11,000  acres  is  preserved  as  a  Govern- 
ment forest,  the  locality  being  known  as  the  Tor  Shor 
reserve.  The  indigenous  population  consists  of  a  section  of 
the  Pathdn  tribe  of  Dumars,  who  are  mostly  pastoral,  but 
some  of  whom  of  recent  years  have    commenced   to  cultivate 

•  Locally  known  as  the  Zawarah, 


6  CHAPTER  I—DESCRIPTIVE, 

Physical      land  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Zarghun    Ghar.     In   the   sum- 
AsPECTs.       j^gj.  months  a  fair  number  of  Pathdns,  both  from  the  Hanna 
valley   and    from    the  Khost    and    Harnai  directions,    bring 
their  flocks  to  graze. 
Khalifat.  To  the  north  of  the    Harnai   valley  the    principal    peak  is 

Khalifat,  with  an  altitude  of  11,440  feet  which  is  the  highest 
in  the  District,  a  magnificent  mountain  having  a  sheer  drop 
of  7.000  feet  on  to  the  Shfihrig  plain.  It  stretches  from  the 
Mingi  Railway  station  eastwards  to  Kholizgai,  the  points  of 
its  termination  towards  Kowds  being  called  Tdranghar. 
About  half  way  up  the  southern  slope,  the  ascent  of  which 
is  not  difficult,  is  the  shrine  of  Malang  S^hib,  a  Tdran  saint 
of  some  celebrity,  who  according  to  local  tradition,  in 
consequence  of  the  refusal  of  Ashraf  Khdn,  a  Pdnezai  Mdngi, 
to  give  him  the  usual  share  of  his  crop,  caused  a  land-slip  to 
take  place  in  the  Pil  Rift  or  Khum  Tangi,  by  which  the 
cultivation  of  Mdngi  was  stopped  for  seven  generations. 
It  is  only  a  few  years  ago  that  the  embankments  made  by 
the  land-slip  gave  way  and  the  lake  which  had  been  formed 
thereby  dried  up. 

From  the  summit,  where  there  is  a  small  shrine  or  sidrat 
of  the  type  commonly  met  with  in  Baluchistan,  a  fine  view  is 
obtained ;  to  the  south  Sdngjin  and  Gharmob  and  Bddra 
with  Sibi  beyond  can  be  seen,  and  on  a  fine  day  in  the  far- 
thest distance  may  be  observed  the  white  outline  of  Shikir- 
pur  more  than  a  hundred  and  fifty  miles  distant  in  a  straight 
line.  To  the  west  lies  Zarghun,  and  behind  it  the  eastern 
peak  of  Takatu  is  visible  ;  on  the  north-west  is  the  valley 
of  Pishin  with  the  slopes  of  the  Khwdja  Amrdn  beyond  it. 
On  the  east  are  a  succession  of  peaks  appearing  one  behind 
the  other,  and  extending  into  Marri  country. 

Tlie  few  inhabitants  of  the  slopes  consist  of  the  Akhti^rzai 
section  of  the  Pin^zai  Kdkars  and  some  Tdran  Saiads,  the 
former  being  well  known  as  shikaris  and  expert  mountain- 
eers. The  lower  heights  of  Khalifat  and  the  ranges  to 
north,  north-west  and  north-east,  and  especially  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Ziirat,  are  well  wooded  with  juniper  and 
undergrowth  ;  and  the  juniper  reserves,  which  are  mentioned 
in  the  section  on  Forests,  are  chiefl>  found  in  this  part  of 
the  District.  To  the  south  and  south-east  the  hills  are 
generally  bare  and  devoid  of  vegetation. 


KHALIFAT.  7 

The  principal  subsidiary  ranges  are  : —  Physical 

(i)  The  Chappar,  a  bare  range  of  limestone  hills  lying  Aspects, 
to  the  west  of  Khalifat  and  to  the  south  of  Mdngi.  The 
famous  Chappar  Rift,  through  which  the  railway  runs,  is 
situated  near  the  western  extremity  of  the  Khalifat  range, 
and  is  an  extremely  narrow  gorge  about  two  and  a  half 
miles  in  length  with  perpendicular  sides  several  hundred 
feet  in  height. 

(2)  The  Pil  mountain  (9,730  feet)  which  lies  to  the 
south  of  the  Kahdn*  valley,  and  is  cleft  by  the  Mdngi 
Tangi  or  Pil  Rift  which  runs  down  from  Kahdn  to  Mdngi. 
The  name  is  derived  from  the  Persian  word/*//  or///,  ele- 
phant, the  mountain  being  supposed  to  resemble  the  shape 
of  the  head  and  back  of  that  animal. 

13)  The  Bibai  range  which  runs  eastward  from  Ahmadiin 
and  the  highest  peak  of  which  is  9,934  feet. 

(4)  The  Surghar  range  (10,064  feet). 

(5)  The  Khusnob  range  (9,950  feet),  which  ends  in  the 
Shahiddn  slopes  above  Zidrat-i-Shahiddn,  so  called  be- 
cause three  Pdn^zai  children  were  martyred  there  by  the 
M  arris. 

(6)  The  Jdnaksar  range  (9,670  feet)  to  the  north  of  the 
Zandra. 

(7)  Tlie  Zharghat  range  which  ends  in  Kato  ( 10,247  feet), 
on  the  northern  slopes  of  which  the  station  of  Zidrat  is 
situated. 

\^)  The  Batsargi  range  (lo.oSS  feet). 

(9)  The  Nishpa  range  with  the  peaks  of  Tezarni,  Shin 
shobina  (10,654  '^et),  Sangur,  Khazobai  and  Loeghar. 
This  range  extends  from  Wangi  Tangi  to  Warn  Tangi  and 
forms  the  boundary  between  the  Pui  valley  and  Harnai, 
and  the  road  from  Ziarat  to  Sanjdwi  (Smallan)  via  Chaut^r 
passes  along  the  foot  of  its  northern  slopes. 

(10)  A  succession  of  peaks  the  highest  of  which  are 
Dongar  Sar,  Khun  Sar  and  Pdnghar  intervene  between 
this  point  and  the  Marri  border.  The  Pdnghar  hill  is  the 
highest  peak  of  the  Piin  range  which  encloses  the  Harnai 
valley  on  the  north.  This  range  is  divid»^d  from  the  mass 
of  hills  on  the  west  by  the  Mehrdb  Tangi,  along  which 
runs  the  main  road  from  Harnai  to  Loralai. 

•  Note.—T\\e.  villag-e  and  the  valley  are  locally  known  as  Kinr. 


country'. 


8  CHAPTER  1- DESCRIPTIVE. 

Physical  Sulaimdn     Range   f28'3i,'     32^4'    X;     6752,'     yo'ij'    E). 

Aspects.  -p^g  j^j]|g  j^  ^.j^g  Marri  and  Bugti  countries  belong-  to  the 
Sulaimdn  south-western  portion  of  this  range.  From  the  Kapip  table- 
land between  the  Shinghar  and  Mizri  i\oh  mountains,  the 
general  line  of  the  watershed  takes  a  south-westerly  direc- 
tion to  the  Kohlu  plateau,  and  thence  winds  in  a  generally 
southerly  direction  over  a  succession  of  shams'*  to  the  Z^n 
range  in  the  Bugti  country.  On  the  east  it  is  flanked  by 
parallel  serrated  ranges,  and  on  the  west  these  flanking 
ranges  take  an  east  and  west  direction  and  meet  the  central 
Brihui  range.  South  of  the  divide  is  a  succession  of  ter- 
races and  valleys,  gradually  descending  on  both  sides  to 
the  south-west  and  south  into  the  plains  of  Sibi,  Kachhi 
and  N'asirdbdd. 
Ranees  in  The  principal  mountains  and  ranges  in  the   Marri    country 

the  Marri         commencing  from  the  north-west  corner  and    workin-  to  the 
east  are  : — 

(i)  The  Dungdn  (6,861  feet)  range  of  hills,  which  sepa- 
rates the  Beji  river  route  from  the  Sembharpass  route. 

(2)  The  Lakar  range  (6,820  feet),  which  intervenes  be- 
tween the  Pur  plain  and  the  Kuridk  valley. 

(3)  The  Siilu  range  (8,112  feet),  which  forms  the  nor- 
thern boundary  of  the  Pur  plain  separating  it  from  the 
Thai  plain  in  the  Duki  tahsil. 

(4.)  The  Tikel  or  Tikhel  (6.880  feet)  and  Butar  (6,770 
feet)  hills  on  the  north  of  the  Kohlu  valley,  dividing  it 
from  the  Loralai  District  The  Kuba  Wanga  pass  (4,900 
feet)  leading  through  Gursa  or  Girsani  is  at  the  east  end 
of  the  Kohlu  plateau. 

(5)  The  Jandrdn  range,  which  runs  about  north-east  and 
south-west,  separating  the  Kohlu  plateau  from  the  Kh^t- 
r^n  country.  This  range  is  particularly  steep  and  in- 
accessible and  can  only  be  crossed  by  certain  passes,  the 
principal  of  which  are  the  Han  and  Bibar  Tak  in  the 
north  and  the  Mdr,  Daulla  Wanga,  Luni^l,  Naridl,  and 
Mezhlare  passes  in  the  south.  The  highest  peak  has  an 
elevation  of  6,720  feet. 

(6)  The  Sidh  Koh,  dividing  Phildwagh  from  Xisdu. 
This  range  runs  in  an  easterly  direction  from    the    middle 

^  Sham,  a.  Baluchi  name  for  the  upland  water-parting  plains  which 
form  a  common  feature  throughout  this  country. 


BUGTI  RANGES.  9 

of  the  Jandrin   range  and   terminates  at   the  junction    of      Physical 
the  Phildwagh  and    Kdia   nullahs.      It    has    three    conspi-      Aspects. 
cuous  peaks,  the  highest  and    the    most   eastern    having 
an  elevation  of  5,505  feet. 

(7)  The  Kup  hills,  a  small  range  lying  partly  in  Bugti 
country  and  dividing  Phildwagh  from  Kalchas  and  the 
Sham  plain. 

(8>  The  Cliappar  mountain  (4,674  feet),  which  encloses 
the  Makhmdr  valley  on  the  south.  It  is  a  conspicuous 
landmark  and  is  said  to  be  the  abode  of  the  ". !/«/«/(  "  or 
Baluch  bear. 

(9)  The  Sir  Ani  range  (3,790  feet)  lying  to  the  east  of 
Kahan  and  forming  the  boundary  between  the  Kahdn 
valley  and  the  Bugti  valley  of  Lobh. 

(10)  The  Shatrak  range  (3,800  feet),  forming  the 
northern  boundary  of  the  Kahdn  valley.  To  its  west  is 
the  Turk-i-Koh,  with  the  Dojamak  pass  between  Kohlu 
and  Kahan  crossing  over  it.  The  Tatra  hill  (4,020  feet 
is  to  the  north,  and  behind  it  is  the  Rastrdni  range  with 
an  elevation  varying  from  3,000  to  4,000  feet.  The  con- 
tinuation north-west  of  the  Tatra  is  the  Tadri,  and  running 
to  the  north-west  of  Turk-i-Koh  are  the  Larga  Bdra  hills, 
the  continuation  of  which  to  the  west  is  called  Kodi. 

(11)  The  Danda  range,  which  bounds  Kahdn  on  the 
south.  Its  continuation  to  the  west  is  called  Nafusk  (3,756 
feet),  Bambor  (4,890  feet)  and  Gurandani. 

(12)  The  Sunari  range  which  is  situated  in  the  centre 
of  the  Marri  country  between  the  B^ji  and  Chakar  rivers, 
and  runs  north  and  south  forming  a  large  mass  of  hills, 
the  highest  peaks  of  which  have  an  elevation  of  5,740 
and  5,630  feet. 

The  principal  mountains  in  the  Bugti  country  are  : —  Bugti 

(i)  The   Bambor,   Nafusk   and    Danda    ranges,   already       Ranges, 
mentioned,    the    southern    slopes  of  which  belong  to  the 
Bugtis,   and  which  divide  their  country  from  that  of  the 
Marris. 

(2)  The  Zen  range  (3,630  feet),  north  of  Shdhpur,  Tong 
and  Gandoi,  forming  the  southern  extremity  of  the  main 
south-east  watershed  of  the  Sulaimdn  mountains. 

(3)  The  Mir  Dost  Zard  hills  which  lie  to  the  west  of  the 
Sham  plains  and  form  the  boundary  between  the  Bugtis 


lO 


CHA  PTER  I— DESCRIPTI VE. 


Physical 
Aspects. 


Rivers. 


The  Nari. 


and  Gorchdnis  of  the  D^ra  Ghdzi  Khdn  District.  The 
sources  of  the  Kalchas,  Sori  and  Sangsila  rivers  rise  in 
these  hills. 

(4)  The  Khalandri  hills  (3,508  feet),  dividing  the  Kalchas 
valley  from  the  Shori  valley  to  the  south. 

(5)  The  Kup  range  (2,730  feet),  a  small  range  of  hills 
connected  by  a  low  watershed  with  the  Marri  hills  of  the 
same  name.  This  range  divides  the  Kalchas  and  Phild- 
wagh  plains,  forming  the  southern  boundary  of  the  latter. 

(6)  The  Pir  Koh  range  (3,650  feet)  which  lies  between 
the  Pdthfir  and  Sidf  rivers.  The  Traki  or  Takri  pass, 
about  7  miles  north-west  of  D^ra  Bugti,  which  is  a  narrow 
gorge  or  rent  in  the  rocks,  formed  the  stronghold  of  the 
Bugtis  when  their  country  was  invaded  in  1845  by  the 
force  under  Sir  Charles  Napier. 

(7)  The  Giandari  range  (4,143  feet)  on  the  eastern 
border,  which  forms  the  boundary  line  between  the  Bugtis 
and  the  Mazdris  of  the  Dera  Ghdzi  Khdn  District. 

As  has  been  already  explained,  the  drainage  of  the  Dis- 
trict, with  the  exception  of  the  eastern  side  of  the  Marri  and 
Bugti  country,  is  carried  off  by  the  Ndri  river  and  its 
affluents,  the  general  lie  of  the  drainage  being  roughly 
speaking  directed  from  north  to  south. 

The  Ndri  river  rises  at  Tsri  Momanrgai  in  longitude 
67°4'  at  the  watershed  between  the  Shdhrig  and  the  Bori 
tahsils,  4  miles  to  the  east  of  Sperarjigha.  Here  the  river 
or  hill  torrent,  which  has  no  perennial  supply  of  water,  is 
known  as  Babai.  It  flows  in  an  easterly  direction  for  about 
32  miles  up  to  the  China  village,  then  turns  to  a  south- 
easterly direction,  and  about  48  miles  from  China  is  joined 
by  the  Mara  river  from  the  north,  and  about  2^  miles  fur- 
ther on  the  north-east  by  the  S^hdn  and  Watagdn  rivers 
which  have  permanent  water.  Here  the  river  is  known  as 
the  Loralai.  It  then  takes  an  abrupt  turn  to  the  south,  and 
passes  through  the  Zdti  Tangi,  a  gorge  which  is  about  4 
miles  long  and  lies  between  the  Kru  and  Gaddbar  ranges, 
and  the  river  is  henceforth  known  as  Anamb^ir.  Flowing 
for  about  10  miles  in  the  Lvini  country,  it  is  joined  from  the 
north-east  by  the  Ldkhi  stream  and  8  miles  below  by  the 
Karachi  stream  which  has  perennial  water,  and  is  now 
known  as  the  B^ji  river.     A  little  below  its  junction  with  the 


THENAR!.  ii 

Nardchi  river  and  about  4  miles  from  Chotifili,  the  river  is  Physical 
crossed  at  Ghdti  Pul  by  a  masonry  bridge.  It  flows  in  a 
south-westerly  direction  for  about  48  miles,  and  is  joined 
near  the  village  of  Quat  by  the  Ddda  stream  from  Harnai, 
which  has  also  perennial  water.  Following  the  same  course 
for  another  9  miles,  ihe  Sdngdn  stream,  which  has  p;r- 
manent  water,  falls  into  the  B^ji  about  a  mile  below  the 
Bdbar  Kach  railway  station.  Hence  it  turns  to  the  south 
and  through  the  Ndri  gorge  debouches  into  the  Sibi  plain. 

The  total  length  of  the  river  from  its  source  at  Tsri  Mo- 
manrgai  to  its  exit  into  the  Sibi  plain  is  about  190  miles. 

The  river  having  to  carry  off  the  drainage  of  the  enormous 
catchment  area  of  the  Anambdr  and  Narechi  rivers  beside 
contributions  from  several  mountain  torrents,  is  between 
Chotiali  and  the  Nari  gorge  subject  to  very  sudden  and  high 
floods  in  the  autumn,  when  it  becomes  a  roaring  torrent 
fifty  feet  deep  rushing  in  places  between  precipitous  banks. 
A  railway  line  now  runs  through  this  part  which  has  six 
bridges  between  Sibi  and  B,ibar  Kach,  a  distance  of  23 
miles. 

The  bed  of  the  river  for  the  greater  part  of  its  length 
is  covered  with  shingle,  but  from  the  Zdti  Tangi  to  the 
Ghdti  Pul  it  passes  through  soft  soil  and  the  crossing  is 
unsafe  except  at  regular  fords.  At  its  exit  from  the  Ndri 
gorge,  the  water  is  led  by  means  of  a  dam  and  channel 
to  a  masonry  regulator  where  it  is  distributed  into  four 
small  canals  which  supply  the  irrigation  water  for  Sibi 
and  the  neighbouring  villages. 

Tamarisk,  rushes,  and  tall  reeds  grow  in  many  places 
along  the  bed  and  banks  of  the  river,  and  shisham  and  sufeda 
are  also  found  in  that  part  of  the  river  which  lies  in  the  Li'mi 
country.  Writing  in  1600  about  "  the  wonders  of  Sibi  "  Mfr 
Masi'im,  the  historian  of  Sind,  who  was  at  one  time  governor 
of  the  Sibi  district,  says  : — "  On  the  banks  of  that  river, 
snakes  are  very  numerous,  very  long  and  thin,  and  of  those 
bitten  by  them  few  survive.  The  people  of  that  tract  of  the 
country,  from  the  time  of  attaining  to  manhood  wear 
long  expansive  drawers  of  untanned  leather  that  they  may 


12  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Physical  be  protected  from  injury  from  these  snakes.  I,  the  author 
'of  this  work,  reached  that  part  and  noticed  that  ground, 
ut  a  time  when  they  had  irrigated  some  of  their  fields,  and 
when  1  urged  my  horse  through  them,  at  every  pace  snakes 
were  seen.  I  desired  to  dismount  near  the  stream  as  the 
we  ither  was  very  hot,  but  out  of  fear  of  these  snakes,  \ 
went  some  distance  away  and  dismounted  in  the  plain. 
It  is  probable  t.h  it  the  Ndri  may  have  been  named  after  these 
snakes." 
Tributaries  The  Ddda   river,    which  joins   the    Beji   at   Quat   Mandai, 

D/ida  River,  ^^^er  passing  through  the  Spintangi  or  Ganeji  Gap,  carries 
down  all  the  drainage  ot  the  Zawar  or  the  Harnai  valley  as 
well  as  that  of  the  large  catchment  area  of  the  Zidrat  hills. 
1  he  Dada,  which  in  its  upper  reaches  is  known  as  the  Kach, 
Mdngi,  Khost  and  Harnai  rivers,  does  not  form  one  valley, 
but  is  divided  into  several  catchment  areas,  from  which  the 
drainage  escapes  through  the  ranges  by  a  series  of  narrow 
defiles  or  tangis,  technically  known  as  valleys  of  erosion. 
The  best  ex  imples  of  these  defiles  in  this  area  are  the  Chap- 
par  rift,  the  Pil  rift  or  Mangi  Tangi,  the  Kasim  Tangi  and 
the  Mehrdb  Tangi  above  Harnai. 
Sang-an  The  Sdngan  river,  which  meets  the   Nari  at  Babar  Kach, 

Kiver.  collects  the  drainage  of  the  southern  slopes  of  the  Zarghiin 

range,    of  the   Sdngdn  valley,    and  of  the  large  catchment 
area  of  the  liills  to  the  south  of  the  railway  line. 
Talli  (Chi-  The  Talli  stream,  which  is  known  also  as  the  Sundimari, 

kar)  River.  Chikar,  Karmjlri,  Manjra  and  Gurk  in  different  localities, 
rises  in  the  hills  bordering  Kohlu  near  Kui,  and  flows  due 
west  through  the  centre  of  the  Marri  country  to  Talli  on  the 
borders  of  the  Sibi  tahsil,  whence  it  turns  south-west  and 
leaves  the  District  near  Gurg^j.  Its  perennial  water  is 
either  all  drawn  off  for  irrigation  or  loses  itself  in  the  sandy 
bed  of  the  stream  soon  after  passing  Talli. 

The  Chdkar  Tang,  just  below  the  junction  of  the  Manjara 
and  Khattan  streams  is  a  formidable  pass,  and  the  immense 
boulders  which  obstruct  it  are  traditionally  supposed  to  be 
the  buffaloes  belonging  to  the  Baloch  hero  Mir  Chdkar 
Khdn,  which   were    changed    into  stone    at    his    prayer  and 


GEOLOGY.  13 

obstructed  the  passage  of  the  Turkoman  horse,   \vh  >    were      Physical 
pursuing  him.  Aspects. 

Tiie  Lahri  river  which  is  known  as  the   Ndl  or  Gandhjir  in    Lahri  River, 
the   Marri  country  carries  off  the  drainage  of  the  Makhmjir, 
Sori    Kaur    and     Kahdn     valleys,    besides     receiving    other 
affluents  of  less  importance.      It  is  a  fine  stream    at  Tratdni, 
but  is  lost  before  it  reaches  Lahri  except  during  floods. 

The  Chattar  is  known  in  the  Bugti  country  as  the  Sidhdf,    chatta 
which  with  its  affluent,  the  Pdthdr,  drains  the  north  and  north    '^'^'S'"- 
centre  of  the  Bugti    territory.     These  two  streams   join  at 
Sangsila,  and  the  course  of  the  river  then  proceeds  in    an 
easterly  direction  until  it  strikes    the  Kachhi  border  below 
Phuleji,  the  stream  being  now  known  as  the  Chattar. 

The    other  principal  streams   which   do  not  flow  into  the    other 
Ndri  are  :  the  Shori  which  rises  in  the  Mir  Dost  Zard  hills  in    ^t''^^'"^- 
the  Bugti  country  and  after  being  joined  by  the  Tasso,  cross- 
es the  Punjab  border  near  Rabrodoni  ;  and  the  H^ran  which 
rises  in  the  hills  south  of  Dera  Bugti  and  flows  due  south  in 
the  direction  of  Leni  where  it  is  lost  in  the  sand  hills. 

The  following  account  of  the  geology  of  the  district  has    Geologv. 
been     furnished    by    Mr.     Vredenburg     of    the    Geological 
Survey  of  India  : — 

The  geological  formations  that  have  been  observed  in  this 
district  are  : 

Siwdlik  (Miocene  and  Lower  Pliocene). 

Khirthar  )  ly,- ,  ,,     t^ 

T    ,  .  (  Middle  Eocene. 

Laki  J 

Senonian  (Upper  Cretaceous). 

Lower  Cretaceous. 

Jurassic. 
That  portion  of  the  district  which  is  bounded  on  the  north- 
east by  the  railway  line  from  Spintangi  to  Mudgorge  con- 
sists almost  entirely  of  Siwdlik  beds.  The  southern  portion 
of  the  Marri  and  Bugti  country  south  of  latitude  29°  30'  con- 
sists principally  of  Siwdlik  and  eocene  beds  ;  the  part  north 
of  that  same  parallel  consists  mainly  of  eocene  and  cre- 
taceous.    The    north-western    corner  of  the  district,  that  is 


14  CHAPTER  I—DESCRIPTIVE. 

Physical  the  portion  situated  north-east  of  the  railway  line  from  Spin- 
tangi  lo  Mudgorge,  consists  chiefly  of  cretaceous  and  Juras- 
sic rocks.  The  tongue-shaped  prolongation  of  the  district 
which  intervenes  between  Sind  and  Kachhi  to  the  north  of 
Jacobdbdd  is  situated  in  the  alluvial  plain  of  the  Indus. 

The  hill  ranges  gradually  curve  round  from  a  south-west 
strike  which  they  exhibit  along  tlie  eastern  portion  of  the 
district  to  a  north-western  one  in  its  western  part,  the  strike 
being  east-west  in  the  intervening  area.  Tht  Siwdlik  area 
situated  south-east  of  the  Spintangi  to  Mudgorge  railway 
line  has  the  structure  of  a  broad  shallow  syncline.  The  other 
hill  ranges  consist  of  alternating  synclinal  and  anticlinal 
flexures,  very  broad  and  shallow  in  the  southern  Bugti  hills, 
closer  set  and  steeper  in  the  northern  and  north-western  part 
of  the  district. 

Unlike  what  one  usually  observes  in  countries  where 
denudation  has  followed  a  normal  course,  the  ridges  repre- 
sent anticlinal  domes,  while  the  synclines  form  the  intervening 
valleys.  This  results  partly  from  the  deficient  rainfall  owing 
to  which  denudation  has  remained  in  a  rudimentary  state, 
partly  owing  to  the  prevalence  of  calcareous  rocks,  through 
the  fissures  of  which  the  rain-water  at  once  sinks  to  the  low 
level  of  the  deeply  encased  river  beds,  situated  at  the  bottom 
of  narrow  gorges,  and  cannot  therefore  gather  sufficient 
volume  on  the  hill  slopes  to  produce  any  appreciable  erosion. 
The  following  are  a  few  particulars  regarding  the  various 
formations  exposed: — 

Geological  Formations,  Principal  Exposures. 

f  Upper  Coarse  conglomerates.^!        The  region 

Siwaliks  '  south-west    of  the 

(miocene      |  Middle  Sandstones,  conglome-     railway   line   from 

and  lower   \  rates  and  red  gypsi-  '.Spintangi  to  Mud- 

pliocene).     I  ferous  clays.  'gorge,     with    the 

I  exception    of    the 

L  Lower  Fine-grained     calcare-  [  eocene     limestone 

ous  sandstones.  J  ridge    adjacent    to 

the  railway  :  the 
hills  adjoining  the 
plains  of  Kachhi, 
Sind  and  Ddraj/it  ; 
the  broad  syncli- 
nal valley  of  Dera 
Bugti. 


GEOLOG  Y. 


Geological  Formations. 


Principal  Exposures. 


Middle 
eocene. 


Senonian 

(Upper 

cretaceous). 


Lower 
cretaceous. 


Middle 
Jurassic. 


r 


Khirthar. 


L     Laki 


f  "  Upper  Khirtliar," 
white  massive  lime- 
stone with  Niimmuiites 
complanata  ;  "  Middle 
Khirthar,"  while  or 
buff  limestone  with 
Nnmmtilites        aturica, 

\  N.  laevigata  and  A'. 
(^Assiliiia)  spira. 

"Lower  Khirthar," 
gypsiferous  shales  with 
A',  laevigata  and  A'. 
(Assili>ia)  exponens. 


\ 


f  Callovian. 


Bathonian 

and 
Bajocian. 


"Polyphemus 
beds,"  thin-bedded 
dark  lim  e  s  i  o  n  e  s 
named  after  the  large 
ammonites  belonging' 
to  the  species  Macro- 
cephalites  Polyphemus 
which  occur  in  them. 

Massive  grey  lime- 
stone of  enormous 
thickness  (several 
thousand  feet). 


Alternations    of   dark    coloured 


Lias  (Lower  \  shales  and   limestones  with  Spiri- 
Jurassic).       \ferina    and    many    other    liassic 
Lfossils. 


Range  interven- 
ing between  the 
Siwalik  area,  and 
the  railway  line 
from  Splntangi  to 
Mudgorge. 


Clay-shales 
Mudgorge. 


of 


"  Laki  beds."  Lime- 
stones, shales,  sand- 
stones and  coal-seams. 
These  beds  contain 
nummuiites  belonging 
to  the  species  A',  aturica 
and  A'.  {As ■iilina) granu- 
losa. 
(      Calcareous  shales,  sandstones 

I  and  limestones,    the   upper   beds 
containing    strata    with    Cardila 
I  Beaumonti  amidst  layers  largeK' 
I  made    up    of   volcanic  material  ; 
the     lower     beds     with    Hemip- 
neustes,     ammonites    and    oiher 
I  upper   cretaceous    fossils.      The 
I  volcanic    rocks    associated    with 
I  the  Cardita  Beaitviotiti  beds  are 
1  the      representatives      of      the 
L  Deccan  Trap  of  peninsular  India. 
{      "  Parh    limestones,"    regularly 
I  bedded  white  and  red  porcellanic 
limestones,  overlying  black  splint- 
J  ery  shales  known  as    "  belemnite 
i  beds." 


Harnai  valley  ; 
probably  a  consi- 
derable portion  of 
the  Bugti  hills. 


Widely  spread 
north  of  latitude 
29°  30'  and  in  the 
north-west  corner 
of  the  district. 


These  beds  are 
exposed  principal- 
ly in  the  north- 
western corner  of 
the  district,  sur- 
rounding the  out- 
crops of  Jurassic 
rocks. 

Sembar  pass  at 
the  boundarj-  be- 
tween the  Loralai 
and  Sibi  districts. 


Hill  masses  of 
Kushnob  and  Kha- 
lifat in  the  north- 
western portion  of 
the  district. 

Southern  cliffs  of 
Khalifat. 


Physical 

Aspects. 


,6  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Physical  Near   Dera    Bugti,    some    remarkable    mammalian    bones 

Aspects.  h^^g  been  found,  apparently  at  the  base  of  the  Siwiiliks, 
They  belong  to  Mastodon  angustidcns  and  other  mammalia  of 
middle  eocene  age  and  are  older  therefore  than  the  Lower 
Siwdlik  fauna  of  other  Indian  regions,  which  is  upper 
miocene.  The  locality  where  these  fossils  were  collected 
has  not  been  surveyed  in  detail  ;  and  it  is  doubtful  whether 
the  beds  in  which  the  fossils  occur  are  real  Siwdliks,  or 
whether  they  might  be  fresh-water  representatives  of  the 
marine  Gdj  and  Ndri  series  which  are  so  extensively 
developed  in  other  parts  of  Baluchistdn. 

The  two  sub-divisions  of  the  middle  eocene  known  as  the 
Kirthar  and  Laki  are  so  much  alike  that  tbey  cannot  be 
distinguished  from  one  another  except  by  the  fossils  which 
they  contain.  It  is  important  to  distinguish  them,  because 
the  coal  seams  that  constitute  the  chief  mineral  wealth  of 
the  province  are  restricted  to  the  Laki  series.  Both  the 
Khirthar  and  Laki  series  are  extensively  developed  in  the 
district,  but  their  exact  distribution  has  not  been  ascertained. 
Other  minerals  of  value  besides  coal  are  petroleum  which 
was  extracted  for  some  time  atKhattan,  and  alabaster  which 
occurs  amongst  the  eocene  strata  at  Mdmand  and  in  the 
Harnai  vallej'. 

Detailed  geological  descriptions  will  be  found  in  Oldham  s 
descriptions  of  the  Harnai  valley  and  Thal-Chotidii  country 
in  Volumes  XXIII  and  XXV^  of  the  Records  of  the  Geological 
Survey  of  India  ;  in  Townsend's  description  of  the  Khattan 
region,  and  Griesbach's  description  of  the  Harnai  Valley 
respectively  in  Volumes  XIX  and  XXVI  of  the  same  series  ; 
and  Blanford's  description  of  the  Bugti  Hills  in  Volume  XX 
of  tlie  Memoirs  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India.  The  fossils 
have  been  described  by  Lydekker  and  by  Noetling  in  series 
X  and  XVI  of  the  PalcEontologia  Itidica. 
Botany.  '^  description  of  the  botany  of  the  District  extracted  from 

an  Account  of  the  Vegetation  of  Baluchistdn  compiled  b\' 
Messrs.  J.  H.  Lace  and  W.  Botting-Hemsley,*  is  given  in 
Appendix  I.  A  list  of  the  local  names  of  some  of  the  com- 
moner trees  and  plants  found  in  the  District  is  also  given 
in  the  same  appendix. 

•  Linnean  Society's  Journal  of  Botany,   Volume  XXVIH. 


FAUNA.  17 

The  wild  animals  include  the  wolf,  the  jackal,  the  hyena  Physical 
and  the  fox,  all  of  which  are  common  in  most  parts  of  ihe  Aspects. 
District.  The  black  bear  and  leopard  are  also  occasionally  ^""^* 
met  with  in  the  Zidrat,  JandrAn  and  Ldkhi  hills.  The 
straight  horned  mdrkhor  and  the  mountain  sheep  or  gadh 
are  found  in  most  of  tne  higher  hills,  the  latter  being  the 
more  numerous  and  living  in  less  inaccessible  places.  In  the 
lower  parts  of  the  District  the  ravine  deer  and  occasional  wild 
pig  are  to  be  met  with.  Hares  are  common,  and  the  coney 
or  Afghdn  Mouse-Hare  {Lagomys  rufescens)  is  frequently  to 
be  seen  among  the  rocks  of  the  Zidrat  hills  at  elevations 
over  6,000  feet.  Writing  in  1882!,  Dr.  Duke  said  :  "  There 
is  an  animal,  however,  which  deserves  notice  and  that  is 
mamh  or  small  bear  of  these  hills  *****  All  sorts 
of  wild  stories  are  told  by  the  natives  about  the  mamh.  My 
belief  is  that  it  is  the  common  sluth  bear  or  Ursus  labiattis, 
but  Mr.  Blanford,  a  high  authority,  says  it  is  a  brown  bear 
and  that  it  is  a  distinct  species  which  should  be  called  Ursus 
gefrosianus.  All  the  skins,  that  1  have  seen,  have  been  those 
of  a  small  animal,  quite  black  with  a  white  spot  at  the  setting 
on  of  its  neck  in  front."  Later  on  he  writes  that"  Mr. 
Blanford,  on  further  examination  *  *"  *'  has  come  to 
the  conclusion  that  the  mamh  is  only  a  race  or  variety  of  the 
Himalayan  black  bear — Ursus  iorqiiatus." 

Many  legends  are  told  by  the  inhabitants  of  this  animal, 
and  among  others  that,  except  in  the  presence  of  man,  it 
always  walks  on  its  hind  legs,  that  all  mamhs  are  fem..les, 
and  that  each  seizes  a  man  and  forces  him  to  cohabit  with 
her  after  laming  him  to  prevent  his  escaping,  all  the  young 
being  invariably  female  mamhs  like  the  mother. 

Among  the  indigenous  game  birds  the  chikor  and  sisi  are 
found  in  large  numbers  in  the  higher  altitudes,  and  the 
partridge,  both  black  and  grey,  and  the  quail  in  the  p  ains. 
The  "  ubard'  or  lesser  bustard,  known  as  the  tiltir,  and  the 
sandgrouse,  of  both  the  imperial  and  the  pint;iil  variety, 
are  cold  weather  visitors  and  are  found  in  large  numbers  m 
the  Sibi  plains  in  the  months  of  November  and  December. 
In  the  winter  many  varieties  of  duck  and  teal  visit  the  coun- 

t  Surgfton-Major  O.  T.  Duke.-   ..-J    Biiiotuul   U7id    J'tstrif/tixe   Re- 
port on  the  Districts  of  ThalCkotiali  and  Harnai,  Calcuaa  (1883) 
2 


1 8  CHAPTER  I- DESCRIPTIVE. 

Phvsical  try,  but  owing  to  the  want  of  standing  water  they  are 
Aspects,  ^^^  sqq^  in  any  large  numbers  in  the  upper  parts  of  the 
District.  Parrots  swarm  in  Nasirjibdd,  but  they  do  not 
appear  to  be  able  to  cross  the  large  intervening  area  oi  pat 
and  are  not  seen  in  Sibi.  Ravens  and  magpies  are  found  in 
all  the  higher  hills,  and  among  birds  of  prey  are  the  vulture, 
the  lammergeyer,  the  golden  eagle  and  several  varieties  of 
hawks.  The  smaller  birds  have  never  been  completely  stu- 
died. There  are  many  varieties,  but  the  numbers  are  small, 
and  the  chief  characteristic  of  the  greater  part  of  the  District 
is  the  extraordinary  dearth  of  animal  and  bird  life  and  the 
general  stillness  of  the  country  as  compared  with  other  parts 
of  India. 

Among  reptiles  are    snakes  of  many  kinds,    the  majority  of 
which  are  poisonous,  lizards,  scorpions,  centipedes,  etc. 
Fishes.  In  the  lower  portions  of  the  Ndri  river  near  the  plains,   the 

fishes  found  are  those  of  Hindustan  and  include  many  of  the 
common  sorts.  The  mahseer  [Burbiis  tnosal  or  tor)  is  plenti- 
ful throughout,  and  large  fishes  exceeding  twelve  pounds  in 
weight  have  been  caught  in  the  Anambjir  Gap  above  the 
Duki  plain.  In  the  highland  portions  of  the  Xdri  drainage 
system  the  low-country  fishes  give  place  to  the  mountain 
barbels  of  the  genus  OreinuSy  which  have  not  been  satisfac- 
torily classified  and  present  a  great  individual  variation. 
Loaches  {Nemacheilus)  are  ubiquitous. 

In  the  lower  reaches  of  the  Ndri  and  especially  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Bdbar  Kach  alligators  (vernacular,  sansdr) 
are  occasionally  to  be  found. 

The   Nasirdbild  canals   are  well   stocked  with  fish,  which 
belong  to  the  varieties  found  in  the  Indus. 
Climate.  Xhe    climate    of   the    District    is   generally    dry,    but    the 

temperature  is  as  varied  as  the  physical  aspects.  I'hus 
while  the  highlands  possess  a  climate  which  is  pleasantly 
cool  in  summer  and  extremely  cold  in  winter,  the  plains  of 
Sibi  and  Nasirjibid  suffer  from  the  great  heat  common  in 
Upper  Sind,  which  has  the  unenviable  reputation  of  being 
the  hottest  place  in  India.  The  low  situation  of  these 
tracts,  the  fact  of  their  being  bordered  on  the  west  and 
north  by  bare  and  lofty  hills,  and  the  general  want  of  forest 
and  water,  are  considered  to  be  the  chief  causes  of  their 
exceeding  high  temperature.      Kasirdbdd  has  a  mean  temper- 


RAINFALL  AND   WINDS.  19 

ature  in  July  of  96°,  and  is  subject  to  the  effects  of  the  simoom;      Physical 
the  summer  begins  in  March  and  lasts  till  the  end  of  October.       Aspects. 
The  Marri  and  Bugti  country  and    the    Shdhrig   tahsil    (2,300 
to  4,500  feet)  possess   a  climate     intermediate    between   the 
extremes  of  the  plains  and  the  highlands. 

The  average  mean  temperature  of  Sibi  and  Nasirdbdd  is 
about  96°  in  the  summer  and  60°  in  the  winter  months.  The 
highest  temperature  of  the  hottest  days  in  summer  frequently 
rises  to  110°  and  less  frequently  to  120°.  In  average  years 
the  lowest  temperature  of  the  night  is  a  few  degrees  below 
freezing  point  (32'),  and  the  average  temperature  of  a  winter 
day  ranges  between  40°  and  80°.  At  Shdhrig  the  average 
mean  temperiture  of  the  day  time  is  about  88°  in  July  and 
about  46°  in  winter.  Statistics  of  the  temperature  in  the 
upper  highlands  are  not  available. 

In  the  highlands  the  seasons  are  well  marked,  and  the  Seasons. 
year  is  divided  into  four  seasons  known  by  the  Afghdns  as 
psarlae,  dobae,  manae  and  shnmae  or  samac.  The  main 
characteristics  of  each  season  are  briefly  expressed  in  the 
Pashtu  proverb,  psarlae  mdmur,  dobae  tamir,  tnanae  ranziir 
and  samae  zariir,  that  is  to  say  :  spring  is  teeming,  summer 
sweltering,  autumn  sickly  and  winter  needy. 

Like  other  parts  of  Baluchistan  the  District  lies  outside  Kainfall. 
the  monsoon  area,  and  the  rainfall  is  irregular  and  scanty. 
The  rainfall  varies  with  the  altitude  ranging  from  3  to  4 
inches  in  Nasirdbdd,  4  to  5  in  Sibi,  and  nearly  12  inches  in 
Shdiirig,  where  the  vapour-bearing  clouds  strike  Khalifat 
and  empty  their  contents  into  the  valley. 

The  stations  at  which  rainfall  is  recorded  are  Sibi,  Shdhrig, 
Bdbar  Kach  and  Kach,  details  for  which  are  given  in  table 
I,  Vol.  B.  Shdhrig  receives  the  largest  amount  1 1 '51  indies, 
Kach  comes  next  with  1 1 '06,  whilst  Sibi  and  Bdbar  Kach 
receive  4"g5  inches  and  6*09  inches  respectively.  In  the 
highlands  the  largest  rainfall  occurs  during  the  winter  months 
namely  from  October  to  March,  the  heaviest  falls  being 
recorded  in  January,  February,  and  March.  In  the  plains 
the  greatest  rainfall  occurs  during  the  months  of  July  and 
August, 

In  the  highlands  the  mountainous  character  of  the  country    Winds, 
affects  the  direction  and  force  of  the  winds,   which  in   many 
places  partake  largely  of  the  character  of  draughts   travers- 


20  CHAPTER  I -DESCRIPTIVE. 

Physical  ing  the  funnel-like  valleys  The  prevailingf  direction  is 
Aspects.  westerly,  and  the  cause  producing  the  winds  from  this 
quarter  is  believed  to  be  the  great  heat  arising  from  the 
plains,  whicli  induces  a  steady  current  of  air  to  blow  from 
the  west  so  long  as  this  cause  is  in  action.  In  the  autumn 
and  early  winter  the  wind  shifts  to  the  south-east  and  east- 
sou- h-east.  Between  January  and  March  the  direction  is 
very  variable,  and  at  this  time  there  are  often  cold,  bitter 
winds  blowing  from  the  north.  The  winter  rains  are  caused 
by  the  south-west  wind  known  as  the  khdrdni^  and  the 
summer  rains  by  the  south-east  wind. 

In  the  plains  the  prevailing  winds  are  the  west  wind 
in  the  winter  and  the  south  winJ  in  the  summer.  The 
hi  or  liikh  (Punjabi  jhola),  a  scorching  hot  wind  of  the 
desert,  is  frequent  during  the  months  of  July  and  August, 
and  causes  much  damage  to  the  trees  and  vegetation. 
Nasirdbdd  is  subject  to  the  simoom,  and  both  it  and  Sibi 
are  liable  to  frequent  and  severe  sandstorms. 

The  following  description  of  the  hi  is  taken  from  Hughes' 
Baluchistan*  : — 

"  It  is  this  (the  bade  simtin  or  juloh)  which  makes  travel- 
1  ing  in  parts  of  the  Kuchhi  province  at  certain  seasons  of 
the  year  almost  wholly  impossible  ;  and  Cook,  who  has 
given  this  subject  great  attention,  has  come  to  the  conclu- 
sion that  it  is  caused  by  the  generation  in  the  atmosphere  of 
a  highly  concentr-ited  form  of  ozone  by  some  intensely 
marked  electrical  condition.     *     *     » 

"  Cook  gleaned  the  following  items  of  information  con- 
cerning the  juloh  : — ist  :  That  ir  is  suJden  in  its  attack. 
2nd  :  Is  sometimes  preceded  by  a  cold  current  of  air. 
3rd  :  Occurs  in  the  hot  months,  usually  June  and  July. 
4th  :  Takes  place  by  night  as  well  as  by  day.  5th  :  Has  a 
straight  and  defined  course.  6th  :  Its  pa>sage  leaves  a 
narrow,  knife-like  track.  7th  :  Burns  up  or  destroys  the 
vitality  of  animal  and  vegetable  existence  in  its  path.  8th  : 
Is  attended  by  a  we  1  marked  sulphurous  odour,  gth  :  Is 
like  the  blast  of  a  furnace,  and  the  current  of  air  in  which  it 
passes  is  evidently  greatly  heated,  and  loth  :  Is  not  accom- 
panied by  dust,  thun  ier  or  lightning." 


•  The  Country  of  Baluchistdn  by  A.  W,  Hughes,  F.R.G.S.,  F.S.S. 


HISTORY.  21 

Heavy  floods  are  of  frequent  occurrence  and  often  invade  Physical 
the  lower  vallevs  with  great  suddenness  and  rapidity.  In  Aspects, 
1885  ^^'len  the  Sind-Pishin  Railway  was  under  construction,  ^''oods  . 
the  Harnai  valley  was  visited  by  a  series  of  violent  floods, 
an  J  one  of  these,  which  lasted  for  six  days  in  April,  "swept 
away  several  bridges  and  many  miles  of  temporary  roads, 
cau-ed  numerous  accidents,  and  did  an  infinity  of  mischief, 
destroymg  camping  grounds,  giving  rise  to  malaria  and 
stopping  the  supply  ot  food.  After  an  interval  of  five  weeks 
the  floods  again  came  down,  more  severe  than  ever  ;  the 
temporary  bridges  that  had  been  erected  were  swept  away, 
and  the  line  was  cut  in  two  ;  and  this  state  of  successive 
catastrophes  went  on  without  cessation  till  the  end  of  May."* 
Severe  floods  also  occurred  in  the  Ndri  in  1894  and  jgoo, 
on  both  of  which  occasions  considerable  damage  was  done 
to  the  railway  line. 

Slight  shocks  of  earthquake  are  not  uncommon,  but  in  Earthquakes. 
recent  times  tliere  only  appear  to  have  been  two  occasions 
on  which  serious  darrage  has  been  caused.  The  first 
occurred  in  January  1852  at  Kah^n  in  the  Marri  country, 
when  a  part  of  the  fort  was  thrown  down  together  with  a 
large  number  of  houses,  burying  many  men,  women  and 
children.  At  the  same  time  a  large  cave  in  a  hill  close  by, 
in  which  a  portion  of  the  tribe  were  living,  fell  in  and  buried 
a  large  number  of  people.  In  all  260  Marris,  including 
women  and  children,  and  80  Hindus  are  said  to  have  been 
killed.  The  second  disaster  occurred  ten  years  later  in  the 
Kohlu  valley,  whrn  the  villages  of  Fdzil  Shahr  (now  Karam 
Khdn  Shahr),  Ddda  Shahr  and  Oridni  were  levelled  to  the 
ground. 

The  history  of  the  district  centres  chiefly  round  Sibi,  or,  History. 
as  it  was  sometia.es  written,  Siwi,  which  owing  to  its  posi- 
tion at  the  mouth  ot  the  Boldn  Pass,  has  always  been  a  place 
of  considerable  importance  and  has  figured  prominently  in 
the  annals  of  the  country.  Cut  off  from  the  rest  of  Baluchi- 
stan hy  belts  of  intervening  hills,  Sibi  itself  during  the  earlier 
part  of  its  history  appears  to  have  followed  the  fortunes  of 
Kachhi  and  Multdn  rather  than  those  of  Khurdsdn.  In  the 
older   maps   the  country  between   the  Boldn   Pass   and  the 


•  The  Life  and  Times  of  General  Sir  James  Browne^  page  254. 


22  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

History.  D^rajdt  is  marked  as  Sewistdn,  but  this  name  has  now 
passed  out  of  common  use  among  the  natives  of  Baluchistdn 
and  authorities  differ  as  regards  the  accurate  definition  of  its 
boundaries.  It  is  difficult  at  this  period  to  arrive  at  any 
correct  solution,  as  alterations  in  the  course  of  the  Indus 
river  have  modified  the  local  divisions  of  territory,  districts 
have  become  intermingled,  and  names  have  been  inaccurately 
applied  in  the  narratives  of  the  earlier  writers.  It  is  held 
that  the  name  of  Sewistdn  is  erroneously  given  to  this  part 
of  the  country,  which  was  a  dependency  of  the  Bhakkar 
district  of  Multdn  and  never  formed  a  part  of  the  extensive 
province  of  Sewistdn  or  Sewistdn  of  Tatta  or  Sind.  The 
name,  however,  has  been  generally  adopted  in  earlier 
histories,  and  in  the  absence  of  conclusive  proof  to  the  con- 
trary, it  would  seem  desirable  to  retain  it.  All  local  traditions 
assert  that  the  former  rulers  of  this  part  of  the  country, 
including  Kaldt,  were  Hindus  who  were  called  S^was.  As 
history  shows  that  Muhammadan  dynasties  have  held  Balu- 
chistdn  from  about  the  seventh  century,  an  earlier  period 
must  be  looked  for  for  the  date  of  these  S^was,  and  it  is  not 
improbable  that  they  were  connected  with  the  Rai  dynasty  of 
Sind  whose  genealogical  tables  include  two  rulers  named 
Sihra. 
Early  A  tribe  known  as  Sibi  or  Sibia  is  mentioned  in  the  histories 

History.  ^j-  Alexander's  invasion  of  India,  but  beyond  a  similarity  of 
names  there  is  nothing  to  show  that  they  were  connected 
with  the  modern  town  of  Sibi.  Prior  to  and  at  the  time  of 
the  rise  of  Isldm,  Sibi  seerns  to  have  formed  a  portion  of  an 
extensive  Hindu  kingdom  on  the  Indus,  which  at  the  time  of 
its  first  contact  with  the  Arabs  was  ruled  over  by  Sihra  Rai, 
whose  capital  was  Alor,  a  populous  city  near  Bhakkar.  This 
monarch  was  killed  in  Makrdn  in  a  battle  with  the  Arabs,*  and 
after  the  death  of  his   successor   Sahsi.    the    kingdom   passed 

„    ,  into  the  hands  of  Rai  Chach,  the    Brahman    who   ruled    Sind 

Brahman 

Dynasty.  for    forty    years.     Chach     is     said    to    have     marched    from 

Armab^la  ^apparently  B^la)  through   the  Jhalawjin   country 

to   Kandabil  (possibly  the  modern  Ganddva),    and   to    h-^ve 

afterwards  encamped  on  the  banks  of  the   river  Sini  or  Sibi, 

•  According-  to  Mir  Masiim,  the  historian  of  Sind.  these  enemies 
were  the  Persians,  of  whom  "  a  great  army  of  the  B^id^h^h  of 
Ni'mroz  invaded  Kich  and  Makrdn  from  Fars  by  way  of  Kirman." 


EA  RL  V  HISTOR  V.  23 

which    may  be    identified  with    the  Ndri  of   the    present  day.       FfisT,>RY. 
He   is  described  as    having  compelled  the  inhabitants  of  this 
part  of  the  country  to  pay  him  a  tribute   of  a  hundred    horses 
and  a  thousand  dirham^^  of  money. 

The  first  Muham-nadan  invasion  under  Muhammad  Kdsim,    The  first 
the  Arab  general  of  the  Caliph  Walid,  took  place    during  the    '^^^  invasion 
reign  of  Ddhir,  the   son  of  Chach.     The  seizure  of  an   Arab      A.D.  711. 
ship    at   a    Sind    seaport  drew  upon    him    the    wrath    of   the 
Caliph,  whose   victorious   army   was   led  by  Kdsim  through 
Makrdn  to  Sind  and  conquered  the  country  up  to  and  includ- 
ing Multdn. 

In  the  interval  that  elapsed  before  the  next  Muhammadan   Second 

r.i-  ri-j-4.-iU4.      Mishamma- 

invasion,  nothmg  is  known  01  the  history  ot  the  district,  but,    ^^^  invasion 

at    the    beginning    of  the    eleventh     century,    Sibi    and    the       A.D.  978. 

neighbouring   country    formed  part  of  the  Ghaznivid  empire 

under  Mahmud,  who  captured  Multdn  in  1004. 

In    the   time    of   Nasiruddin,    Kabdcha,  who   asserted   his     A.D,  1004. 
independence    in    Sind   during  the   reign    of  Altamash,   the 
slave  king  of  Delhi,  Sibi  is  mentioned  as  forming  one   of  the 
seven  kingdoms  of  Sind   tributary  to    Multdn  and  as  being     a.D.  1225. 
ruled    by  Rdna    Wakija,    son    ot    Punnun    Channun,  a  petty 
Muhammadan  feudatory  of  Hindu  descent. 

The  subsequent  hi.story  is  obscure,  lut  about  1250  the  A.D.  1250. 
town  of  Sibi  and  its  dependencies  are  said  to  have  been 
held  by  Rai  Sihra,  the  head  of  the  Langah  tribe  of  Multdn, 
who,  according  to  Tod,  were  Hindus  by  descent  and  a 
branch  of  the  Solaiiki  Rdjputs,  but  according  to  native 
writers  a  branch  oi  tie  Jats.  In  the  confusion  which 
followed  the  withdrawal  of  Timur  after  the  sack  of  Delhi, 
Multdn  became  independent  under  the  Langahs,  and  Sibi 
seems  to  have  been  recognised  as  a  dependency  of  that 
province,  though  the  actual  possession  appears  to  have 
alternated  between  the  rulers  of  that  province  and  those  of 
Kandahdr. 

In  1470,  Sultan  Husain    Mirza   of    Herdt    is   said    to   have    A.D.    1470. 
made  over  the  territories  of  Shdl  (Quetta),  Fushang  (Pishin) 
and    Sin    to    Amir   Shujiuddin   Zunni'in,  the    Arghun,    but 
according  to  the  Ain-i-Akbari,  the  "Siwi  fort"  was  conferred 
as   a    fief   in    1488    on    Shdh    B^g,  the    son    of   Shujduddin 

•  A  dirham  equals  about  2  pies  of  Indian  money. 


24  CHAPTER  [-DESCRIPTIVE. 

History.       Zunniin,  by  Jam  Nizdmuddin  of  Sind,    generally    known   as 

Jfim  Nanda. 
Arghun  About  i5ii,Shdh   B^gf  marched   against   Sibi   to   resume 

'^A "n^'^'  ^'^  ^^*  ^"'^  captured  the  town  after  a  severe  struggle.     After 

rebuilding  the  fort,  which  he  strongly  garrisoned,  Shdh  B^g 
returned  to  Kandahdr.  He  was,  however,  compelled  to 
retire  before  B^bar,  and  evacuating  Kandahar  made  his 
head-quarters  at  Shdl  and  Sibi.  in  1517  he  led  an  expedi- 
tion into  Sind  and  defeating  Jdm  Feroz,  the  son  of  Jdm 
A.D.  151C,  Nanda,  captured  and  sacked  Tatta  in  January  1519.  Shdh 
B^g  died  in  1522  when  leading  another  expedition  against 
Guzardt  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Mirza  Shdh  Husain. 
A.D.  In  15  J3  Shah    Husain    bestowed   the   Government  of  Sibi 

'543—44-  ^j^  Sultdn  Muhammad  Khin  (sometimes  written  Sultdn 
Mahmud),  son  of  Mir  Fazal,  Kokaltdsh,  a  favourite  of  his 
father.  According  to  Mir  Masiim,  Sultan  Muhammad 
"  took  several  forts  which  had  been  held  by  Beeloochees 
'  for  miny  years.  He  severely  twisted  the  ears  of  these 
vicious  people  of  Kohistdn,  bringing  them  under  subjec- 
tion "  It  was  about  this  time  (1543)  that  Humdyun  passed 
through  Sibi  on  his  retreat  from  India. 
A.D.  1554.  Shdh  Husain    died  in  1554,    and  after    his  death  his  terri- 

tory was  divided  between  Mirza  Isa,  Tarkhdn,  who  had  been 
appointed  Governor  of  Tatta  and  Sultdn  Muhammad,  the 
latter  retaining  the  territory  of  Bhakkar.  In  1573.  Sultdn 
Muhammad  tendered  his  allegiance  to  the  Fmperor  Akbar, 
and  his  territory,  hitherto  held  by  him  independently,  was 
confirmed  to  him  as  a  fief.  Sultdn  Muhammad  died  in  the 
following  year  and  was  succeeded  as  Governor  of  Bhakkar 
by  one  Saiad  Muhammad.  At  this  period  Sibi  appears  to 
have  come  into  the  possession  of  the  Panri  tribe  of  Ghur- 
gusht  Pathins  or  Afghans,  who  had  first  begun  to  acquire 
power  on  the  decay  of  the  Arghun  rule. 

In  1576  an  expedition  was  sent  against  Sibi  under  Saiad 
Abu!  Fazal,  the  son  of  the  governor,  who  captured  the  fort 
in  spite  of  a  valiant  resistance  by  the  Panris.  Shortly  after- 
wards the  Mughal  contingent  was  withdrawn  and  the  Panris 
again  took  possession  of  the  country.  This  led  to  another 
A.D.  1595.  expedition  in  1587  which  was  repulsed  with  loss,  and  in  1595 
there  was  a  third  expedition  which  resulted  in  the  capture  of 
the  fort.     Mir  Masiim  of  Bhakkar,  the  historian  of  Sind,  who 


EARLY  HISTORY. 


25 


was  then  appointed  as  governor,  has  left  the  following  de-  History. 
scription  of  Sibi  as  it  appeared  in  his  time  "The  territory  of 
Siwi  and  Ganjdbah  (G  tndiiva)  is  thus  situated.  The  range 
of  Sitpur  stretching  along  the  banks  of  the  great  river  (Indus) 
as  far  as  the  village  and  lands  of  Kin,  reaches  as  far  as 
Si'wi  ;  and  Bdtjih,  which  is  one  of  the  places  dependent  on 
Kandahdr,  lies  between.  From  this  place  the  territory 
(Siwij  having  assumed  the  shape  of  a  complete  semi-circle, 
again  approaclies  the  banks  of  the  river.  This  intermediate 
space  is  all  dasht  (open  plain);  and  the  route  leading  to 
Kandahdr  runs  through  the  midst  ot  this  dasht.  The  length 
of  the  territory,  from  the  river  to  Siwi,  is  one  hundred  kuroh 
{kos)  and  the  breadth  is  sixty  kiiroh.  Over  the  greater  part 
of  this  tract  the  samiiin  blows  for  a  period  of  four  months 
in  the  year  and  the  period  during  which  it  prevails  is  the  hot 
season.  In  the  dasht  oi  Siwi  there  used  to  be  forts  and  inha- 
bited places,  but  they  are  gone  to  ruin." 

In  the  time  of  Akbar,  Sibi  was  assessed  to  revenue  as  a 
mahdL  of  the  Bhakkar  sarkdr  of  the  Multdn  silba,  and  paid 
1,381,930  </i>«;«:f  in  cash  and  furnished  a  contingent  of  500 
cavalry  and  1,500  infantry.  During  the  reign  of  Jehdngir 
and  Shdhjehdn,  the  province  of  Sewistdn  seems  to  have  been 
kept  in  the  utmost  subjection,  but  in  the  reign  of  Aurangz^b 
"  on  account  of  the  disturbed  state  of  the  frontier  districts 
of  the  Multdn  siiba,  and  the  excesses  of  the  marauding 
Baloch  tribes,"  the  Shahzdda  Muhammad  Muizzuddin, 
grandson  of  the  emperor,  was  appointed  as  governor  or, 
"  Ndzim  of  the  Multdn  silba."  At  this  time  Sibi  and  its 
dependencies  were  held  by  the  chief  of  the  Panri  tribe 
Mirza  Khdn  Bdruz  li,  who  had  received  the  title  of  Nawdb 
and  also  administered  the  affairs  of  Upper  Sind. 

His  s-  n  Nawdb  Bakhtidr  Khdn,  who  had  been  entrapped     A.D.  1700. 
into  opposing  the  Ndzim's    forces,    was    killed    in  1700  and 
"  a  farmdn  of  congratulation   was  despatched   to  the  Prince 
together  with   a  dre-^s  of  honour  and  a  jewelled  dagger  for 
his  services  in  rooting  out  the  rebel  Bakhtidr." 

In  1712,  Ydr  Muhammad,  Kalhora  of  Sind,  was  appointed    lyia.Kalhora 
governor  of  Hhakkar  by  Muizzuddin,   who  had  succeeded   to     ^y"?**^  °^ 
the  throne  of  Delhi  as  Jehdnddr  Slidh,    and  received  the  title 
of  Nawdb  and  afterwards  that    of  Khuda    Ydr  Khdn  Abbdsi. 
In  1730-1,  Abdulla  Khdn,  the    Brdhui    Khdn    of  Kaldt,    was    173010  1731. 


26 


CHAPTER  I-^DESCRIPTIVE. 


History. 


1739- 
N.-ldir  Sh.-lh. 


A.D.  1747. 
Durrani 
Dynasty. 


A.D.  1839. 


A.D,  1841. 


killed  while  fig-hting  with    Nur   Muhammad,   the  son  of  Yir 
]\Iuhammad. 

In  1739,  the  provinces  west  of  the  Indus  were  annexed  to 
the  Persian  empire  by  Nddir  Shdh,  and  Nur  Muhammad 
was  delivered  over  into  the  hands  of  Mohabat  Khdn  of 
Kaldt  that  he  might  avenge  the  death  of  his  tather.  The 
Brdhui  chief,  however,  declined  the  commi.'-sion  of  murder, 
and  Nddir  Shdh  compelled  the  Kalhora  prince  to  cede 
Kachhi  or  Kach  Ganddva  to  the  Khdn  as  an  equivalent  or 
atonement  for  tne  blood  of  his  father.  Kachhi  is  accord- 
ingly always  spoken  of  as  having  been  acquired  for  Kaldt 
by  the  blood  of  Abdulla  Khdn. 

After  Nddir  Shah's  death,  the  Panris  seized  the  opportunity 
to  again  acquire  Sibi  and  Sdngdn,  and  the  Durrdnis  found  it 
convenient  to  confirm  the  Bdruzai  chiefs  in  the  position 
which  they  established,  but  as  hakims  or  governors  rather 
than  as  independent  rulers.  The  Bdruzais  were  never  able 
to  assert  their  authority  in  Zawar  (the  Harnai  valley)  or  in 
Thai,  and  it  would  appear  that,  for  purposes  of  revenue,  these 
two  districts  were  worked  or  occasionally  raided  by  agents 
from  Pishin  or  by  the  Durrdnis  of  Quetta. 

The  Bdruzais  retained  their  position  during  the  rule  of  the 
Bdrakzais,  and  at  the  outbreak  of  the  first  Afghdn  war  in 
1839,  Misri  Khdn,  the  head  of  the  Panri  tribe,  tendered  his 
services  to  Shdh  Shuja  and  was  taken  into  British  service 
with  a  number  of  his  followers,  who  were  styled  the  "  Baloch 
Levy."  In  March  1841,  Mr.  Ross  Bell,  the  Political  Agent 
in  Upper  Sind,  deputed  one  of  his  assistants  with  a  detach- 
ment of  troops,  under  the  con  mand  of  Colonel  Wilson  of 
the  Bombay  Cavalry,  to  collect  the  arrears  of  revenue  due 
from  the  Khajaks  of  Sibi  on  behalf  of  Shdh  Shuja.  The 
detachment  was  accompanied  by  Misri  Khdn,  and  on  the 
Khajaks  refusing  to  comply  with  the  demands,  attacked 
the  town,  but  were  repulsed  with  heavy  loss,  losing  fifty- 
three  men  killed  and  wounded  and  four  officers  including 
Colonel  Wilson.  Reinforcements  from  Bhdg  w^ere  sent  up 
under  General  Brooks,  but  before  they  could  arrive  the 
Khajaks  abandoned  their  town,  the  defences  of  which  were 
then  demolished.  The  Khajaks  were  pern  itteti  to  return 
during  the  followmg  year  and  the  town  was  rebuilt. 

From  November    1841    to    September    1842  an    Assistant 


THE  HARRIS  AND  BUGTIS.  27 

Political    Officer    resided    at    Sibi.      When  the  British  troops       HrsroRv. 
were  withdrawn    from    Afghdnistdn    on   the    termination    of 
the    war,    the   district   was  handed  over  by  the  British  to  the 
Khdn  of  Kaldt,  but  it  does  not  appear  to  have  been  occupied 
by  him,  and  in  1843  agfain  came  under  the  Bdrakzai  rule. 

The  immi'^ration  of  the  Baloch  tribes  into  India  from  K6ch    ^•^-   '^43' 

and  Makrdn  appears  to  have  been    coincident  with    the  time        ,  Marns 
'  "^  ,  ^  _  and  Bugftis. 

of  Bflbar  and  Humdyun,  and  their   hero  Mir  Chilkar,    Rind, 

is  said  to  have  allied  himself  with  the  latter  and  accompanied 
him  to  Delhi.  About  this  time  the  Rind  Baloch  commenced 
to  overrun  the  hills  of  the  present  Marri  country,  and  accord- 
ing to  tradition  Mir  Ch^kar  himself  stopped  for  some  time 
near  the  defile  which  bears  his  name.  It  was  at  this  time 
that  the  Usbegs  were  pouring  down  from  the  north,  and  it  is 
probable  that  the  wandering  tribes  of  the  Rind  and  Ldshdri 
were  retiring  before  them.  On  their  arrival  in  Sewistdn 
they  came  into  collision  with  the  Arghi'ins  (Turks),  and 
Marri  legends  relate  that  Mir  Chdkar  fled  before  the  Turks 
as  far  as  the  Chdkar  Thtink,  where,  in  answer  to  his  prayer, 
his  buffaloes  were  petrified  into  large  boulders  which 
checked  the  advance  of  his  pursuers.  The  Turks  then 
encamped  outside  the  Tangi  on  a  plain  which  is  still  known 
as  Turk  Khand  or  the  Turk's  flat. 

The  Baloch  continued  to  increase  in  strength  and  import- 
ance, and  by  degrees  the  hilly  country  to  the  north  and 
north-west  of  Kachhi  was  occupied  by  the  Marris,  a  power- 
ful tribe  formed,  as  will  be  described  later,  by  a  confedera- 
tion of  refugees  and  deserters  from  other  clans.  The  hills 
to  the  south  of  this  tract  were  held  by  the  Bugtis,  who,  like 
the  Marris,  made  raiding  and  robbery  their  prmcipal  occu- 
pation. Both  tribes  were  claimed  as  subjects  by  the  Khdns 
of  Kaldt,  and  during  the  reign  of  the  great  Nasir  Khdn 
(1750-1793)  seem  to  have  been  kept  well  in  hand  ;  but  on  his 
death  the  reins  of  authority  were  relaxed,  and  during  the 
eff"ete  rule  of  his  successor  and  the  weakness  of  the  Bdri'izais, 
these  tribes  as  well  as  the  Dombkis  extended  their  devasta- 
tions in  all  directions.  They  were  at  the  same  time  en- 
gaged in  a  constant  round  of  intestine  warfare  and  blood 
feuds  among  themselves.  This  unsatisfactory  condition  of 
aff"airs  was  found  existing  when  the  British  Government  A.D.  1839. 
first  came    in   contact    with    the    tribes  in  1839  ;    and    to   it 


28  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

HisTOKv.  "■'^y  ^s  attributed  the  losses  which  Lord  Keane's  army 
suffered  during  its  march  to  At'ghdnistdn  through  Kachhi 
and  the  Boldn.  After  Lord  Keane's  army  had  passed  through 
the  Boldn,  a  small  force  was  despatched  under  the  com- 
mantl  of  Major  Billamore  to  punish  the  offending  tribes. 
The  det-ichment  marched  from  Sukkur  through  Shikdrpur 
and  Phul^ji  to  Lahri  and  was  at  first  employed  in  punishing 
the  Dombkis  and  Jakhrdnis,  who  fled  to  the  hills  under 
their  leader  Bijdr  Khin.  Major  Billamore  then  proceeded 
agdinst  Kahdn,  which  was  occupied  without  serious  opposi- 
tion. The  British  force  left  the  hills  in  February,  1840,  and 
in  the  month  of  April  a  detachment  was  sent  under  the 
command  of  Captain  Lewis  Brown  to  occupy  Kahdn  per- 
manently. This  small  garrison,  which  suffered  many  losses, 
was  besieged  in  Kahdn  till  September,  when,  on  the  reliev- 
ing column  under  Major  Clibborn  having  been  severely  de- 
feated in  the  Nafusk  Pass,  it  w  is  compelled  to  accept 
terms  from  the  Marris*  and  evacuate  the  fort. 
Expedition  From  the  date  o^  the  evacuation  of    Kahdn,    there    was 

against  the     little    communication  between  the  British  and  the  Marris  till 
^     1845,  when  Sir  Charles  Napier  undertook  the  chastisement  of 
the  Jakhrdnis,  Dombkis  and  Bugtis   and   entered  into  nego- 
tiations with  the  tribe   through   Captain  Jacobf   to  close  the 
line  of  retreat  to  the  north.      The  Baloch   Wcre   driven  into 
the    Traki    near  D^ra  Bugti  where  they  were  compelled  to 
surrender. 
Bugti  Raids,        This  campaign,  however,  does  not  appear  to  have  had  any 
1846.  permanent  effect,  and  the  following  year  witnessed  a    suc- 

cession of  raids  on  the  part  of  the  Bugtis  into  Sind  territory, 
which  culminated  in  the  great  raid  of  the  1st  of  October, 
1846,  when  Lieut.  Merewetlierj  of  the  Sind  Horse  killed  over 
600  of  them  near  the  Zamdni  river. 

The  raids  by  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  continued,  and  in 
September  1848,  Captain  Jacob  reported  that  "  the  whole 
province  of  Kachhi  is  being  overrun  by  the  Marris,  and  the 
peaceful    inhabitants    are    fast    leaving    the    country    with 

•  The  details  of  these  events  are  given  in  Chapter  V,  which  deals 
with  the  Marri  and  Bugti  tribes. 

t  General  John  Jacob,  C.H.,  founder   of  Jacobibid. 

X  Afterwards  Colonel  Sir  VV.  L.  Merewether,  K-C.S.I.,  C.B., 
Commissioner  of  Sind. 


S/J^  ROBERT  SAN  DEM  AN.  29 

their   families   and    property    to  reside  in    Sind.      The  tract      Hiptorv. 
of  country  in  the  Ndri  river  is  almost  entirely  deserted." 

Both  tribes  were  subsidised  by  the  Khjln  of  Kaldt  after 
the  treaty  of  i  S54,  but  their  conduct  showed  no  improvement, 
and  in  1859  Mir  Khudiiddd  Khdn  was  compelled  to  lead  an 
expedition  against  the  Marris.  Kahdn  was  occupied  and 
the  expedition,  which  was  accompanied  by  Major  (afterwards 
Sir  Henry)  Green,  was  successful.  It  does  not,  however, 
appear  to  hive  had  any  lasting  effect,  as  a  second  expedition 
had  to  be  undertaken  in  1862,  also  apparently  without  A.D.  1862. 
much  beneficial  result. 

The  state  of  the  country  becatne  more  and  more  disturbed       a.d   jS 
and  it    was  at   this   juncture   that   Captain    (afterwards   Sir   Sir  Robert 
Robert)    Sandeman    appeared    on    the    scene.      As    Deputy   •''andeman. 
Commissioner  of  Dera   Ghdzi    Khdn    he    entered    into    direct 
relations  with  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  in    1867.  .and   proposed 
that  these  tribes  should  be   subsidised   on   a  regular  system 
by  the  Government.      This   proposal   was   supported   by   the 
Bombay    and     Punjab     Governments    but    was    strenuously 
opposed  by  Sir  William  Merewether,  who,  notwithstanding 
the    Khdn's    acknowledged    inability   to   govern   them,    still 
considered    him    the    owner    and    sovereign    of   the    lands 
inhabited  by  the  Marris.     In  1870  a  conference  was  held  at 
Mithaiikot  between   the   Punjab   and     Sind  authorities   with 
the  ultimate  result  that  Captain  Sandeman's  proposals  were 
sanctioned  and  allowances   were   granted   to  the   tribesmen. 
The  immediate  result  was  that  the  raids  on  the  Punjab  and 
Sind  borders  ceased,  though  they    continued   in    every  other 
direction  and  even  extended  as  far  as  Kalat  itself.     The  trade 
of  the  Bolfin  and  of  Kachhi  was  stopped,  and  the  last  feat  of 
the  Marris  was  to  destroy  the  town  of  Kirta  in  the  Boldn.   Then 
followed    Sir   Robert  Sandeman's  two  missions  to   Kaldt  in 
1875  and  1876,  which  resulted    in    the    establishment  of  the    ^  ^    y    _^ 
Baluchistdn  Agency  at  Quetta  in    1876,    when   the   relations 
with  the   Marris  and   Bugtis   became   closer  and  they  were 
dealt  with  independently  of  the  Khdn.     From   this  date   the 
improvement  in  the  conduct  of  the  tribesmen  was   rapid   and 
remarkable,  until  the  Marris  were   thrown    off  their    balance 
by  the  disaster  at  Maiwand  and  the  sudden  withdrawal  of  the 
troops  from  the  Harnai  valley.     On  the  6th  of  August,  1880,   Tlie  Kuchdli 
a  band  composed   of  the  Tingidni,   Chhalgari  and    Bijardni    '^^''^'  '^^o. 


30  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

HisTORv.      sections    attacked    a    convoy    as    it   was    passing    through 

Kuchdli.     Forty-two    men    were  killed  and  a  large   amount 

of  Government  property,   including    treasure     amounting  to 

1n.s.    1,25,000  was  looted.     In  consequence  of  this  and  other 

outrages  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  the  Government  of 

India  determined  to  send  a  military  expedition  to   punish   the 

tribe,    and  advantage    was  taken  of  t  le  return  of  the  Kdbul- 

Kandahir  Field  Force  to  despatch  a  brigade  under  General 

MacGregor   for    this    purpose    (October    18S0).       The    force 

marched  through  the  Sembhar  pass,  Thai  and  Kohlu  without 

opposition  and  occupied    Kahdn,   where   the   chief   Mehrulla 

Khan  and  the  leading  headmen   tendered    thei"*   submission. 

A  fine  of  Rs.    2,00,000  was  imposed,   of  which  Rs.    1,25,000 

Were  paid,  Rs.  25,000  were  remitted,  and  the  Quat-Mandai 

lands    were    occupied    as    security    for    the    payment    of  the 

balance. 

Up  to  the  second  Afghan  War  Sibi  continued  to  be  held  by 
Formation  ot.° 
the  District,   the  Bariizai  chiefs  as   governors  of  the  Afghan  rulers  ;    but 

owing  to  the  constant  raids  and  encroachments  of  the  Marris, 
the  country  was,  at  the  request  of   the  sarddrs  and   people, 
occupied  at  the  commencement  of  the  war  by  a  detac  ment 
■    ■  of   troops    from   Jacobdbdd,   and   the    administration   of  the 

District  was  controlled  by  a  Political  Office^  (Captain  Curzon 
Wyllie)  under  the  direct  orders  of  the  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General.  This  officer  was  also  placed  in  charge  of 
the  Boldn  Pass. 

The  first  phase  of  the  war  closed  with  the  treaty  of 
Gandamak  (May  1879),  by  which  Sibi,  Harnai  and  Thal- 
Chotiali  were  handed  over  by  Ydkub  Khdn  to  the  British 
Government.  The  treaty  was  shortly  afterwards  abrogated 
by  the  massacre  of  the  British  Resident  at  Kdbul  and  the 
deposition  of  Yikub  Khdn,  and  at  the  close  of  the  second 
phase  of  the  Afghan  war  it  was  decided  at  the  strenuous 
instance  of  Sir  Robert  Sandeman  to  retain  the  areas  ceded 
by  the  treaty,  though  final  orders  for  permanent  retention 
were  not  passed  till  1882. 

In  1879,  a  Political  Officer  (  Captain  Reynolds  )  with 
head  quarters  at  Jacobdbdd  was  placed  in  charge  of  the 
Khdn's  lands  irrigated  by  the  Sind  canals,  all  matters  con- 
nected with  the  railway  and  the  affairs  of  the  Bugti  tribe. 
The  administration  of  Sibi  was  also  shortly  afterwards  added 


THE  BOZDAR  COLUMN.  31 

to  his  charge.  At  this  time  Captain  H.  Wyllie  held  charge  of  Historv. 
Pishi'n  and  the  KAkar  tribes,  while  the  Harnai  and  Thal- 
Chotiali  Districts,  which  include  the  Harnai  valley,  Sdngdn, 
Duki  and  the  Thal-Choticdli  country  were  administered  by 
Surgeon- Major  O.  T.  Duke,  who  was  also  in  political  charge 
of  the  M arris. 

In  1880,  the  state  of  the  country  became  unsettled  owing  Murder  of 
to  the  events  in  Afghdnistjin,  and  on  the  24th  of  March  ghowTers. 
Captain  Showers,  the  Commandant  of  the  Baloch  Guides, 
together  with  a  number  of  his  men  was  ambushed  and  killed 
in  the  Uzhda  Psha  pass  near  Dirgi  by  the  Pdnezai  Kdkars. 
A  survey  camp  under  Captain  Fuller,  R.E.,  was  shortly  after- 
wards looted  near  Fuller's  camp,  and  Sir  Robert  Sandeman 
himself,  who  had  immediately  moved  up  from  Harnai  with  a 
small  detachment  of  troops,  was  attacked  at  the  foot  of  the 
Chapp  ir  hills.  It  was  considered  advisable  at  thi?>  juncture 
to  avoid  isolated  militar)'  operations,  and  the  Kdkars  embol- 
dened by  the  inaction  of  the  Government  assumed  an  openly 
defiant  altitude.  In  August  1880  after  the  disaster  at  Mai- 
wand  the  Pdn^zais  reinforced  by  contingents  of  the  Sdrang- 
zais  and  Zhob  Kdkars  under  Shdh  Jehan,  Jogizai,  attacked 
the  Kach  fort,  which  was  held  by  300  men  of  the  i6th 
Bombay  Infantry.  The  Kdkars  were  repulsed  with  consider- 
able loss  and  ihe  troops  following  up  their  advantage  burnt 
the  villages  of  Kach  and  Ahmadun.  In  1881  the  Pdnezais 
and  Sarangzais  surrendered  to  Sir  Robert  Sandeman,  and 
their  country,  which  had  hitherto  been  attached  to  Pishin, 
was  placed  under  the  charge  of  the  Political  Agent,  Thal- 
Chotidli. 

At  the  close  of  1881,  when  the  troops  were  returning  to  India  The  Bozddr 
from  Kandahar,  a  small  column,  designated  the  Bozddr  co-  *=°^"'^"- 
lumn  under  the  command  of  General  Wilkmson,  was  sent  from 
Quetta  to  Dera  Ghdzi  Khiin  through  the  Kdkar,  Tarin, 
Marri  and  Luni  districts.  The  march  was  successful,  and 
this  part  of  the  country  which  had  only  been  partially 
explored     was   thoroughly    opened    up.      In  December    1882  1882. 

Sibi  was  transferred  to  the  Thal-Chotiali  District,  and  the 
Political  Agent  was  also  placed  in  charge  of  the  Boldn  Pass 
and  in  political  control  of  the  Bugti,  Dombki  and  Kahdri 
tribes.  Taking  advantage  of  the  return  of  troops  from 
Kandahdr,  a  small   column  was  sent  in    April  1883    '"to    the  i'^*3- 


32  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

History.  Kach-Kowjis  valley  to  punish  the  tribes  who  had  taken  part 
in  tlie  murder  of  Captain  Showers  and  the  attack  on  Kach. 
The  tribesmen  surrendered  unconditionally,  and  it  was 
decided  that  the  Kjikar  country  which  had  already  been 
added  to  the  Thal-ChotiAli  District  should  be  assessed  to 
revenue.  In  the  same  yeir  Captain  G.  Gaisford  was 
appointed  as  Assistant  Superintendent  of  Levies  and  ex- 
officio  Assistant  to  the  Political  Agent,  Thal-Chotidli,  and 
was   posted  to  Duki       The  post  of  Assistant    Superintendent 

i886.  of  Levies    was  abolished    in  1886    when    the  Bori  valley  was 

taken  over,  and  the  appointment  was  changed  to  that 
of  an  Assistant  Political  Agent  with  his  head  quarters  at 
Loralai.     The    Bdrkhdn  and   Kh^trdn  vallevs  were    occupied 

1887.  in    1^87    and     added    to     the     Thal-Chotijili     Agency.       In 

March  of  the  same  year  the  Political  Agent  was  relieved  r  f 
the  charge  of  the  Boldn  Pass,  which  was  transferred  to 
the  Quetta-Pishin  District. 

In  November  1887  the  Kach-Kowds  and  Harnai  valleys, 
Sibi,  Duki  and  Thal-Chotidli  were  declared  parts  of  British 
India,  and  for  the  purposes  of  administration  as  regards 
these  tracts,  the  designation  of  the  Political  Agent  was 
changed  to  that  of  Deputy  Commissioner. 

1890.  On  the  formation  of  the  Zhob   Agency    in     1890,    the    Bori 

valley,  Sanjdwi  and  Bdrkhdn  were  transferred  to  that 
Agency  ;  but  the  Loralai  Cantonment  and  station  remained 
under  the  Political  Agent,  Thal-Choti^Ii,  and  became  the 
head  quarters  of  the  District.  In  the  same  year  the  Police 
were  re-organised  and  placed  under  the  Assistant  Pi  litical 
Agent  who  was  also  District  Superintendent  of  Police. 
O  wng  to  the  disputes  between  the  Zarkuns  and  the  Marris, 
Kohlu  was  brought  under  British  protection  and  added  to 
the  Thal-Chotidli  District  in  1892.  In  February  1891  San- 
jAwi  was  again  transferred  to  1  hal-Chotidli,  and  BArkhjin 
was  added  in  April  1892.  In  January  1894  the  Loralai  Can- 
tonment and  station  were  handed  over  to  Zhob.  The 
Assistant  Political  Agent  was  relieved  of  Police  work  in 
November  1897  and  the  force  was  placed  under  the  District 
Superintendeni  of  the  Quetta  Police.  On  the  reconstruction 
of  the  Districts  in  October  1903,  the  B^rkhfin,  Duki  and 
SanjAwi  tahsils  were  transferred  to  the  new  Loralai  District, 
the  name  of  the    Thal-Chotidli    District   was    changed    into 


ARCHEOLOGY. 


33 


1882     to      22nd      Septem- 

bdr  1885. 
to  24th  December  1885. 
to  25th    July  1886. 
to  25ih    October  1886. 
to  2nd    May  1887. 
to  7th    April  1890 
to  23rd  September  1891. 


that  of  the  Sibi  District,  and  the  Nasirdbdd  nidbal,  which 
had  been  taken  over  on  lease  fr  mi  Hii  Hig-hness  the  Khin, 
was  added  as  a  sub-division.  For  purposes  of  administration 
the  District,  as  now  constituted,  is  divided  into  three  sub- 
divisions, Shdhrig,  Sibi  and  Nasirdbdd,  and  the  Political 
Agent  also  exercises  political  control  over  the  Marri,  Bugti, 
Dombki  and  Kah^ri  tribes. 

The  following  officers  have  held  the  appointment  of  the 
Political  Agent  : — 

Mr.    R.  I.  Bruce,    CLE 

Captain  G.  Gaisford         

Mr.  R.  I.  Bruce,     C.I.E,. 

Captain  G.  Gaisford 

Mr.  R.  I.  Bruce,  C.I.E 

Captain  I.  Maclvor,  C.I.E 

Major  C.  E.  Yate,  C.S.I.,  C.M.G.      ... 
Captain  H.  M.  Temple  (in   addition    to 

his  duties  as  Political  Agent  (Kaiit 

and  Bolan) 
Major  C.  E.  Yate,  C.S.I.,  C.M.G.       ... 

Lieut.  A.  H.  McMahon 

Captain  C.  A.  Kemball     

Captnin  H.  L  Showers    ... 

Major  I.  Maclvor,  CLE 

Lient.-Col.  G.  Gaisford   ...         

Lieut.  C.  B.  Winter  

Captain  M.  A.  Tighe         

Captain  C  Archer 
Captain  H.  L.  Showers    ... 
Cai  tain  R.  A.  E.  Benn 

Captain  W.  M.  Cubitt        

Captain  C.  Archer...  ...         

Major  F.  Macdonald         

Captain  A.  McConaghey 

Captain  H.  Gough... 

Captain  S.  G.  Knox  ...         ...         .,. 

Major  M.  A.  Tighe 


History. 


to  24th  November  1891. 
to  19th  April  1892. 
to  16th  April  1893. 
to  19th  September  1894. 
to     ist  December  1894. 
to  j6th  March  1896. 
to  14th  Mnrch  ib98. 
to    9th  April  1898. 
10  15th  March  1899. 
to    4th  April  1899. 
to     I  St  May  1899. 
to  22nd  May  1899. 
to  nth  Octo  er  1899. 
to  31st  March  1901, 
to    9th  March  1002. 
to    ist  February  1903. 
to  19th  February  1903. 
to  i8th  October  1903. 
to  31st  March  1905. 


List  of 
P  .litical 
Agents. 


Arch^o- 


There  are  no  imposing  structures  of  any  kind  to  indicate 
the  condition  of  the  country  in  ancient  times,  but  many  logv. 
mounds,  said  to  be  the  ruins  of  old  cities,  with  local  tradi- 
tions attached  to  them,  are  found  scattered  throughout  the 
district. 

A  mound  about  628  yards  in  circumference  and   about    135    pamb 
feet  in  height  above  the  level  of  the   surrounding  country  is   Kuhna  Kila. 
3 


34 


CHA  PTER  I^DESCRIPTI  I  'E. 


History. 


Old  mud 
forts. 


Cairns  in 
Kohlu. 


Armenian 
inscriptions. 


situated  in  the  Usmdni  land  near  the  Luni  village  about  8 
miles  from  Sibi.  It  is  said  to  be  the  ruins  of  an  ancient  city 
founded  by  a  semi-mythical  infidel  king  named  Dallu  Rai, 
who,  according  to  local  tradition,  married  his  own  daughter 
contrary  to  all  usage  and  established  custom,  and  thereby 
incurred  the  wrath  of  the  deity  who  destroyed  his  city.  The 
fact  that  somewhat  similar  mounds  are  found  in  the  Boldn 
in  Pishin  and  near  Appozai  in  the  Zhob  valley,  which  are 
also  assigned  to  Dallu  Rai  and  have  similar  local  traditions, 
is  not  without  interest.  It  was  on  this  mound  that  the 
notorious  Hdji  Khdn  Kdkar  of  Barshor,  who  was  some 
time  governor  of  Pishin  under  the  Bdrakzai,  built  a  fort, 
the  ruins  of  which  remain  and  which  have  given  the  present 
name  of  kuhna  kila  or  the  old  fort  to  the  locality. 

The  ruins  of  ancient  mud  forts  are  found  near  the  villages 
of  Ahmadun  and  Manra  in  the  Zijirat  hills.  These  are 
ascribed,  like  most  other  ruins,  to  the  Mughals.  There  are 
also  forts  at  Sdngdn  and  Sibi  which  are  attributed  to  the 
Mughals,  though  the  Sibi  fort  has  probably  a  more  ancient 
origin. 

Small  cairns  and  heaps  of  mud  are  found  on  the  road 
between  Kohlu  and  Bdrkhjin,  and  according  to  tradition 
mark  the  destruction  of  a  large  kafila  by  snow  during  the 
reign  ot  Mahmud  of  Ghazni. 

In  1901,  certain  inscriptions  were  discovered  by  R.  S. 
Divvan  Jamiat  Rai,  then  officiating  as  Extra  Assistant 
Commissioner  of  Sibi,  in  the  Ush  Narai  or  Camel's  Pass, 
about  2  miles  from  Kach.  The  impressions  were  sent  by 
Dr.  Vogel,  Archaeological  Surveyor  of  the  Punjab  Circle,  to 
M.  Ed.  Drouin,  a  specialist  in  Semitic  Epigraphy  and 
Secretary  to  the  Socic'c  Asiatique  at  Paris,  who  has  thus 
recorded  his  opinion  :  — 

"  The  inscriptions  are  in  Armenian  letters  and  have  been 
engraved  on  the  stones  by  people  who  belonged  to  the 
Armenian  colony  established  in  Baluchistdn  in  the  beginning 
of  the  seventeenth  century.  Two  of  these  inscriptions  are 
dated  1050  and  1067  of  the  Armenian  era  (1606,  1618  A.D.). 
We  know  from  the  historians  that  Tahmdsp  (1524-1576)  and 
Shih  Abbds  (1584-1629)  ravaged  Georgia  and  Armenia: 
Tahmdsp  in  1547  and  Abbds  in  1600,  1603  and  1618.  A 
large  number  of   Armenians    were    transported   into  -several 


ARCHEOLOGY.  35 

parts  of  the  Persian  Empire  :  Isfahan,  Afghdnistdn,  Makrdn,      History. 
etc." 

"The  inhabitants  of  Djulfa,  a  town  of  xlderbadsan,  built 
near  Isfahdn,  a  town  which  they  called  New  Djulfa  (Armenian 
Nor  Djougha). 

"  I  have  communicated  my  decipherment  to  Mr.  Barmad- 
sian,  an  Armenian  scholar  living  in  Paris,  who  has 
agreed  that  the  writing  was  an  old  Armenian  writing 
rudely  engraved  on  the  stone.  Consequently  there  remains 
some  doubt  with  regard  to  the  missing  or  obliterated 
letters.  I  must  remark  that  the  Armenian  Era  is  gene- 
rally accepted  at  551-552  A.D."  In  connection  with  this 
Dr.  Vogel  writes  that  "  the  inscriptions  contain  only  a 
name  and  a  date,  but  are  of  interest  in  connection  with  the 
historical  fact  referred  to  above.  The  explanation  of  their 
origin  offered  by  M.  Drouin  possesses  much  probability,  but 
cannot,  at  present,  be  considered  certain. 

■i:-  i:-  i.-  -A,i  *-  * 

"  Ush    Narai    is  a    barren    pass   on    the    main    road  from 

Kandahdr    to  Sind  and  the    Panjab.     In  old    days  this    road 

was  much  frequented 

*-  *  *-  a- 

"From  ancient  times  Armenian  merchants  carried  on  an 
active  trade  with  India  through  Persia,  which  flourished 
especially  under  the  reign  of  the  Mughal  Emperors,  Akbar 
and  Jahdngir.  In  Agra  and  other  places  in  India,  there 
existed  extensive  Armenian  colonies,  to  which  numerous 
sepulchral  inscriptions  still  bear  evidence.*  On  the  other 
hand  it  should  be  noticed  that  no  Armenian  colonies  can 
now  be  traced  in  the  Kal^t  Agency.  We  should  therefore 
have  to  assume  that  the  reputed  settlers  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  on  their  conversion  to  Isldm,  have  become  complete- 
ly merged  in  the  indigenous  Brdhui  and  Baloch  tribes.  It  is 
of  interest  that  at  Kdbul  an  Armenian  colony,  established  in 
the  reign  of  Tahmdsp  and  Shdh  Abbjis,  has  survived  up  to 
the  time  of  Sher  Ali  Khdn.     They  had  preserved  Christianity 


•  Cf.  N.  J.  Seth.  History  of  the  Armenians  in  India  (London, 
1897),  pp.  15,  ^7,  78,  An  extensive  Armenian  cemet^r}'  exists  at  Surat, 
detached  tombs  are  found  at  Behar  (C^ww/wj'/mw/,  A.S.R.,  Vol.  i,  37), 
and  in  the  Hyderdb/id  State  {Cousen's  Lists  of  Remains  in  H.  H.  the 
Nizdm^s  Territory,  pp.  63  and  64). 


36 


CM  A  PTER  I—DESCRIPTI VE. 


History. 


Population. 

Ethnogra- 
phical 
history. 


and  lived  in  the  Bdia  Hisdr  near  Shdh  Shahid  gate,  but  are 
said  to  have  been  banished  by  the  late  Amir  Abdur  Rahman. 

In  view  of  the  above  lacts,  may  we  not  suppose  that  Arme- 
nian traders  left  their  names  carved  on  these  stones  as  a 
record  of  their  having-  crossed  the  Camel  pass  on  the  high 
road  from  Persia  and  India." 

Little  or  nothing  is  known  of  the  early  ethnographical 
history  of  the  District,  but  it  is  certain  that  the  Afghans, 
Baloch,  Brdhui  and  Jar,  wlio  now  occupy  it,  are  compara- 
tively recent  immigrants.  As  already  described  in  the  section 
on  History,  Sewistan  prior  to  the  Muhammadan  invasion 
formed  a  portion  of  a  Hindu  kingdom  with  its  capital  at  Alor 
on  the  banks  of  the  Indus,  and  the  country  would  appear 
to  have  been  tiiickly  populated.  Mir  Masiim,  writing  in 
1600,  speaks  of  the  ruins  of  several  ancient  cities  in  the 
neigiibourhood  of  Sibi.  All  local  tradition  asserts  that 
both  Sibi  and  the  Harnai  valley  were  held  by  a  Hmdu  dynas- 
ty called  Sewa,  but  there  is  nothing  definite  to  show  how 
the  ancient  inhabitant^  were  gradually  supp'anted. 

The  Afghans  who  now  occupy  the  Shdhri^  tahsil,  the 
Kohlu  tahsil  and  part  of  Sibi,  appear  to  have  entered  the 
District  from  the  north-east,  emigrating  from  their  homes 
roun.l  the  Takht-i-Sulaiman.  The  Tarins,  it  is  believed, 
came  into  the  District  about  the  fourteenth  century  and  the 
Kdkars,  who  branched  off  from  the  parent  slock  in  Pishin, 
somewhat  later. 

The  great  influx  of  the  Baloch  from  the  westward  appears 
to  have  taken  place  during  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth 
centuries,  as  by  the  sixteenth  century  there  is  authentic 
evidence  that  they  were  numerous  and  were  making  raids 
and  forays  in  all  directions.  The  Jats,  who  represent  about 
25  per  cent,  of  the  total  popul.itii-n  of  the  administered  area, 
are  a  collection  of  Muhammadan  tribes  without  any  common 
origin,  and  it  is  possible  that  some  of  these  may  be  the 
descendants  of  the  original  Hindu  inhabitants  who  were 
converted  to  Isldm  at  the  time  of  the  Muhammadan 
conquests.  The  Brdhuis,  who  are  found  chiefly  in  the 
Sihi  and  Xasiidbdd  tahsils,  are  mostly  nomads,  though  a 
few  have  acquired  land  and  become  permanent  settlers. 
They  are  all  offshoots  from  the  parent  stock  inhabiting 
Kalit  territory 


TOWNS  AND  VILLAGES  37 

The  first  reg'ular  census  of  the  District,  the  results  of  Population. 
which  have  heen  published,  was  carried  out  in  Igoi.  The  Density. 
District  was  divided  into  three  divisions  for  the  purpose  : 
(rt)  the  towns,  railway  bazars,  etc.,  in  which  a  synchronous 
enumeration  was  made  on  the  standard  schedule  ;  [b]  the 
tribal  areas,  i.e.,  the  iMarri,  Bugti,  Dombki,  Kah^ri  and 
Umidni  country  in  which  estimates  were  prepared  through 
the  headmen  of  tribes,  the  same  method  being  followed  in 
Nasirdbdd  which  was  then  a  nidbai  of  the  Kaldt  State,  as 
was  aNo  the  case  with  the  Marris  occupying  the  western 
portion  of  the  Kohlu  tahsil  ;  and  (c)  the  remainder  of  the 
District  in  which  a  rough  house-to-house  enumeration  was 
made  by  the  subordinate  staff.    This  was  not  synchronous. 

The  results  arrived  at  gave  a  total  population  of  73,893, 
of  which  7,924  were  censused  on  the  standard  schedule 
and  represent,  in  the  main,  the  non-indigenous  population 
of  the  District.  Tnis  figuie  (73.893)  does  not  include  the 
Marri  atid  Kugti  country  (38,919)  which  has  been  dealt  with 
in  Ciiapter  V,  or  the  population  of  the  Dombki,  Kahdri, 
and  Umrdni  country  (19.512)  which  forms  part  of  the  Lahri 
nidbat  of  Kachhi  in  Kaldt.  A  derailed  statement  containing 
the  principal  census  statistics  will  be  found  in  table  II, 
Volume  B. 

In  1901  the  total  number  of  occupied  houses  in  the 
administered  area  was  15,178  :  1,391  in  the  towns  and  13.787 
in  the  villages,  and  of  the  total  population  the  urban  part 
numbered  4,551  and  the  rural  69,342.  The  incidence  of 
population  per  house  in  the  urban  area  was  3*2  and  in  rural 
areas  about  5.  The  average  population  per  square  mile  was 
about  18,  the  highest  being  42  in  Nasirdbdd.  In  the  Marri 
and  Bugti  country  the  population  was  7  per  family  and  5  per 
square  mile. 

The  only  town  in  the  District  is  Sibi,  which  has  grown    up   Towns  and 
since    the   British  occupation,   and  is  inhabited  largely  by  an    ^*  *^ 
alien  population. 

In  pre-British  days  the  number  of  villages  was  smaller, 
the  people  being  obliged  to  live  together  for  offensive  and 
defensive  purposes.  This  was  especially  the  case  in 
Sibi,  which  was  exposed  to  constant  raids  by  the  Marris, 
and  where  in  1879  '^'i"-  M.  L.  Dames  found  that  there 
were  only  7  inhabited  villages,  while  the  country  was  studded 


38 


CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 


Growth  of 
population 


Population,  with  the  ruins  of  no  less  than  40  deserted  viMagfe;-.  There 
is  now  a  tendency  to  spread  our,  and  new  villages  and 
hamlets  are  gradually  springing  up.  In  1901,  the  number 
of  inhabited  villages  in  this  tahsil,  including  Sdngdn,  was 
32,  the  total  number  in  the  whole  District  being  238  or  one 
village  in  every  17  square  miles.  Nasirdbdd  has  i  village  in  9^ 
miles,  Kohlu  i  in  15  miles.  Shdhrig  i  in  17  miles,  and  Sibi 
I  in  42  miles.  There  are  a  very  few  villages  which  have  a 
population  of  over  1,000  souls.  The  most  important  places 
are  mentioned  in  Chapter  IV  in  the  Miniature  Gazetteer  oi 
each  tahsil. 

The  Marri  and  the  Bugti  country,  which  has  an  area 
of  7,129  square  miles,  has  only  5  villages,  the  majorit)  of  he 
population  being  nomads. 

Previous  to  1891  no  regular  census  was  attempted,  and  in 
that  year  the  operations  were  confined  to  the  Sibi  and 
Shdhrig  tahsils.  The  only  inform^ion  available  as  regards 
earlier  years  is  derived  from  the  rough  estimate  of  Sibi 
and  Sdngdn  (13,900)  made  by  Mr.  M.  L.  Dames  in  1879  and 
of  the  Zawar  valley  (4,822)  by  Dr.  O.  T.  Duke  in  the  same 
year.  The  growth  of  population,  therefore,  cannot  be 
illustrated  by  reliable  figures. 

In  1901,  the  population  of  Sibi  (excluding  846  in  Sdngdn) 
was  19,680  ai,'ainst  13,401  in  1891  or  an  increase  of  47  per 
cent.  In  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  there  were  16,573  persons 
in  1901  against  16,241  in  1891  or  an  increase  of  2  per  cent. 
This  comparatively  small  increase  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  is 
due  to  the  fact  that  a  considerable  portion  of  the  alien 
population  which  existed  in  1S91  has  since  left  the  District. 

Besides  the  improved  methods  on  which  the  census  of 
1901  was  carried  out,  the  increase  in  the  population  of  the 
District  may  be  attributed  partly  to  the  greater  security 
to  life  which  has  attended  the  British  occupation.  It  may 
also  be  presumed  that  the  rise  in  the  standard  of  living, 
which  has  undoubtedly  taken  place  among  the  indigenous 
population,  has  led  to  more  frequent  marriages  and  a  conse- 
quent increa>-e  in  the  birth  rate. 

The  majority  of  the  indigenous  population  in  the  plains  are 
settled,  but  in  other  parts  of  the  District  there  is  a  con- 
stant flow  of  migration,  the  causes  being  the  lomadic 
habits  of  the  tribes,   the   variations   in   the   climate,  and    the 


Migration, 


AGE  STATISTICS,  ETC.  39 

periodical  visitations  of  scarcity   and   drought   which  compel    Population. 
the  people  to  seek  more  favourable  districts. 

The  Sirangzai,  Pdn^zai,  Dumar  and  Wan^chi  tribes  of  the 
Shdhrig  tahsil  are  largely  flock-owners,  and  spend  the  summer 
in  the  hills  and  the  winter  in  the  Zawar  valley.  Large 
numbers  of  Marris  migrate  to  the  Kohlu  valley,  Duki  and 
Bdrkhdn  in  the  summer  months  in  search  of  grazing,  and 
the  Sibi  plain  is  a  regular  resort  in  the  winter  for  Brdhuis, 
Ghilzais,  Marris  and  Bugtis.  Large  numbers  of  Jats  from 
the  lower  portions  of  Kaldt  also  regularly  visit  Sibi  during 
the  spring  harvest,  when  they  work  as  labourers.  In  time 
of  scarcity  a'ld  drought  Marris,  Bugtis  and  the  people  of  Sibi 
dependent  on  dry  crop  areas  migrate  to  Nasir^ibad  and  Sind. 

In  igoi,  5,547  persons  (males  4,264  and  females  1,283)  were   Immigration 
enumerated  in  the  old  Thal-Chotiali  District   who   had   been   ^'""'^  ^"^'*- 
born  in  the  provinces  of  India,   2,144  who  belonged  to  other 
parts  of  Baluchistdn,  238  who  had  been  born  in  Native  States 
of  India,  and  522  born  in  countries  adjacent  to  India,  chiefly 
Afghanistan. 

The  province  in  India  from  which  most  immigrants  come 
is  the  Punjab  (3,721),  and  Sind  and  the  United  Provinces  come 
next  with  862  and  821  respectively.  The  immigrants  from 
Native  States  represented  89  from  the  Punjab,  74  from 
Kashmir  and  40  from  Rdjputdna.  The  immigrants  from  the 
Punjab  are  drawn  principally  from  the  Districts  of  Amritsar, 
SidlKOt,  Jhelum,  Jullundur,  Hoshidrpur,  Gujrdt,  Gurddspur, 
Gujranwala  and  Rawalpindi. 

No  detailed  record  of  age   was    attempted  in    1901    except   Age  statis- 

in  towns,  military  stations  and  bazars  along  the   railway   line    tics,  vital 
■'  ,  ,        statistics, 

which  were   enumerated   on    the   standard   schedule  ;   in   the    infant  morta- 

District  adults  were  merely  distinguished  from  minors.    Out  of  ?''y»  ^."^ 

^  .  inhrmities. 

a  total   population   of  60,658,  which  represent  the  principal 

indigenous  tribes  of  the   District,  there   were  32,507  males, 

including     19,479    adult    males,    and    28,151    females.     The 

number  of  male   children   under  12  years  of  age  was   13,028. 

Out  of  the  4,551  persons,  representing  the  population  of  Sibi 

town,  1,323  were  under  20  years,  2,356  between  20 — 40  years 

and  748  between  40 — 60  years. 

Vital    statistics    were    not    recorded   in    the    District.     A 

summary  enquiry  regarding  the  birth    and  death  rate   during 

the    year  1905   was  made    by    the  tahsil  officials  by  selecting 


40 


CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 


Population. 


Comparative 
number  of 
sexes,  and 
civil  condi- 
tion. 


Marriage 
customs. 


a  few  villages  in  each  tahsil,  the  result  obtained  indicating 
4'7  per  cent,  of  births  and  4*5  of  deaths  on  the  total  popula- 
tion of  those  villages  during  the  preceding  12  months.  The 
birth  rate  for  boys  was  2'6  and  for  girls  2  ;  while  the  death 
rate  for  male  children  was  i'5,  of  female  children  i,  of  adult 
males  i*i  and  adult  females  '88.  According  to  these  en- 
quiries the  highest  birth  rate  was  7*2  in  Kohlu  and  the  lowest 
3'7  in  Sibi,  while  the  highest  death  rate  was  9  8  in  Nasirdbdd 
and  the  lowest  2'6in  Sibi.  Longevity  among  the  indigenous 
population,  more  especially  in  the  highlands  and  in  dry  crop 
areas,  appears  to  be  infrequent  owing  to  constant  exposure 
to  the  severity  of  the  climate  and  to  bad  nutrition. 

A  sumrnary  enquiry  made  by  the  tahsil  officials  in  certain 
selected  villages  shows  that  in  a  population  of  11,605  the 
total  number  of  afflicted  persons  was  log  or  '94  per  cent. 
of  which  74  were  males  and  35  females. 

The  disproportion  of  women  to  men  in  the  stations  and 
bazars  was  very  great,  there  being  only  326  women  to  every 
thousand  men.  In  the  Sibi  town,  where  the  population 
is  more  settled,  there  were  437  women  to  every  tliousand 
men. 

Among  the  rural  population  there  were  28,151  women  and 
32,507  men  or  866  women  to  every  thousand  men.  Among 
the  Baloch,  who  form  the  major  portion  of  the  population, 
the  proportion  of  females  to  males  was  854  to  1,000.  The 
Afghans  had  907,  the  Brdhuis  813,  the  Jats  849  females  to 
1,000  males,  while  the  proportion  among  the  Kh^trdns  and 
Saiads  was  846  and  8-9  respectively.  No  record  was 
made  of  the  civil  conditions  of  the  indigenous  population. 

Among  the  indigenous  classes  every  man  marries  as  soon 
as  he  possibly  can,  but  the  payment  of  bride  price  (walwar 
or  lab)  compels  many  to  wait  till  middle  age.  This  is 
specially  the  case  with  the  poorer  nomadic  classes  among 
the  Kdkars.  Marriage  al-nost  invariabl}-  takes  place  after 
puberty,  one  of  the  most  important  reasons  being  the  heavy 
dome'itic  duties  which  devolve  on  a  wife  and  which  can  only 
b  performed  by  a  full  grown  woman.  The  situation  is  thus 
expressed  by  one  of  the  leading  zaminddrs  of  Nasirdbdd  : 
"  It  does  not  pay  us  to  bring  home  a  child-wife,  feed  and 
clothe  her.  We  only  marry  a  woman  when  she  is  fit  to  be  a 
wife,  to  do  all  household  work  and  help  us  m  our  avocations." 


MARRIAGE  CEREMONIES.  41 

So  far  as  can  be  ascertained  polygamy  is  rare,  except  Population 
amongr  the  well-to-do,  though  the  people  have  no  objection 
to  a  plurality  of  wives  up  to  the  limit  of  four  prescribed  by 
MuhammaJan  law.  The  summary  enquiry  instituted  by  the 
tahsil  officials,  to  which  a  reference  has  already  been  made, 
elicited  that  in  a  population  of  11,605,  the  number  of 
married  malas  was  2,716  or  23*4  per  cent.,  of  whom  159  or 
5 "8  per  cent.,  only  had  more  than  one  wife.  The  wealthy, 
who  are  the  only  class  with  the  means  to  pay  waltoar  more 
than  once,  take  more  wives  than  one,  either  for  pleasure, 
or,  sometimes  for  the  sake  of  offspring-.  Pol)  gamy  is 
occasionally  forced  on  the  poor  among  the  Afi,^hdns  by  the 
custom  which  requires  that  one  of  the  surviving  brothers  or 
cousins  must  marry  a  widow.  Cohabitation  with  concu- 
bines [kaniz)  is  permitted  by  custom. 

Among   the    Baloch    and    Jats,    marriage    with    the    near 

relations    is   general,    as    the    system    of    exchange    largely 

prevails,  and  it  is  also   preferred   among  most   other   tribes 

because  exchanges  can  be  easily  arranged,  the  bride  price  is 

less,  the  parties  are  already   mutually  acquainted,   and   iheir 

tribal  relations  are  strengthened  by  the  marriage  tie. 

Among  the   well-to-do  the  bridegroom   is   generally   about   Marriage 

J  ^1      f      J     r  1  •     •       •  1-1  ^L      ceremonies, 

twenty  and  the  bnde  lour  years  his  junior,  whilst  among  the 

poorer  classes  both  the  bridegroom  and  the  bride  are  gene- 
rally older.  In  rare  cases  infant  betrothals  take  place,  and 
then  only  among  very  near  relations.  Ordinarily  a  man  has 
nothing  to  say  in  the  selection  of  his  bride,  but  when  his 
parents  wish  him  to  marry  they  look  for  a  suitable  girl  and 
the  first  step  taken  is  to  send  a  female  relation  to  see  her 
and  to  satisfy  herself  about  her  personal  appearance  and 
other  qualifications.  Among  the  very  poor  or  when  marriage 
takes  place  among  the  well-to-do  at  an  advanced  age,  the 
man  makes  his  own  choice. 

Among  the  Baloch  lab  or  bride  price  is   only    paid   when    a   Baloch 

bride    belongs   to   a   separate   clan   or  tribe.     Among   endo-   marnagfe 
^  ^  -.,.,,       customs, 

gamous  groups  there  are  three    systems  of  marriage  :  (1)  the 

nang  when  no  stipulations  are    made  :   (ii)   the   sa  badal  also 

known  as  ^r?7/i9  TOfl// or  system  of  exchange    of  girls   between 

families,    anJ    the   pdt  when    the    condition   is   made   that  a 

daugher  born  of  the  marriage  will  be  given  to  a  relation  of 

the  bride's  parents.     Among  the  Golas  the  lab  is  alway  paid, 


42  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population,  the  amount  varying  from  Rs.  loo  to  Rs.  i,ooo  according  to 
the  position  of  the  parties.  The  ceremony  oi  shir  ivaia  which 
renders  the  betrothal  {sdiig)  binding  is  thus  performed. 
When  thd  relations  on  both  sides  are  assembled,  the  bride's 
father  brings  a  cup  of  milk  into  which  the  bridegroom's  father 
drops  a  few  rupees.  The  cup  is  then  handed  round  and  the 
milk  is  sipped  by  all.  The  bridegroom's  father  presents  the 
bride  with  a  suihan  (pair  of  trousers),  ghaga  (shift),  sari 
(wrapper) ;  a  pair  of  shoes,  a  silver  ring  and  ear-rings 
being  sometimes  added.  The  marriage  day  [tith)  is  then 
fixed,  the  usual  time  being  immediately  after  the  rabi  or 
kharif  harvests,  but  the  titk  must  not  fall  in  the  month  of 
Muharram,  or  on  the  Bdra  lamfcit.  When  the  date  has  been 
finally  arranged,  the  bridegroom's  father  sends  a  seer  of 
flour,  half  a  seer  oi  gur,  and  the  same  amount  of  ghi  to  the 
bride's  father,  this  ceremony  being  known  as  wanwd/i,  and 
gives  a  feast  to  his  friends  and  relatives,  from  whom  contri- 
butions in  money  ytnana  tnokh)  are  received.  \  few  days 
before  the  marriage,  a  coloured  thread  (gdua)  is  tied  to  the 
wrist  of  the  bridegroom  {ghot)  and  he  is  given  a  sword  to  pro- 
tect himself  from  evil  spirits.  On  the  same  day  the  women 
of  the  family  grind  5  or  7  seers  of  corn  (always  an  odd 
number),  which  is  kept  over  for  the  use  of  the  couple  after 
marriage.  This  is  called  biiki.  The  customs  attending  the 
ceremonies  of  tiih,  gdna  and  the  girding  on  of  the  sword  are 
also  observed  by  the  Hindus  of  the  Piuijab,  from  whom  they 
have  probably  been  borrowed. 

On  the  marriage  day  the  wedding  procession,  accom- 
panied by  the  females  of  the  bridegroom's  party,  moves  off 
to  the  bride's  house,  where  a  separate  shed  [chhapar)  has 
been  erected,  in  front  of  which  there  is  a  small  channel 
filled  with  milk  [ivahi  khir).  The  bride  is  placed  in  this 
shed,  and  at  night  after  the  guests  have  feasted,  the  nikdh 
is  read  by  the  inulld.  After  this  the  bridegroom  is  conduct- 
ed to  the  shed  and  the  heads  of  the  bride  and  bridegroom 
are  placed  together  seven  times  [sar  nicl).  Horse  racing, 
shooting  at  a  mark  and  dancing  are  the  chief  amusements  at 
weddings,  and  food  is  also  provided  for  the  guests  by  the 
bridegroom.  Clothes,  ornaments,  and  furniture  are  given 
to  the  bride  by  the  parents  on  both  sides,  and  she  also 
receives  her  haq-i-niahr  or   dower,  which  ordinarily  consists 


MARRIAGE  CUSTOMS.  43 

of  a  cow,  buffalo  or  camel  or  a  few  rupees.  Population. 

In  cases  of  the  re-marriag'e  of  widows  no  ceremonies  are 
observed  except  the  nikdh.  On  the  death  of  her  husband, 
the  woman  can  return  to  her  parents  and  for  purposes  of 
re-marriage  is  at  their  disposal,  except  in  cases  in  which 
bride  price  {lab)  has  been  paid  when  she  is  at  the  disposal  of 
the  heirs  of  her  deceased  husband. 

Among    the    Afghdn    tribes    of   the    District  the   amount    Marriage 

and    payment    of    walwar    (bride    price)    is    the    most    im-   t;ustoms 

r  ,1  ■■    1  ,1        among  the 

portant    factor  in    all    matrnnonial    arrangements,   but    the   Afghdns. 

system  of  exchange  of  girls,  which  is  known  assarat,  sarbada 
and  ^«;^owrt:/^  also  prevails.  The  Pathdn  customs  and  cere- 
monies differ  from  those  of  the  Baloch  in  many  essentials 
and  there  are  also  many  variations  among  the  different  tribes 
themselves,  but  the  following  account  of  the  Kdkar  marriage 
ceremonies  may  be  taken  as  fairly  representative  : —  The  girl 
having  been  approved,  the  father  of  the  bridegroom  with 
some  of  his  relatives  {marakka)  goes  to  the  girl's  father  and, 
if  the  preliminary  overtures  are  well  received,  the  amount  of 
•walwar  \s  discussed  and  also  the  presents,  wl.ich  the  father  is 
willing  to  give  to  his  daughter.  If  the  father  of  the  bride 
consents  tj  the  match,  the  walwar  is  fixed,  and  the  girl's 
mother  or  grand-mother  thereupon  presents  the  bridegroom's 
father  with  a  needle  in  the  eye  of  which  has  been  inserted  a 
silk  thread.  Guns  are  now  fired,  sheep  are  killed  and  a  feast 
is  given  to  the  bridegroom's  party.  This  is  the  preliminary 
step  in  the  betrothal  and  is  known  as  the  hokra.  This  cere- 
mony of  liokra  IS  binding.  After  it  has  taken  place,  it  is 
considered  a  want  of  good  breeding  on  the  man's  part  to 
retreat  without  a  plausible  excuse,  and  any  one  who  does  so 
is  regarded  with  contempt.  In  the  case  of  the  woman  the 
hokra  is  considered  binding  except  under  special  circum- 
stances, such  as  adultery  on  her  part  or  strong  suspicion 
of  it. 

After  about  a  month  a  portion  of  the  walwar  is  paid,  and  a 
party  of  the  bridegroom's  relations  goes  to  the  bride's 
father,  who  presents  them  with  a  silk  kerchief,  the  colour  of 
which  is  generally  green,  and  which  has  silk  rosettes  or 
silver  ornaments  on  the  four  corners.  This  is  the  kosda 
or  betrothal,  and  at  this  time  there  are  again  general  rejoic- 
ings, dancing,  etc. 


44 


CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 


Population. 


Bride  price. 


The  Zar- 

kuns. 


When  the  ivalwnr  has  been  fully  paid,  a  date  is  fixed  for 
the  marriage  {)iikcih),  which  is  performed  in  accordance  with 
Muhammadan  rites  at  the  bride's  house.  Besides  the 
walivar,  the  bridegroom  has  to  supply  provisions  to  the 
father  of  the  girl  for  the  entertainment  of  the  wedding 
guests.  The  father  of  the  bride  also  gives  presents  which 
generally  consist  of  a  suit  of  clothes  for  the  bridegroom, 
one  or  more  dresses,  a  few  silver  ornaments  and  articles  of 
household  furniiure  for  the  bride. 

In  cases  of  widow  re-marriage  no  ceremonies,  except  the 
nikdh,  are  observed.  On  the  death  of  her  husband  the 
widow  is  considereJ  to  belong  to  his  relatives,  and  if  one  of 
them  does  not  marry  her,  she  is  usually  married  in  the 
tribe  on  the  payment  oiioalwar,  which  is  about  half  of  that 
paid  for  a  virgin. 

In  the  pre-British  days  the  bride  price  paid  by  the  Kdkars 
was  about  Rs.  40,  and  was  generally  paid  in  kind.  It  now 
varies  from  Rs.  200  to  Rs.  400  for  a  virgin  and  about  half 
the  amount  for  a  widow,  and  is  paid  partly  in  cash  and  partly 
in  kind. 

Among  the  Makhidni  (Tor  Tarins)  of  Shdhrig,  the  walwar 
varies  from  Rs.  200  to  Rs.  600  for  a  virgin,  that  for  a  widow 
being  about  half.  The  haq-i-mahr  varies  from  Rs.  12  to 
Rs.  38.  The  Makhidnis  have  a  curious  custom  which  also 
prevails  among  other  Pathdns  of  the  Shdhrig  tahsil,  in 
Pishin  and  in  many  parts  of  Chdgai,  and  in  accordance  with 
which  the  husband  presents  his  wife  with  a  share  of  the  merit 
{sawdb)  which  he  hopes  to  obtain  after  death  by  giving  alms 
from  his  hearih  {nnghdrai)  in  his  life  time.  The  bhare  varies 
from  one-sixth  to  one-third,  and  the  gift  saves  the  husband 
from  the  onus  of  giving  any  dower  upon  earth. 

The  walwar  paid  by  the  Wan^chis  (Spin  Tarins)  varies 
from  Rs.  100  to  Rs.  250.  The  betrothal  is  followed  by  the 
ceremony  of  psha  kkakhawal,  when  the  bridegroom  is 
presented  with  a  pair  of  red  trousers,  or  a  turban,  and  is 
afterwards  p-rmiited  to  visit  the  bride's  family,  though  he 
may  not  meet  the  bride.  The  usual  rate  of  haq-i-mahr 
is  Rs.  12/8. 

The  price  of  a  bride  among  the  Zarkiins  of  Kohlu  varies  from 
Rs.  too  to  Rs,  500,  but  it  has  been  known  to  be  as  much  as 
Rs.  1,000.     A  widow  is  valued  at  half  the   amount  and  the 


J  ATS.  45 

price  of  a   divorced  woman  is  still   lower.     The  system    of  Population, 
exchang-e  of  girls  prevails  among  the  Zarkuns  and  exchanges 
are  also  permitted  between  virgins  and  widows. 

The  Panri  Afghdus  of  Sibi  consider  it  derogatory  to  marry  The  Panris. 
their  girls  to  men  of  other  tribes,  though  they  take  their 
brides  from  neighbouring  clans.  The  Bdruzais  marry  their 
girls  in  their  ovvn  clan  and  in  such  cases  do  not  demand 
walwar.  Among  the  Panris  the  ordinary  rate  of  walwar 
varies  from  Rs.  200  to  Rs.  500.  The  haq-i-niahr  is  Rs.  12 
and  the  husband  aNo  present-^  his  wife  with  a  fourth  share 
of  the  saimb,  to  which  a  reference  has  already  been    made. 

The  Sheikhs  claim  to  be  Saiads,  but  now  form  part  of  the  Saiads. 
Makhiani  tribe  and  follow  their  customs.  With  the  excep- 
tion of  the  Bukndri  Saiads,  who  do  not  give  their  daughters 
outsiJe  their  oun  section,  all  other  Saiads  inter-marry  with 
the  tribe  with  whom  they  live.  The  ordinary  walwar  a^vaong 
themselves  varies  from  Rs.  200  to  Rs.  300,  but  the  tribes- 
men are  often  willing  to  pay  double  the  price  for  the  honour 
of  marrying  into  a  Saiad  family. 

The  Jats  of  Sibi  nainly  follow  the  marriage  custom  of  the  Jats. 
Panri  Afghans  with  wtiom  they  have  been  living  for  gene- 
rations. When  inter-marrying  among  themselves  the  leading 
families  of  the  Jats  do  not  demand  or  pay  walwar,  but  in 
other  cases  the  rate  v.iries  from  Rs.  200  to  Rs.  500.  In 
addition  to  the  haq-i-mahr  the  bridegroom  pays  a  small  sum, 
generally  Rs.  7,  as  shir  bahli  lit.  suckling)  to  the  bride's 
mother.  This  custom  is  also  observed  by  ihe  Baloch  of  the 
Chdgai  District.  After  the  death  of  her  husband,  the  widow 
returns  to  her  parents  and  is  at  their  diNposal  as  regards 
re-marriage. 

The  Jats  of  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil  follow  the  marriage 
customs  of  the  Baloch,  but  pay  walwar  which  varies  from 
Rs.  100  to  Rs.  400.  After  the  sarmel  or  the  placing  of  the 
heads  together,  a  small  lump  of  cotton  is  placed  alternately 
on  the  head  ot  the  bride  and  the  bridegroom  and  each  has 
to  pick  it.  This  is  called  ihe  giilchin.  Then  the  women  of 
the  family  give  a  pinch  of  salt  to  the  bridegroom  who 
places  it  in  the  bride's  hands,  this  part  of  the  ceremony  being 
known  as  sihra.  A  sheet  with  a  sword  or  knife  tied  in  each 
corner  is  then  held  over  the  bridegroom  who  is  conducted  to 
a  kandi  tree  and  is  called  upon  to  lop  a  branch  with  a  single 


46  CHAPTER  T— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population,    stroke  of  a  sword.     This  is  done  to   prove   liis  strength   and 
manhood. 

The  code  of  morality  among  the  Jat  camel  breeders  and 
artisans  is  loose,  and  it  is  a  common  saying  that  a  headman 
who  gives  his  camels  to  a  Jat  to  graze  thereby  also  acquires 
a  claim  upon  the  affections  of  the  jat's  wife.  The  rate  of 
7valwar  var\es  from  Rs.  5  to  Rs.  100  according  to  tlie  position 
of  the  parties. 
Divorce.  Divorce  is  rare  among  the  Baloch  as  the  usual  punishment 

for  infidelity  is  death  and  it  is  considered  a  disgrace  to 
put  away  a  wife  for  other  reasons  ;  it  is  also  infrequent 
among  the  Panris  and  the  better  classes  of  Jat  zaminddrs. 
Among  others  the  usual  reasons  for  divorce  are  the  disagree- 
able appearance  or  temper  of  the  woman  and  immorality 
proved  or  suspected.  The  usual  method  of  divorce  is  the 
throwing  of  three  stones  or  clods  of  earth  into  the  lap  of  the 
woman  in  the  presence  of  two  witnesses.  The  divorced 
woman  hasthe  status  of  a  widow  and  can  re-marry  in  her  tribe, 
but  if  she  is  divorced  for  misconduct,  tribal  custom  does  not 
permit  her  to  marry  her  seducer.  Amongst  the  Zarkiins,  a 
woman  can  obtain  a  divorce  if  lier  husband  is  proved  to  be 
impotent.  To  effect  this,  pressure  is  brought  to  bear  on  the 
husband  by  her  parents  through  the  tribal  headmen.  If  a 
Wandchi  woman  is  divorced  at  her  own  request,  the  husband 
is  entitled  to  recover  about  half  of  the  iihihiMr  paid  by  him. 
Among  the  Tarins,  Kdkars  and  the  Jats  of  Sibi,  if  a  vi'oman 
is  divorced  for  her  own  fault,  the  husband  claims  compensa- 
tion {khnlla)  from  the  man  who  marries  the  divorced  woman. 
The  amount  is  not  more  than  one-third  of  the  7vakvar. 
Penalties  Before  the  British  occupation,  death    vvas   the   punishment 

for  adultery,  ^j:  ^  faithless  wife  caught  fiagrante  delicto.  This  still  holds 
good  among  the  majority  of  the  hill  Baloch,  but  with  the 
Pathdns  and  also  with  the  Jamdli,  Umrdni  and  Khosa  Baloch 
of  the  Nasiribjid  tahsil,  the  injured  husband  is  generally 
ready  to  salve  his  honour  with  compensation  in  girls,  money, 
etc.,  the  amount  payable  varying  in  different  tribes.  No 
compensation  is  payable  if  both  the  seducer  and  the  woman 
are  killed.  If  both  escape,  the  woman  is  divorced,  and 
among  the  Makhidni  and  Wan^chi  Tarins,  and  Sanatia 
Kdkars,  she  can  marry  her  seducer  when  the  compensa 
tion  has  been  paid.     Among  most  tribes  there  is  no  fixed  rate. 


STATUS  OF  WOMEN.  47 

the  ci  nipensation  {itck),  which  generally   consists   of  one  or   Population. 

more  girls  and  about  Rs.  200  in  cash,   being  determined  on 

the  merits  of  each  case. 

The    position    of  women  among  the  Afghans  of  the    high-   The  status 

lands    and  among    poorer    classes  of  other  parts  of  the  Dis-   of  woman 
.      .  .  ,  ,     .  XT  ^^^  rights 

tnct  IS  one  or  extreme   degradation.     No  sooner  is  a  girl    fit   to  property. 

for  work  than  her  parents  send  her  to  tend  the  cattle,  besides 
making  her  take  part  in  all  the  ordinary  household  duties. 
Owing  to  the  system  of  ivalwnr  in  vogue,  when  she  reaches 
nubile  age,  she  is,  for  all  practical  purposes,  put  up  for  sale 
to  the  highest  bidder.  Her  father  discourses  on  her  merits 
as  a  beauty  or  as  a  housekeeper  in  the  public  meeting  places, 
and  invites  offers  from  those  who  are  in  want  of  a  wife. 
Even  the  more  wealthy  and  more  respectable  Afghdns  are 
not  above  this  system  of  thus  lauding  the  human  wares 
which  they  have  for  sale.  A  wife  must  not  only  carry  water, 
prepare  food  and  attend  to  all  ordinary  duties,  but  she  must 
take  the  flocks  out  to  graze,  groom  her  husband's  horse  and 
assist  in  cultivation.  She  has  no  rights  in  property,  and, 
if  divorced,  she  can,  as  a  rule,  only  carry  away  with  her  the 
clothes  she  -is  wearing.  As  a  widow,  she  is  only  entitled  to 
a  subsistence  allowance  from  her  late  husband's  estate.  In 
the  household  of  a  deceased  Afghdn,  widows  and  girls  are 
merely  regarded  as  assets  in  the  division  of  his  properly, 
and  though  the  system  is  discouraged  by  Political  officers, 
it  is  no  uncommon  thing  to  find  that  a  son  is  willing  to  hand 
over  his  mother  to  an  applicant  for  her  hand  on  the  receipt 
of  the  stipulated  ivaiivar. 

In  former  days  a  brother,  who  did  not  wish  to  marry  his 
brother's  widow  himself,  could  dispose  of  her  in  marriage  to 
any  one  he  chose  and  appropriate  the  ivakvar,  but  an  appre- 
ciable change  has  occurred  in  the  position  of  such  widows, 
since  an  important  decision  was  given  by  Mr.  H.  S.  Barnes, 
then  Agent  to  the  Governor-General,  in  November  1892  in 
the  case  of  Lukmdn,  Kdkar,  versus  the  Crown  :  "As  regards 
a  widow's  power  of  choosing  a  husband,"  Mr.  Barnes 
said,  *'  Muhammadan  Law  must  not  be  overridden  by  local 
inhuman  and  ignorant  custom  and  in  all  disputes  regarding 
widow  re-marriage  brought  before  the  Courts  in  British 
Baluchistdn  or  the  Agency  territories,  the  courts  of  law 
should  follow  the    provision  of   Muhammadan    law,  in  so  far 


48 


CHA PTER  I—DESCRIPTI VE. 


Population,    ^s  that  law   gives   to  widows    full  liberty    and  discretion    to 
marry  whom  they  please  ;    and  no  case  of  the  kmd  should  be 
commitied  to  -AJirga  for  settlement  without  a  clear  direciion 
that,  on  this  point  of  the    widow's  freedom  of  choice,  no  cur- 
tailment   whatever    will    be    permitted    of    the    liberty    and 
discretion  which    Muhammadan   law  allows  her.     The  only 
point  in  which  any  concession  to   local    tribal    custrm    can 
be   permitted,    is  that    which  relates  to  the   paym«rnt    which 
should  be  made   by  the  new    husband    to   the  late  husband's 
family.       *****       j^,  order  to  put  a  stop  to  the 
feuds  which  might  otherwise  arise  from  allowing  widows  to 
marry  whom  they  please,  it  is  admissible   for  courts  to  settle 
the  sum  of  money  which  should  be  paid  to  the  family  of  the 
widow's  late   husband   by   the   man   she  proposes  to  marry. 
This  is  the    point  in  the   settlement   of  these  cases,   which 
may  usefully  be  made  over    to  a  jirga  for  decision."     This 
decision  was  re-affirmed  by  Sir  James  Browne  in  June    1895, 
in  the  case  of  Musammit  Miryam,   Yisinzai,  when  an  order 
of  the    Political   Agent,   Quetta,   debarring  the  widow  from 
marrying  any    member   of    the    Karozai,     Sulaimdnzai    and 
Bdrezai  sections  was  quashed,  and  the  woman  was  permitted 
to  marry  accordmg  to  her  own  choice,   subject  to  the   pay- 
ment of  the  Widwar. 

Among  the  Baioch  and  the  wealthier  classes  of  Jats  the 
position  of  the  woman  ij»  somewhat  better. 

Except  among  the  Saiads  and  Pan^zai  and  Sdrangzai 
Kdkars  who  follow  the  Muhammadan  Law  in  such  cases, 
the  women  are  allowed  no  share  in  inheritance,  i^mong  the 
Makhidni  an  exception  is  made  in  the  case  of  a  widow  it  her 
late  husband  has  left  no  near  male  relations.  Inheritance 
among  males  is  governed  by  trib^.1  custom,  but  is  based  on 
the  general  principles  of  the  sliariat. 

Language, at  the  census  of  igoi.was  recordedin  the  old  Thai 
Chotidli  District  only  in  the  case  of  8,471  persons,  who  were 
censused  on  the  standard  schedule.*  Of  tnese  only  1,561  spoke 
the  vernaculars  of  Baluchistdn  ;  Sindi  was  spoken  by  1,450 
per-ons,  Punjabi  by  3,724  and  Urdu  hy  1,261.  The  number  of 
persons  speaking  European  languages  was  95,  and  of  those 
speaking  Persian  176.  The  language  of  the  courts  is  Urdu,  and 


Inheritance. 


Language. 


Census  of  India,  igoi,  Vol.  V'-A,  Table  X. 


PASHTiy.  49 

modified  form  of  it,  orii^inally  introduced    in   the    District   by    Popuf-atiov 
officials  who  came  in   the  early  days   of  the    British   occupa- 
tion from  the  D^rajat,  is  making-  way  among   the  indigenous 
popiil  ition  and  especially  in  the  villages  round  Sibi. 

The  principal  dialects  spoken  by  the  indigenous  popula- 
tion are  Baluchi,  Pashtu,  Br^hui,  Jatki  and  Sindi.  The 
medium  of  correspondence,  except  in  the  case  of  official 
documents,  is  Persian  among  Muhammad  ins  and  Smdi 
among  the  localised  Hmdus. 

Baluchi  is  technically  described  as  belonging  to  the  Baluchi. 
Iranian  Branch  of  the  Aryan  sub-family  of  the  Indo-Euro- 
pem  family.  The  form  used  by  the  tribes  in  the  District 
is  known  as  tlie  Eastern  dialect  as  opposed  to  the  west- 
ern or  Makrdni  dialect,  and  the  words  in  use  for  common 
objects  and  acts  are  nearly  all  pure  Baluchi,  the  remainder 
of  the  language  being  borrowed  from  Persian,  Si.idi  and 
Punjabi. 

Pashtu  is  spoken  by  the  Afghans  in  the  Shjilirig  and  Pashtu. 
Kohlu  tahsils,  also  in  Sdngdn.  The  Khajaks  of  Sibi  speak 
Pashtu  which  has  a  mixture  of  Sindi  words  and  the  Panri 
Afghjins  speak  Sindi  in  their  homes.  The  Z  irkuns  of  Ori- 
Ani  speak  Khetrjlni.  The  Makhidni  and  Wan^chi  Tari'ns  of 
Shdhrig  use  a  modified  form  of  Pashtu  which  is  known  as 
the  Chhalgari  or  larinjlo.  This  dialect  differs  from  the 
ordinary  Pashtu  of  the  Quetta  District  and  according  to  the 
tradition  the  progenitor  of  the  Wan^chis  quarrelled  with  his 
father  who  cursed  him  saying  ^^ -warsa^  pa  shabe  de  sok  ma 
pohesha;''  that  is  "begone,  let  no  one  understand  thy 
language."  Among  the  peculiar  terms  of  Tarindo  may  be 
included  the  following  : — 


English. 

Pashtu. 

Tarin.-lo. 

Father 

pUir     

piar. 

Wind 

... 

b/id      , 

••.     wdgu. 

Sun     ... 

... 

nniar 

...     mer. 

Bullock 

... 

ghwae 

...     It^zhda. 

Camel 

iish      

...     wush. 

Dog 

... 

spai 

...     spa. 

Milk 

shodae 

...     shwa. 

Butter  milk  ... 

sharambae    ... 

...     shamzi. 

Clarified  butter 

{Gh{). 

ghuri 

runr.'ih. 

Turban 

... 

pagrai 

...     malastanr 

so 


CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 


Population. 
Jatki. 


Races,  tribes 
dnd  castes. 


Jatki  or  Sindi  is  the  dialect  of  the  Jats  of  the  plains,  who 
represent  about  25  per  cent,  of  the  total  rural  population  of 
the  District. 

The  following  table  '••'  shows  the  distribution  by  races  and 
tribes  of  the  indigenous  inhabitants  of  the  administered 
portion  of  the  District  : — 


Baloch 


Afghdns 


Brahui 


Jat 


f  Bugti    ... 
Buledi 
Dombki 
Magassi 

\  Marri   ... 

I  Rind     ... 

I  U  in  rani 

(^Others 


fKakar  ... 
I  Panri    or 
..\  Tarin   ... 
I  Zarkun 
(.  Others 


f  Bangalzai 

ILAngav 
Zeliri    ... 
Lahri    ... 
\  Mengal 
Pindrani 
Raisani 
Sliahwani 
(^Others 


f  Saiad  ... 
Khetran 
Abra  ... 
Jat  ... 
Bhangar 
Katpar 
Lori  ... 
Sheikh 

L  Others 


Total 


Panni 


Total 


Total 


Total 


256 

5.134 
1,078 
61.3 
875 
9.945 
i.oqS 


19.150 

6,820 
3.656 
6,468 

751 

424 

18,1 19 

1,261 
383 
'73 
201 
824 
465 
168 
118 
»39 

3,732 


These  figures  do  not  include  the  population  of  the  Marri, 
Bugti,  Dombki,  Kaheri  and  Umr^ni  country  which  in  1901 
was  as  follows  : — 


Marri    country 

Bugti  country       

Dombki,  Kaheri  and  Umr/ini  country 


20,391 
18,528 
19,542 


•  Excludes  7  Dehwars. 


TRIBAL  CONSTITUTION.  51 

It   vill  he  seen  that  the  Balocli  are  by  far  the  most  nuiner-   Population. 
ous  in  the  administered  area,  while  the  tribal  area  is  almost 
entirely  populated  by  that  race.     Afghdns    come    next  with 
26  percent.,  the  Jars  follow  with  25  per  cent.,  while  the  Sai- 
ads  and  Kh^trjins  contribute  2  and  i  per  cent,  respectively. 

A  Haloch  tribe  is  not  a  homogeneous  group,  but  has  Tribal 
attained  irs  growth  by  the  gradual  assimilation  ot  a  number  constitution, 
of  alien  elements,  the  process  being  admission  to  partici- 
pation in  common  blood  feuds,  then  admission  to  partici- 
pation in  the  tribal  land,  and  lastly  admission  to  kinship  with 
the  tribe.  At  the  head  of  the  tribe  is  the  chief  or  tiimanddr, 
with  whom  are  associated  the  nmkadmn  or  heads  of  clans  as 
a  council  of  war,  the  office  of  mukadam  being  hereditary.  At 
the  head  of  each  section  is  a  wadei'a,  whose  office,  like  that 
of  the  head  of  the  clan,  is  hereditary,  the  whole  section  com- 
bining to  place  the  pagri  on  his  head,  just  as  the  whole 
tribe  combines  in  nominating  a  new  chief.  With  the  wadera 
is  associated  the  miikadavi  of  the  section,  who  acts  as  the 
ivaderd's  executive  officer,  his  business  being  to  communicate 
the  wadera^s  orders  to  the  inotabars,  i.e.,  the  headmen  of 
sub-sections.  The  office  of  the  mukadam  of  a  section  is  not 
necessarily  hereditary,  a  man  of  judgment  or  ability  being 
often  selected.  Among  the  Marris  there  was  another  officer 
to  whom  special  duties  were  assigned  during  raiding  ex- 
peditions, namely,  rdlizan^  who  held  a  hereditary  office, 
accompanied  all  expeditions,  and  whose  duty  it  was  to  kill 
any  tribesman  who  fled  from  the  line  of  battle.  Besides 
an  extra  share  in  plunder,  his  principal  privilege  was 
that  he  incurred  no  liability  to  blood-feuds  or  payment  of 
compensation. 

An  Afghcln  tribe  differs  in  certain  respects  very  materially  Afghdn 
from  a  Baloch  tribe.  Theoretically,  it  is  constituted  from  a  "^^  ^' 
number  of  kindred  groups  of  agnates  ;  that  is  to  say, 
descent  is  through  the  father,  and  the  son  inherits  the  blood 
of  the  father.  The  groups  comprising  the  tribe  are  divided 
into  a  multiplicity  of  sub-divisions,  which  it  is  almost  impos- 
sible to  follow,  but,  for  practical  purposes,  four  are  in  common 
use,  the  kaiim  or  main  body,  the  khcl  or  s«/,  representing 
both  the  clan,  a  group  generally  occupying  a  common 
locality,  and  the  section,  a  group  whose  members  live  in 
close  proximity  to  one  another  and  probably  hold   common 


52  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population,  land,  and  lastly  the  kahol,  a  family  group  united  by  kinship. 
Affiliated  wiih  many  tribes  are  to  he  found  a  number  of  alien 
groups  known  as  mindun  or  ha7nsdyah.  In  such  cases  the 
test  of  kinship  does  not  apply,  and  such  groups,  families  or 
individuals  are  united  to  the  tribe  by  common  good  and  com- 
mon ill.  In  other  words,  common  blood-feud  is  the  underly- 
ing principle  uniting  a  tribe,  but  the  conception  merges  into 
the  fiction  of  common  blood,  i.e.,  connection  by  kinship. 

The  Afghans  are  not  organised  under  a  common  leader, 
as  is  the  case  with  Baloch  or  Brdhui  tribes,  to  whom  the 
tribal  officers,  such  as  7nukadams,  "wuderas,  etc.,  are  subordi- 
nate, but  their  democratic  spirit  chooses  a  leading  man  in 
each  minor  group,  Herediiy  is  always  an  important  factor 
among  the  Baloch,  but  with  Afghdns  there  is  frequent  chop- 
ping and  changing,  the  weak  giving  way  before  the  strong. 
Hence,  individuality  has  far  greater  scope  among  Afghfins 
than  among  other  races,  but  the  retention  of  influence  once 
acquired  frequently  depends  on  exterior  suppoit,  such  as 
that  of  the  Government  rather  than  that  of  the  tribesmen 
themselves. 

The    following    account    of   the    origin    of   the  Baloch    is 
given    by  Mr.   R.    Hughes-Buller  in  the  Census  Report    for 
190 1  : — 
The  orio-in  "  There  is  ample  evidence  to  show  that  tlie  nucleus  of  the 

of  the  Baloch    tribes  now  to    be  found  in  the  Indus  valley  were  ori- 

ginally settled  in  Makran  and  Persian  Baluchistan  to  the 
south  of  Kirmdn.  Take,  ior  instance,  their  names  :  the 
nucleus  of  the  Bugtis  traces  its  origin  to  Bug  in  Persian 
Baluchistdn  ;  the  Buledis  to  the  Buleda  valley  m  Makran, 
near  which  some  of  them  are  still  to  be  found  ;  ilie  Domkis, 
otherwise  written  Dombki,  from  the  river  Dombak  in  Per- 
sian Baluchisttin  ;  the  Ldshdri  from  Ldshar ;  the  Gishkduris 
from  the  Gishkdur,  i.e.,  the  Gish  stream,  which  drains  the 
Buleda  valley  ;  the  Kuldchis  from  Kuldnch,  also  situated  in 
Makrdn,  and  the  Magassis  from  Magas  in  Persian  Balu- 
chistan. Again,  there  is  to  be  found  a  strong  tribe  of  Rinds 
at  M.ind  in  Makrdn,  from  whom  the  Rinds  of  tiie  Kachhi 
plain  are  drawn.  Elphinstone  states  in  his  History  that 
the  Baloch  were  occupying  the  mountains  of  Makrdn 
at  the  time  of  the  first  Arab  invasion  in  664  A.D.,  and 
Ibn-haukal,  who  wrote  in  the  tenth  centur);   tells  us  that  the 


ORIGIX  OF  THE  BALOCH.  53 

Kocli  and  Baloch  inhabited   tlie   '  Irdn    Zanin,   bordering  on    Population. 
Hind  and  Sind.'     Like  Kochi  or    Kochai  in    Pashto  and   old 
Persian,     the     word    Baloch    simply    means    'nomads'    or 
*  wanderers.' 

"  It  is  previous  to  their  settlement  in  Persian  Baluchistan 
and  MaUrdn  that  the  origin  of  the  Baloch  is  buried  in 
obscurity,  and  that  authorities  differ,  some  holding  the 
story  of  their  Syrian  origin  to  be  true,  and  others  alleging 
them  to  be  of  Turkoman  stock.  Sir  Henry  Green,  who  was 
the  Political  Superintendent  of  the  Upper  Sind  Frontier, 
found  tribes  bearing  the  same  names  as  those  now  common 
among  the  Baloch  of  the  Indus  valley  in  the  course  of  his 
travels  in  Syria.  On  the  other  hand,  Muhailab,  the  Arab 
invader,  encountered  eighteen  Turki  horsemen  riding  crop- 
tailed  horses  in  664  A.D.  at  Kaikdn,  which  lies  somewhere 
between  K<^j  in  Makrdn  and  Khozddr,  a  fact  which  would 
indicate  that  the  theory  of  the  Central  Asian  origin  of  the 
Baloch  is  not  witliout  foundation  in  fact.  Wlien  we  consider 
the  process  of  affiliation  which  has  gone  on,  or  is  going  on, 
among  the  Baloch  of  the  present  day,  it  would  not  be  sur- 
prising if  enquiry  were  to  show  that  they  consisted  both  of 
Arab  and  Turanian  stock, 

"The  authenticity  of  tlie  tradition  among  the  Baloch  of 
the  Indus  valley,  which  centres  round  Jaldl  Khan,  generally 
called  Jalal  Han,  from  whom  sprang  tour  sons — Rind,  Hot, 
Ldshdri,  Kordi,  and  a  daughter,  Mdi  Jato — may  well  be 
doubted,  especially  as  the  Hots  of  Makrdn  are  universally 
credited  with  being  the  aboriginal  inhabitants  of  the  country 
and  themselves  claim  to  be  a  distinct  race  from  the  Rinds 
and  from  the  various  Baloch  tribes  who  inhabit  the  country 
now.  It  is  possible  that  they  are  the  representatives  of  the 
Oreitdi  or  Horitdi,  who  were  met  with  by  Alexander  in  the 
course  of  his  progress  westward  through  Makrdn. 

•'The  great  influx  of  the  Baloch  from  the  westward  ap- 
pears to  have  taken  place  during  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth 
centuries,  as  by  the  sixteenth  century  there  is  authentic  evi- 
dence that  they  were  numerous  and  were  making  raids  and 
forays  in  all  directions." 

In  dealing  with  the  Baloch  tribes  of  the  District  it  will  be 
convenient  to  divide  them  into  two  groups,  namely,  these 
who    are    under    political   control  like    the    Marris,    Bugtis, 


54 


CHAPTER  I^DESCRIPTfVE. 


Population  Dombkis  and  Kah^ris,  and  those  who  reside  in  the  adminis- 
tered areas.  Of  the  former  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  are 
dealt  wiih  separately  in  Chapter  V^  and  only  a  brief  de- 
scription is  here  necessary.  The  Dombkis  and  Kaheris 
also  belong'  more  properly  to  Kachhi,  and  the  details  of  their 
origin  and  present  constitution  are  given  in  the  Gazetteer  of 
that  District. 
Marris.  In  1901  the  Marri  Baloch  in  the  whole  Province  numbered 

20i373  (males  11,465,  females  8,908),  the  number  of  adult 
males  being  6,898.  Of  this  total  19,161  were  in  the  Marri 
country,  and  the  rest  in  Kaldt  and  Las  Bela.  Ihe  tribe  is 
divided  into  three  main  divisions:  Ghazni  (8,122),  Bijarani 
(4,700)  and  Lohardni,  which  clan  also  includes  the  Shirdni, 
originally  Afghans  (6,369).  Their  tumanddr  or  chief  is 
Khcin  Bahddur  Nawdb  Khair  Bakhsh  Khdn,  who  belongs 
to  the  Bahawaldnzai  section  of  the  Ghazni  clan  and  lives  at 
Kahdn. 
Bugtis.  The  Bugti  Baloch  in  1901    numbered   15,416  (males  8,608, 

females  6.808),  the  number  of  adult  males  being  5,209.  Of 
this  number,  15,159  (males  8,480,  females  6,679)  were 
enumerated  in  the  Bugti  country.  The  tribe  is  divided  into 
seven  clans:  the  Durrag  Nothdni  (1,778),  Khalpar  (1,542), 
Masori  (2,928),  Mondrani  (510),  Pirozani  Nothani  (4,731), 
Raheja  (877)  and  Shambdni  (2,874).  The  tribal  head  qu  irter 
is  Dera  Bugti  and  the  present  chief,  who  belongs  to  the  Bib- 
rakzai  section  of  the  Raheja  clan,  is  Nawdb  Sir  Shahbaz 
Kbdn,  K.C.I. E. 
Dombki.  The   Dombki,   an   important   Baloch  tribe    who   occupy  a 

part  of  the  Lahri  nidbat  in  Kachhi,  numbered  4,905  persons 
(males  2,683,  females  2,222),  the  number  of  adult  males 
being  1,614.  Of  the  total  4,096  were  recorded  under  the 
Kalfit  State  and  809  in  the  Thal-Chotidli  (now  Sibi)  District. 
The  principal  clans  are  the  Baghddr  (521),  Bhand  (95), 
Brahm^ni  (549),  Diniri  (280),  Di'r  Khdni  (213),  Gabol  (51), 
Ghcizidri  (169),  Gishkauri  (426),  Khosa  (169),  Ldshdri  (35), 
Mohamddni  (314),  Mirozai  (149),  Shabkor  (386),  Singidni 
(125),  Sohridni  (255),  Tdldni  (349)  and  Wazirdni  (28).  The 
present  chief  of  the  tribe  is  Mir  Chakar  Khdn.  The  Dombkis 
are  popularly  supposed  to  have  some  of  the  best  blood  in 
their  veins.  In  the  days  of  General  John  Jacob,  the  tribe 
was  famous  for  its  marauding  propensities,   the    most    noted 


KAHERIS.  55 

section  in  this  respect  being  the  Jakninis.     A  few  of  these   Population. 
are  still  found  in  Nasirjibdd,  but  the  majority  have  migrated 
to  Sind.     Another  large  clan  of  the  tribe,  the    Gishkauris, 
were  chissified  as  a  separate  tribe  in  the  Punjab  at  the  last 
Census,  where  it  numbered  3,642  persons. 

The  Kahdris,  who  were  classed  as  Baloch  in  1901,  num-  Kaht^ris. 
bered  789:  males  421,  females  368.  They  speak  Sindi  and 
occupy  the  central  part  of  the  Lahri  nidbat.  The  tribe  is 
divided  into  four  clans  :  the  Buldni  (70),  the  Moraddni  (208), 
Qalandrdni  (179)  and  Tahirdni  (306).  The  following  descrip- 
tion is  given  by  Mr.  Hughes-Buller  in  the  Census  Report  of 
1901  : — 

"The  Kaheris  are  also  a  small  tribe,  but  it  is  doubtful 
whether  their  classification  as  Baloch  is  correct.  At  any 
rate  they  are  described  by  Mir  Masum  of  Bhakkar  in  Sind, 
who  wrote  a  history  about  1600  A.D.,  as  Saiads,  who 
acquired  their  name  of  Kaheri  from  the  Kaher  or  wild  medlar 
tree,  on  which  one  of  their  ancestors  mounted  as  if  it  were 
a  horse.  In  the  earlier  part  of  the  last  century  the  Kaheris 
were  driven  out  by  the  Bugtis  and  migrated  to  Bahdwdlpur, 
but  they  were  restored  to  their  former  settlements  by  Sir 
Charles  Napier  in  1845."  They  themselves  claim  descent 
from  Shdh  Umar  Katdl,  a  compatriot  of  the  Prophet,  and 
allege  that  they  migrated  with  the  Baloch  from  Makrdn 
under  their  leader  Nidmat  Shdh,  who  purchased  the  country 
from  the  Kurchdnis,  the  price  paid  being  a  camel  load 
(cA/jfl^a^)  of  money,  hence  the  name  Chhatar,  the  present 
headquarters  of  the  tribe.  Their  headman  (1905)  is  Muham- 
mad Baka  Khdn. 

The  total  number  of  the  Baloch  in  the  administered  areas    Baloch 
r  .1       T-v   .    •    .    ■  1  f  _    1         tribes  in  the 

of  the  District  m    1901    was    19,150:   males    10,330,    temales   administered 

8,820,  representing  28  per  cent,  of  the  total  rural  population,    area. 
The  important  tribes  are  the  Rind,  Bul6di  and  Umrdni.  Baloch. 

The  total  of  Rind  was  9,945  (males  5,384  and  females  The  Rind. 
4,561).  Of  these  1,138  were  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  and 
8,So6  in  the  Nasirabdd  nidbat  or  tahsil.  According  to 
local  tradition  the  Rinds  are  the  descendants  of  Rind,  one 
of  the  five  children  of  Jaldl  Khdn.  In  the  Census  Report 
of  1901  Mr.  Hughes-Buller  says  that  "it  is  with  the  Rinds 
that  all  the  Baloch  tribes  endeavour  to  trace  their  con- 
nection. They  are  looked  up  to  with  deference  by  their  neigh- 


56  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population,  hours  and  all  Balocli  traditions  centre  round  their  hero, 
Chakar,  Outsiders  like  tlie  l^rahuis  use  the  lerm  '  Rind  '  as 
a  generic  word,  equivalent  to  '  Baloch.'  After  being  driven 
from  Kirmin,  the  Rinds  lived  in  Kej  and  Kolwa,  where  they 
are  still  to  be  found.  Thence  they  migrated  into  Sind  and 
are  now  scattered  through  that  Province  and  the   Punjab." 

The  important  clans  in  the  District  are  the  Jamali,  Khosa 
and  Umrdni.  There  are  also  the  Chandias  (75,6)  who  live 
partly  in  Sibi  and  partly  in  Nasirabdd  ;  the  Guldm  Bolak 
(608)  in  Sibi  and  the  LAshdri  (796),  Leghari  (417)  and 
Mugheri  (269)  in  Nasirabcid. 

The  Jamali.  The  Jamdlis  in  ;9oi  numbered  3,088:  males  1,673,  females 
1,415,  the  number  of  adult  males  being  1,022.  They  are 
divided  into  two  main  branches  (takkars)  :  Jamdli  and  Ram- 
ddni.  The  principal  sections  of  the  jHm^llis  are  the  Taha- 
rdni  (also  known  as  Shdr  Khdnani),  Shahalidni,  Shahalzai, 
Mundrdni,  Sahri^ni  (originally  Khosa),  Dhoshli,  Zanwrdni 
(also  Khosa),  Waswdni,  Bhanddni,  Hdbar,  Tingidni,  Manjhi, 
Pavvars,  and  Rehanwdlas.  The  Babar  (whose  headman  is 
Muhammad  Siddiq)  and  Waswdni  (headman  Dad  Muham- 
mad) are  the  strongest  numerically.  The  Jamdlis  now  occupy 
that  part  of  the  Nasirdbid  tahsil  which  is  irrigated  by  the 
Begdri  Wdh  canal,  and  their  principal  villages  are  Rojhdn, 
Dur  Muhammad,  Rojhan  vvest,  Sameji  north  and  south, 
Chauki,  Shaho  and  Sobha.  Local  tradition  asserts  that  the 
Jamdiis  came  to  this  country  with  Mir  Chdkar.  The  chief 
or  wadera  is  Khdn  Bahadur  Lashkar  Khan,  Tahrdni,  and  the 
other  leading  men  are  Mirs  Khan  Muhammad,  Ramd^ni  ; 
Mehrdb  Kh^n,  Ramd^ni  ;  Sobddr  Khiin,  Tangidni  ;  and 
Muhammad  Khdn,  Shahibzai  (1905).  Before  the  opening  of 
the  Sind  canals  the  tribesmen  chiefly  led  a  nomadic  life, 
living  on  the  produce  of  their  flocks,  supplemented  by  pre- 
carious harvests  on  dry-crop  areas. 

Khosa.  In     1901     the    Khosas    in    the    District   numbered    3,338  : 

males  1,801,  females  J, 537,  the  number  of  adult' males  being 
1,057.  They  are  also  found  in  Sind  and  in  the  Punjab. 
They  claim  descent  from  Hot,  one  of  the  five  children  of  Mir 
Jaldl  Khdn,  and  according  to  local  tradition  the  founder  of 
the  tribe  was  one  Koh-sar,  whose  name  has  become  corrupt- 
ed into  Khosa.  They  are  also  sometimes  called  muhdnas 
(boatmen)   in   memory  of   a   certain   occasion  when   some   of 


UMRAnIS.  57 

the  clan  rowed  Mi'r  Chdkar  across  the  Indus.  The  name  of  Population. 
Khosa  would,  however,  appear  to  have  a  different  origin 
and  according-  to  Dames  "the  reputation  of  being  raiders 
and  robbers,  which  the  Balocli  have  always  borne  among 
their  neighbours,  has  e  irned  them  many  uncomplimentary 
epithets,  which  are  found  among  the  tribal  names,  for  exam- 
ple Khosa,  which  in  Sindi  means  a  robber."  * 

The  Khosas  are  divided  into  three  branches  :  Baleldni, 
Khilolani  and  Umrani,  the  majority  of  those  in  Nasirdbdd 
belonging  to  the  Khilolani  branch,  which  is  again  divided 
into  ten  sections. 

The  B.ilelanis  live  in  the  Dera  Ghdzi  Khdn  District  ;  their 
chief  is  Sarddr  Bahadur  Khan,  who  is  also  chief  of  the  whole 
Khosa  tribe. 

In  Nasirdbdd  the  leading  man  of  the  KhiloUinis  is  Mir  j^jjjiojjinj. 
Hazdr  Khan.  The  Khiloldnis  now  occupy  large  areas  of  land 
irrigated  by  the  Shahi  Wdh  canal,  and  their  important 
villages  are  : — Mdnjhipur,  Bdgar,  Bola,  Ahmadpur,  Doddika 
and  Shiih  Wah.  They  also  own  lands  in  Mamal,  Rojhdn 
east,  Shaho  and  Sobha  in  conjutiction  with  the  Jamalis. 

In  190 1  the  numbers  of  Umrani  or  Umardni  residing  in  The  Umr<i- 
the  District  numbered  1,098:  males  575  and  523  females- 
They  claim  their  descent  from  Umar,  brother  of  Ghazan  and 
son  of  Ali,  who  is  believed  to  have  bee  >  one  of  the  sons  of 
Jaldl  Khdn.  Mr.  M.  L.  Dames,  however,  thinks  that,  like 
the  Buledis,  they  probably  joined  the  Baloch  confederacy 
after  the  formation  of  the  five  main  divisions. 

A  genealogical  table  furnished  by  the  present  Umrdni 
headman,  Wadera  Sher  Muhammad,  who  claims  to  be 
fifteenth  in  descent  from  Ali,  shows  that  the  tribe  is  divided 
into  twelve  sections  :  Tangidni,  Balachani,  Ghamhdni, 
Malghdni,  Paliani,  Nodkani,  Jonghdni,  Sobhdni,  Sethdni, 
Buridni,  Misridni,  and  Dildwarzai.  All  these  clans  claim  a 
common  descent  and  derive  their  names  from  certain  leading 
men,  the  Buridnis,  for  instance  being  descended  from  one 
Hasan  Khdn,  who  lost  his  nose  in  a  fight  and  was  nicknamed 
the  Buridni.  The  last  seven  sections  reside  and  own  lands 
in   Bhdg   Ndri,    their    leading     man    being    Wadera   Khuddi 

*  The  Baloch  Race,  bj   M  .  L.  Dames,  Asiatic  Society  Monographs, 
No.  IV  (Loiuion,  1904 J. 


58  CHAPTER  l—DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population.  Khdn,  Diljlwarzai.  The  other  sections  are  spread  over  the 
Upper  Sincl  Frontier  District  and  Nasirdbdd,  the  principal 
sections  in  the  hitter  tract  being  the  Tangidni,  Balachdni 
and  Malg-hdni. 

According-  to  the  local  tradition  the  Umranis  first  occupied 
the  Manjuthi  lands  when  Mir  Chakar  went  to  the  Punjab, 
and  the  division  into  the  various  sections  is  said  to  have 
been  effected  in  the  time  of  F"azal  Khdn,  tenth  in  descent 
from  All.  Fdzal  Khdn's  brothers,  Mondar  Khdn  and 
Bhakkar  Khdn  migrated  to  Lahar  in  Hyderdbdd  (Sind)  where 
their  descendants  still  live.  At  the  same  time  about  500 
men  of  the  Palidni  section  migrated  tojacobdbdd.  The  rest 
of  the  tribesmen  remamed  at  Manjuthi  in  Kachhi  until  igoo 
when  they  were  compelled  by  drought  and  famine  to  migrate 
in  a  body  to  Nasirdbdd  where  the  majority  of  them  work  as 
tenants,  though  some  have  also  acquired  land. 

The  Golas.  The  number  of  the  Golas,  who  were  shown  in  the   Census 

tables  of  1901  as  a  clan  of  the  Bul6di  tribe,  amounted  to 
5,134  in  the  district :  males  2,772  (including  1,660  adults) 
and  females  2,362.  Writing  about  the  groups  which  form 
the  Baloch  tribes,  Mr.  R.  Hughes-BuUer  says: — "They 
consist  chiefly  of  elements  which  have  been  affiliated  to  the 
Baloch  and  have  afterwards  set  up  for  themselves.  As  time 
passes,  their  origin  is  forgotten,  and  with  it  any  social 
inferiority  which  may  have  originally  existed.  An  instance 
of  a  group,  which  has  only  lately  asserted  Baloch  origin,  is  to 
be  found  among  the  Golas  of  the  Nasirdbdd  nidhat.  Though 
enumerated  with  the  Buledis  they  are  looked  on  by  other 
Baloch  as  occupying  a  low  place  in  the  social  scale. 
Common  report  assigns  them  a  slave  origin,  and  as  the 
word  .^'t'/rt  means  slave  in  Sindi,  it  is  quite  possible  that  the 
belief  has  some  foundation  in  fact.*'' 

The  Golas  are  divided  into  nine  .'sections  :  the  Panddni, 
Karmidni,  and  Satmdni,  descendants  of  Aib  Khdn,  and  the 
Jolidni,  Jdrdni,  Kdshdni,  Tdndldni,  Rakhidni,  Shambdni, 
who  are  descended  from  Mi'isa  Khdn.  With  the  latter  are 
affiliated  the  Kalidni,  Kalwdni,  Kahgola,  Dasowdni,  Chhetta 
or  Sher  Khdni,  and  Chunridni  sections  whose  origin  is  not 
known.     The    tribesmen   assert    that  their   progenitors  Aib 


•  Census  of  India,   190I,  Vol.   V-A.,  Chapter  VllI,  page  133. 


CHARACTER  OF  THE  B  A  LOCH. 


59 


Khiin  and   Musa  Kli;in  accompanied   Mi'r  Chjikar  as  scouts   PopirLATiON. 

or  guides  who  are  c-a\\q.(\  goU'io  in  Sindi,  and  that  the  present 

name   of  the   tribe   owes    its   origin    to    this    source.     They 

are  also  known  as  Mirali,  from  Mir  Ali,  the  ancestor  of  the 

Bul^dis. 

The  Golas  are  said  to  have  migrated  from  Sind,  when  the 
canals  were  first  opened  out  in  Kahit  territory  and  to  have 
obtained  lands  on  lease  from  the  Khdn.  The  descendants  of 
Khair  Muhammad  and  Gola  Khan  own  lands  in  Deh  Gola, 
but  the  majority  of  the  tribesmen  work  as  tenants.  Their 
headman  is  Khdn  Bahddur  Sohbat  Khdn,  who  has  recently 
built  the  village  of  Sohbatpur. 

The  following  statement  gives  a  list  of  other  sections  of   Other 
c         .  •       ,     ^•       •  Baloch 

less  importance  round  in  the  district  : —  tribes. 


Tribe. 


Clan. 


Population  in  1901. 


Fotal   Males.   Females 


Locality. 


DombkiiGishkori 
,,         iGurgej 
H.-ira 

Magassil 

Ririd        Ch.-lndia 
Gabol 
Ldshdri 
Leghdri 
Mught5ri 

Chdndia 
Ghuldm 
Bolak 


426 

.224 

228 

118 

137 

77 

605 

3.8 

5^5 

279 

102 

S« 

796 

419 

417 

240 

269 

'54 

251 

'25 

608 

329 

202 

i 

:io 

bo 

) 

257 

1 

226 

1 

44 

\ 

377 

1 

'77 

1 

"5 

J 

126 

279 

Own    lands    in     dry    crop 
areas  in  the  Sibi  tahsi'l. 


Nasi'rAbdd    tahsi'l    (chiefly 
tenants"). 


Ch/india  village  in  Sibi. 

Own    lands   and  water   at 
Bhakra  in  ihe  Sibi  tahsi'l. 


The    Baloch  has  the   reputation   of  being  a  good  fighting    character 

man.      He  is   tall  and  sparse  in  appearance,  temperate  in  his  anddisposi- 
,     ,  .  ,  ,        ,       .  .  r         .  .     •  t'on  of  the 

habits  and  endued  with  great  powers  of  endurance,    being   Baloch. 

capable  of  sustaining  prolonged  fatigue   on  very  poor  food. 

The  face  is  long  and  oval  and  the  features  aquiline.     The 

hair  is  worn  long   in  curls  on  either  side  of  the  face  and  the 

beard  and  whiskers  are  allowed  to  grow  untrimmed.      Until 

comparatively  recent  years  the  Baloch  looked  upon  fighting 

as  their  trade  and  despised  agriculture  and  the  arts  of  peace. 

The  majority  of  the  tribesmen  living  in  the  plains  of  Nasir- 


6o  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population,  .dbdd  and  Sibi  have  now  settled  down  to  cultivate  their 
lands,  but  the  wilder  tribes  such  as  the  Marris  and  Bugtis 
are  still  very  indifferent  about  the  improvement  of  their 
land,  the  rug-ged  and  waterless  nature  of  which  does  not 
indeed  lend  itself  to  cultivation.  Tho<e  who  have  settled 
down  to  agriculture  are  still  very  rough  and  ready  in  their 
habits. 

On  the  whole  the  Baloch  are  easy  to  manage  and  are 
generally  well  affected.  They  rire  a  frank,  good  mannered 
people  and  in  the  characteristics  of  truth  and  honour  aro 
superior  to  their  Afghan  neigiibours.  To  tlieir  chiefs  they 
are  doci'e  and  obedient  thougli  their  bearing  to  others  is 
proud  and  independent. 

The  best  characteristics  are  their  fidelity,  truthfulness, 
hospitility  and  the  treatment  of  their  women,  and  their 
faults,  indolence,  pride  and  perhaps  oversensitiveness.  Their 
tactics  in  war  were  never  to  attempt  an  attack  unless  the 
enemy  could  be  surprised  or  was  in  inferior  numbers.  They 
always  fought  on  foot,  and  this  was  the  reason  that  the 
Baloch  always  rode  mares,  as  a  mare  was  easily  tied  up  and 
was  not  likely  to  betray  her  master  by  whinnying  as  a  horse 
would  do.  The  Baloch  proverb  says  "  a  man  with  his  saddle 
on  a  mare  has  his  saddle  on  a  horse,  a  man  with  his  saddle 
on  a  hcrse  has  his  saddle  on  his  he  id."  The  rule  of  war 
was  never  to  molest  women  or  children,  and  women 
could  go  out  safely  when  their  male  relations  were  in  the 
midst  of  war.  Boys  were  considered  fair  prey  as  soon  as 
they  assumed  the  toga  virilis  in  the  shape  of  a  pair  ot 
pai jamas. 
Afghans.  Next  to   the   Baloch,  the  numerically  important  race  are 

the  Afghans,  whicii,  in  1901,  numbered  18,119  :  males  9.499, 
females  8,620,  and  represented   about   26  per  cent,    of  the 
rural  population  of  the  district. 
Kdkars.  The  total  number  of  Kiikars  in  the  district  in    1901   was 

6,820:  males  3,636,  females  3,184.  They  represent  38  per 
cent,  of  the  total  number  of  Afghans  and  11  per  cent,  of  the 
total  rural  population  of  the  district.  The  Kdkars  are 
Ghurghusht  Afgndns,  their  progenitor  Kikar  being  a  son  of 
Ddvi  and  grandson  of  Ghurghusht,  son  of  Qais  Abdul 
Rashid.  The  principal  clans  in  the  district  are  the  Sanzar 
Khel  (1,609)  3"<^  Sanatia  (5,014). 


SANATIA   CLAN.  6i 

Of  tlie  total  number  *  of  Sanzar  Kh6ls  the  Dumars  represent   Population, 

.,  ,  „         1,221  (males  6^-?,  females  s68),  all  of  whom  are 

Males        8s4  , 

Females  755     in  the  Shdhrig  lahsil  and  chiefly  in  the  Zarghun 

.  _,      ,      ~         hills.     The    other    Kdkars    regard     them     as 
^  Toial     i,6og  ... 

social    interiors    on     account    of    their    being 

descended  from  a   diiin    or    musician.     The    tribe,    however, 

claim    that    Diimar    was   one   of   the   sons    of    Kdkar.     The 

majority  are  pastoral,  though  some   of    them    have    recently 

taken  to  agriculture.       Iheir  h.-adman  is  Hasan    Khdn    who 

holds  a  Jemaddr's  post  in  the  levies  (1905).      The    Dumars 

man  the  levy  posts  at  Khost,    Njikas  and  form  a  portion   of 

the  head  quarter    levies    at    Shilhrig.     They    are    generally 

quiet  and  well  behaved.      Writing  in    1882   Dr.   O.   T.    Duke 

said:  —  "The     Dumars    formerly    had   a   bad    reputation    as 

thieves,  but  they  gave  us  absolutely  no  trouble.      *       *        "' 

The  Dumars  of  Zarghun  are  paid  by  the  officer  in  charge 

of  Qiietta,  and  their  harmlessness  is  shown  by  the  fact  that 

although  my  District  encloses   them  on  three   sides,   I  have 

not  had  a   single    case    against    them    during    the    past    18 

months." 

In    1901    the   total   number   of  the  Sanatia  Kdkars  in  the   Sanatia 

District  was  5,014  (males   2,674.    females   2,340),    of  whom   clan. 

4,967   were   found   in   the    Kach-Kowds  and  Shdhrig  circles 

of  the  Shdhrig  tah^il  and  47  in  Sibi.     Pdne,  the  progenitor 

of  the  Pdnezais,   was  fourth  in  descent  from  Sanatia,  while 

Sdrang  from  whom  the   Sarangzais  derive  their   name   was 

third  in  descent.     The  numner  of  the  Pdnezais  and  Sdrangzais 

was    1,315   and  3,187   respectively  in   1901.     Their  unsettled 

condition    at   the    time    of  the   Afghdn    war,    the   murder   of 

Captain  Showers  (1880),  their  attacks  on   Fuller's   Can-p  and 

Sir   Ronert  Sandeman's  escort  and  their  subsequent  attempt 

against  the  f.rt  at   Kach  have  already  been  de-cribed  in  the 

section    on    History.      Of   late    years    they    have    given    no 

trouble    and    their    general    behaviour    has    been     excellent. 

The  majority  of  them  still  retam  the  primitive  characteristics 

of  a  remote  hill  tribe.     The  chief  occupation  of  the  Pdn^^zais 

is   agriculture,   but   a   large   number   of  the    Sdrangzais  are 

pastoral.      The  headman  of  the  former  is  Wahdb   Khdn   and 

of  the  latter  Halim  Khdn. 

The  Pannis  or  Panris  were  originally  a  nomad  tribe  of  the    Pannis  or 

Ghurghusht    Afghdns.      The    Sdfis,    a    branch    of   the    tribe,    f^^"'"'^- 


62  CHAPTER  r— DESCRIPTIVE. 

PoPLLATioN.  are  still  found  in  considerable  numbers  near  Ghazni,  and 
another  large  section,  now  known  as  the  Gaduns,  reside 
in  the  Peshjiwar  District  to  the  east  of  the  Yusufzai  country. 
The  branch  with  which  this  District  is  concerned  appears 
to  have  wandered  from  the  west  to  the  Sulaimin  hills  and 
from  thence  to  have  spread  jjradually  to  the  south.  The 
Musakhels  and  Isots  of  the  Loralai  District  are  Pannis, 
and  another  section  found  their  vvay  intci  Sdng^-in  from  the 
Bolcin  Pass  and  gradually  acquired  Bddra,  Quat-Mandai  and 
Sibi.  Eventually  they  got  possession  of,  or  were  perhaps 
nominated  by,  the  rulers  of  Kandahdr  to  administer  Bjirkhdn 
and  the  lands  now  held  by  the  Marris.  The  descendants  of 
the  Panris  are  also  found  in  Southern  India  where  from  time 
to  time  they  have  made  a  considerable  figure  in  Indian 
history.  Prior  to  the  downfall  of  the  house  of  Bdbar, 
one  of  the  celebrated  free  lances  of  the  period  was  Ddud 
Khdn,  a  Panni,  who  was  remarkable  for  his  generosity 
and  liberality  which  have  passed  into  the  proverb  '^^  Bani 
ta  bani  nahin  ta  Dciud  Khan  Panni  "  that  is  to  say  if  the 
worst  comes  to  the  worst,  there  is  still  Ddud  Khan  to 
fall  back  upon. 

According  to  a  native*  account,  the  local  history  of  the 
Sibi  branch  dates  from  about  1470  when  Bara  Khdn,  the 
founder  of  the  Bdruzais,  ingratiated  himself  with  the  Mizri 
Kdkars  who  were  then  in  possession  of  Dddhar  and  married 
the  daughter  of  the  chief.  On  the  decay  of  the  Arghun 
rule,  the  Pannis  increased  in  power  and  importance,  and 
about  1570 — 1575  are  found  as  being  in  possession  of  the  Sibi 
fort  and  district.  As  already  related  in  the  section  on 
History  three  expeditions  were  undertaken  by  the  Mughals 
against  them.  The  tribe  is  spoken  of  as  having  fought 
bravely  and  it  seems  to  have  retained  its  importance,  as  in 
1695  S'^'  ^"<^  'ts  dependencies  were  held  by  one  Mirza 
Khdn,  a  Bdruzai,  who  had  received  the  title  of  Nawdb  from 
the  ruler  of  Delhi  and  also  administered  the  affairs  of  Upper 
Sind.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Bakhtidr  Khdn  who 
was  killed  in  a  collision  with  the  Imperial  troops  in  1702. 
His  successor  Ismciil  Khdn  I  is  locally  credited  with  having 


Taskir-iil-Bnr,  or  an  account  of  the  Baruzais  by  Mull.-i  Mahmud 
Jaskani  Baloch  (1300  H.). 


PAXN/S,  63 

built  the  town  of  Dera  Isinjiil  Khdn  ;  he  was  succeeded  by  Population. 
Isa  Khdn,  who  was  followed  by  Ismdil  Khdn  II  who 
accompanied  Nddir  Shah  to  Delhi  and  later  on  built  the 
fort  at  Sdngdn.  The  Bdruzais  of  Sibi  appear  to  have 
become  separated  from  the  Sdngdn  branch  at  this  period, 
and  during  the  reign  of  Ahmad  Shah,  Durrdni,  Muhammad 
Khdn,  who  had  gone  to  Kdbul  to  complain  of  Ismdil  Khdn, 
was  granted  a  warrant  dated  1759  in  which  Ahmad  Shdh 
entrusted  the  Government  ofthe  Sibi  District  and  the  Bdrkhdn, 
Kht^trdn  and  Hasni  dependencies  jointly  to  both  claimants. 
Muhammad  Khdn  was  killed  by  the  Khajaks,  a  branch  ofthe 
tribe  who  had  greatly  increased  in  strength  and  importance, 
and  his  successor  Habib  Khdn,  who  was  also  ultimately 
slain  by  the  Khajaks,  was  obliged  to  abandon  Sibi  and  retire 
to  Kurk.  The  Khajaks  had  now  become  the  most  powerful 
section,  and  their  importance  is  shown  by  the  common  Sibi 
proverb  which  says  that,  "though  the  Kdkars  may  coquet 
in  the  hills,  the  Khajaks  lord  it  in  the  plains."  At  the  out- 
break of  the  Afghdn  war  in  1839,  the  nominal  chief  of  the 
tribe  was  Shakar  Khdn,  but  the  real  power  was  in  the  hands 
of  Misri  Khdn,  who  tendered  his  services  to  Shdh  Shuja  and 
was  taken  into  British  pay.  In  184 1,  as  already  described 
in  the  section  on  History,  the  town  of  Khajak  was  occupied 
by  British  troops  and  dismantled.  The  power  of  the 
Khajaks  was  thus  weakened,  and  shortly  afterwards  the 
Marris  acquired  a  footing  in  the  Sibi  District.  They  dis- 
possessed the  Pannis  of  Bddra  and  Quat-Mandai  and  over- 
ran Sdngdn.  Shakar  Khdn  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Doda 
Khdn,  but  he  was  a  weak  chief  and  after  Misri  Khdn's  death 
the  management  of  the  tribe  passed  successively  into  the 
hands  of  Bakhtidr  Khdn  and  Sher  Zamdn  Khdn,  the  latter 
of  whom  was  killed  while  endeavouring  to  stop  a  fight 
between  the  Brdhuis  and  the  Marghazdni  section  of  the 
Pannis.  After  Doda  Khdn's  death  the  chieftainship  of  the 
tribe  devolved  on  his  eldest  son  Muhammad  Khdn  after 
being  unsuccessfully  claimed  by  Sarbuland  Khdn,  the  son  of 
Misri  Khdn.  Muhammad  Khdn  is  still  alive  (1Q05),  but 
owing  to  his  great  age  and  infirmities  has  resigned  the 
Sarddrship  in  favour  of  his  eldest  son  Mir  Mustafa  Khdn. 
The  leading  men  in  the  tribe  are  Mir  Sarbuland  Khdn,  Mir 
Tdj    Muhammad,    the     head    of    the     Bdruzais    of   Sdngdn, 


64  CHAPTER  /—DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population.    Ismdil     Khdn,     Khajak,     and     Walhiiri     Klijln,    Marghaz^ni 

('905)- 

In  1901,  the  number  of  Pannis  in  the  district  was  3,656  : 
males  1,871,  females  1,785.  They  are  divided  into  nine- 
teen sections  :  Abdulla  Khel,  Ali  Khel,  Bjighun,  B^ruzai, 
Ddvi,  Dehpjil,  Janti,  Khajak,  Kurk,  Laun,  Luni,  Margha- 
zdni,  Mizri,  Musa  Khel,  Naudhjini,  Pirdni,  SAfi,  Sodi  and 
Usmdni. 

The  great  majority  of  the  tribe  are  agriculturists. 

The  Tan'ns.  The  Tarlns  are  Saraban  Afghans,  the  descendants  of 
Tarin,  son  of  Sharaf-ud-din,  son  of  Ibrdhim,  son  of  Qais 
Abdul  Rashid.  According  to  the  tradition  Tarin  had  four 
sons  Spin  Tarin,  Tor  Tarin,  Zhar  Tarin  and  Bor  Tarin, 
The  term  "  Ahddl,"  however,  gradually  superseded  that  of 
'  Bor  Tarin  '  an  1  came  into  special  prominence  when 
Ahmad  ShAh  Abdfili,  commonly  known  as  the  Durrdni, 
began  his  career  of  conquest.  It  is  still  used,  though 
sparingly,  and  the  Achakzais  are  usually  localised  by  that 
name  and  ret^arded  as  a  separate  political  unit.  The  same 
is  the  case  with  Tor  or  Spin  Tarins,  who,  so  far  as  common 
good  and  ill  is  concerned,  have  no  connection  with  the 
Achakzais  or  with  one  another. 

In  190T,  the  total  number  of  Tarins  in  the  district  was 
6,468:  males  3,351  (including  2,027  adults)  and  3.1 17 
females.  The  local  distribution  of  the  tribe  was  16  in  Sibi, 
49  in  Nasirdbjid  and  6.404  in  the  Shflhrig  tahsil.  Of  these 
1,864  (males  978,  females  886)  were  Spin  Tarins  nnd  4,547 
(males  2,338,  females  2  209)  Tor  Tarins,  the  number  of  Bor 
Tarins  or  Abddls  being  only  51. 

Spin  Tarin.  The  Spin  Tarins,  all  of  whom  are  found  in  the  Harnai 
and  Kach-Kowds  valleys  of  the  Shdhrig  tah^il,  include  178 
Raisdnis,  i  ,248  Wan^chis  (males  666,  females  582)  and  438 
'  unspecified.'  The  Wandchis  migrated  from  Pishin  and 
settled  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bdbihdn  which,  according 
to  tradition,  was  obtained  from  the  Khamis  in  exchange  for  a 
filly,  [bihdnr,)  which  is  supposed  to  be  tne  origin  of  the  name. 
They  are  divided  into  two  clans,  the  Zaragv\als  (or  lowland- 
ers)  and  the  Khurdsdnis  (or  highlanders),  the  former  belonging 
mainly  to  the  Sanjdwi  tahsil  of  the  Loralai  District.  The 
Zaragwals  are  divided  into  two  main  secti.^'ns  called  the 
iJaulatzais  and  Bihamddnis      Two  sub-sections  of  the  latter, 


TARINS.  65 

the    Hadidnis   and   Tihanris  are   looked    upon  as  fakirs  and    Population. 
receive  certain  fees  {thtik)  from  the  other  Wan^chis. 

During  the  early  days  of  British  occupation,  Ismdil,  the 
headman  of  the  Wan^chis,  gave  some  trouble,  but  both  he 
and  his  people  surrendered  in  the  autumn  of  j88i  and  under- 
took the  responsibility  of  guarding  the  Ganeji  (Spintangi), 
Kuridk  (MtSlmazai)  and  Tiri  entrances  into  the  Zawar  valley. 
The  majority  of  the  tribe  are  pastoral  and  they  are  a  quiet 
and  well  behaved  people,  superior  in  both  character  and 
physique  to  tlie  other  inhaC)itants  of  the  valley. 

The  chief  cf  the  Wan^chis  is  Khdn  Sdhib  Nawdb  Khdn 
who  lives  in  the  Sanjdwi  tahsil,  and  the  leading  men  at 
Bdbihan  are  Misri  Khan,  Zakridzai,  and  Zalla  Khdn, 
Daltdni,  both  of  whom  receive  small  allowances  from  the 
Levy  service. 

In  igoi  the  number  of  Tor  Tarins  in  the  district  was  Tor  Tarin. 
4,547  :  males  2,338  (including  1,408  adults)  and  females 
2,2og,  almost  all  of  whom  are  in  the  Harnai  and  Shdhrig 
circles  of  the  Shdhrig  tahsil.  The  most  important  section 
of  the  Tor  Tarins  in  the  district  is  the  Makhidni*  who  are 
divided  into  five  sub-sections  :  Abduldni, 
*  Feml'ies  \%l     Aspdni,     Khamis,     Khidrdni     and     Sheikh. 

The    iMakhidni   tribe  as  now  constituted    is 

Total  ...  4o3d  formed  of  an  admixture  of  alien  groups 
who  have  become  affiliated  from  time  to 
time.  Thus  among  the  Khamis  are  to  be  found  Mashvvdni 
Saiads,  Sheikh  Zari,  and  Ydsinzai  Kdkars  ;  and  among  the 
Khidrdni  are  groups  which  were  originally  Zarkun  like  the 
Kanindni  and  Sanzar  Khel  Kdkars  like  the  Malazai. 

According  to  Dr.  O.  T.  Duke  "the  Tdrin  Pathdns  claim 
that  their  ancestors  captured  Harnai  directly  from  the 
Hindus,  whom  they  drove  out  about  600  or  700  years  ago. 
The  first  Tarins  who  appeared  in  Zawar  are  stated  to  have 
belonged  to  the  Khamis  and  Makhidni  sections.  The 
Tarins  were  at  that  time  nomads.  After  expelling  the 
Zamins  they  divided  their  lands  ;  the  Makhianis  took 
Ghurmi  as  their  share  and  the  remainder  of  the  valley  fell 
to  the  Khamis-*  -^         *         *»         ^'         *         *         *         *. 

After   five    generations,    Sheikh  Musa,    a   Jaldli  Saiad  from 
Uch  in   Bahdwalpur,    passed   through  the  valley  on  his  way 
to    Bukhdra    and    was    persuaded    by    the    people    to     stop 
5 


66  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE, 

Population,  permanently.  He  consented  and  married  a  Makhidni  woman, 
by  whom  he  had  two  sons,  Zabhar  Khdn  and  Mubdrik, 
whose  descendants  are  still  scattered  over  the  valley.  The 
Saiad  espoused  the  cause  of  the  Makhidnis,  who  from  the 
smallness  of  their  numbers  were  liable  to  oppression  at  the 
hands  of  the  Khamis.  A  rupture  between  the  two  tribes  was 
brought  about  by  an  insult  which  the  Khamis  offered  to  a 
Makhidni  minstrel  woman  whom  they  stripped  and  deg-raded. 
The  Makhidnis  believe  that  under  the  supernatural  influence 
of  the  saint,  their  forefathers,  though  few  in  numbers  and 
armed  mostly  with  dwarf  palm  twigs,  were  able  to  take  a 
sanguinary  revenge  for  the  wrongs  which  they  had  suffered, 
while  the  Khamis  were  still  further  weakened  by  the  ravages 
of  cholera.  Those  that  had  escaped  the  sword  and  plague 
formed  a  weak  remnant,  which  was  reconciled  to  the 
Makhidnis  by  the  intercession  of  the  saint  whose  enmity 
they  had  provoked.  Zawar  was  now  re-divided  and  only 
one  share  in  Khost  fell  to  the  Khamis,  the  rest  going  to  the 
Makhidnis,  The  Makhidnis  were  too  few  in  numbers  for  the 
effectual  tilling  of  the  Zawar  lands,  and  they,  therefore, 
invited  outsiders  to  reside  with  them,  to  whom  they  gave 
lands  free  ;  many,  too,  of  the  lands  have  been  bought  and 
sold,  so  that  the  original  division  has  been  lost  sight  of  in 
continual  changes,*" 

"Physically"  says  Dr.  Duke,  "the  Zawar  people  are 
inferior  in  every  way  to  the  hii|  Pathdns,  their  occupation  as 
rice  cultivators  and  the  constant  necessity  for  working  in 
water  during  the  flood  seasons  whilst  repairing  their 
embankments  weakens  their  loins  ;  at  any  rate  they  have  the 
reputation  of  being  very  inferior  husbands,  and  the  small 
number  of  children  in  the  Zawar  valley  fully  justifies  this 
assertion." 

The  chief  occupation  of  the  Makhidnis  is  agriculture,  and 
their  leading  men  are  Malik  Shdpo,  Sheikh  Rahimddd 
Aspdni,  and  Sulaimdn,  Abduldni. 

Zarkuns.  I"  1901,  the  Zarkuns  of  the   Kohlu  valley  numbered  751  : 

males  396,  females  555.      "  They    claim   connection  with    the 
Panris,  but  their  origin  is  doubtful.      Owing  to  the   raids    to 


•  Report  on  the  Thal-Chotidli  and  Hariiai  Districts,  Part  III 
(Calcutta,  1883). 


ZARKUNS.  67 

which  the  tribe  was  constantly  exposed  through  its  proxi-  Population. 
niity  to  the  Baloch,  it  is  probable  that  the  nucleus  of  the 
tribe  imitated  the  latter's  example,  and  affiliated  to  itself  a 
number  of  alien  elements.^"  The  tribe  is  divided  into 
three  clans :  Ghunji,  numerically  the  strongest  (373  ,  the 
Pirozai,  the  smallest  (24)  and  Shardwani  (354),  who-e  name 
would  appear  to  indicate  that  the  nucleus  of  this  clan  con- 
sisted of  Afghdns  of  the  Saraban  division,  a  word  easily  con- 
verted by  an  Afghan  into  Shdrdwan." 

According  to  Dr.  O.  T.  Duke,  "  the  Zarkuns,  who  are 
stated  to  have  originally  belonged  to  the  Musdkh^l  tribe, 
occupied  some  300  years  ago,  Kohlu,  Mamand,  Gamboli  and 
the  neighbouring  hills  under  their  Sarddr  Firoz  Khdn.  The 
Hasnis,  who  were  expelled  from  Phildwar  f  by  the  Marris 
about  100  years  ago  tried  unsuccessfully  to  take  Kohlu  from 
the  Zarkuns.  "  In  January  1876  the  Masori  Bugtis  attacked 
and  looted  the  Zarkuns  who  pursued  the  party  and  killed  14 
of  them.  A  few  months  afterwards  another  body  of  Bugtis, 
which  came  to  revenge  the  death  of  their  comrades,  was 
attacked  by  the  Zarkuns,  and  its  leader  Haidar  Khdn  was 
killed  with  28  others.  The  Marris  fomented  the  strife  and 
gave  passage  through  their  country  to  a  force,  consisting  of 
nearly  all  the  Bugtis  led  by  their  chiefs,  the  Zarkuns  were 
outnumbered,  the  Kohlu  valley  was  sacked,  70  Zarkuns  and 
27  Bugtis  were  killed.  The  Marris,  who  had  previously 
acquired  Gamboli  and  Mamand  from  the  Zarkuns,  invited 
them  to  return  to  Kohlu  and  the  Marri  Chief  Ghazan  offered 
them  an  offensive  and  defensive  alliance  against  the  Bugtis. 
The  Zarkuns  returned  to  Kohlu  and  Ghazan  died  soon  after- 
wards. In  July  1878  the  Zarkuns,  few  and  weak,  yielded  to 
the  Marris,  who  took  three-fourths  of  the  valley  themselves  and 
left  a  fourth  to  the  Zarkuns,  MehruHa  Khdn,  the  Marri 
Sarddr,  taking  Gulu  Gozu  as  his  panjiik  (chief's  share)."  In 
!8gi  owing  to  the  continued  encroachments  of  the  Marris,  the 
Zarkuns  were  taken  under  British  protection  and  in  1892 
a  sub-tahsil  established  in  the  valley.  The  chief  occupation 
of  the  Zarkuns  is  agriculture  and  the  headman  is  Ddda 
Khdn,    Shdrdwani,    who    receives    a    monthly     allowance  of 

•   Cefisus  of  I  nd'ui  {igo\).  Vol.  V-A,  Chapter  VIII,  page  94. 
!■  This  point  is  doubtful.     The    expulsion  of   the    Hasnis  from  Phild- 
war is  also  claimed  by  the  Bugtis. 


68 


CHA PTER  I—DESCRIPTI VE. 


POPL'LATION. 


Brahuis. 


Kl)'-trans. 


Saiads 


TArans. 


Maududi 
Chishti. 


Rs.  45  as  a  Jemaddr  of  Levies  and  a  special  annual  allow- 
ance of  lOo  maunds  of  grain  and  50  maunds  of  blitisd  (1905). 
The  head  of  the  (.ihunji  clan  is  Samand   Khin. 

In  igoi  the  Brdhuis  numbered  3,732  ;  -nales  2,059,  females 
1,673,  of  which  1,767  were  in  the  Sibi,  and  1,965  in  the 
Nasirdbdd  tahsil.  The  principal  tribes  represented  were  the 
Bangulzais  (1,261'),  Ldngav  (383),  M^ngal  (824),  Lahri  (201), 
Pindrdni  (465),  Raisilni  (168),  Shahwjini  (118),  and  Zehri 
(173)  with  a  few  Kurds,    Muhammad    Hasnis  and    Nichdris. 

The  majority  of  these  Brdhuis  are  nomads  and  visit  the 
District  in  the  winter  months  only.  A  number  of  the 
Bijdrzais,  a  section  of  the  Bangulzais,  live  permanently  at 
Kurk  and  are  camel  owners,  and  the  Guhrdmzais  (Bangulzais) 
have  acquired  lands  in  Raza,  Kaisar  and  Mai.  Several 
Brdhuis  have  also  settled  down  in  Aasirdbdd  as  tenants  on 
the  lands  irrigated  by  the  Desert  Canal. 

This  tribe  belongs  to  the  Bdrkhdn  tahsil  in  the  Loralai 
District,  but  a  small  number — 958  (males  519,  females  439) — 
are  now  permanently  settled  in  the  Kohlu  (145)  and  Sibi 
(813)  tahsils.  The  Hasni  Section  of  the  Dharaclan  are  prin- 
cipally found  in  the  Sibi  tahsil,  while  in  Kohlu  the  families 
belong  to  the  Ispdni  clan.  They  are  chiefly  agriculturists,  and 
those  in  th  Sibi  tahsil  are  affiliated  with  the  Panris,  with 
whom  they  intermarry  and  whose  social  customs  they  follow. 

In  1901  the  Saiads  in  the  District  numbered  1,556:  males 
828,  females  728  ;  of  these  273  were  in  Sibi,  1,053  '"  Shdhrig-, 
224  in  Nasirdi^dd  and  6  in  the  Kohlu  tahsil.  The  principal 
groups  represented  are  the  Tdran  (361),  Maududi  (259), 
Ahmadiinai  (181),  P^chi  (142),  Bukhdri  (71),  Kddidn  (157), 
Gildni  (50),  Khondi  (31),  and  Kharshin  or  Gharshin  (30), 
while  272  were  undistinguished  and  classed  as  "  unspecified." 

The  Tdrans  claim  to  be  descended  from  Abu  Tahir,  a 
Saiad  who  came  from  Bukhdra  and  settled  in  Khost,  but 
eventually  leaving  his  family  returned  to  Bukhara  where  he 
died  and  where  his  tomb  is  still  shown.  They  reside  in  the 
western  and  northern  parts  of  the  Shrihrig  tahsil,  where  they 
own  lands  which  they  cultivate  themselves.  Their  leading" 
men  are  Rahmatulla,  MuUds  Bakhtidr,  Hamid,  Mukim, 
Lutfulla,  Abdul  Ghafur  and  Saiad  Ldl  Muhammad  (1905). 

The  Maududi  Chishti  Saiads  are  the  descendants  of 
Khwdja   Maudud   who   was   born   in    1039  A.D.  and  died  in 


SAIADS.  69 

1 133  A.  D.  at  Chisht,  a  suburb  of  Herdt.      Khwiija   Muin-ud-    Population. 

din,    who     flourished    in     the     twelfth    century    and    whose 

slirine  is  in  Ajmiir,  was  a  Chishti.      In    1901,   there  were    165 

Maududi  Saiads  in  Sibi   and   94  in    the    Shdhrig-   tahsil.      In 

the  former    tahsil  they   chiefly   subsist   on   charity   and   are 

given  a  fixed  contribution  of  grain  at  each  harvest ;  those  in 

Shdhrig  own  lands  in  Shor  Shahr,  Kdsim   Kili,   Raghni   and 

Ndsik  which  thev  cultivate  themselves.     Their  leading   men 

in    Sibi  are   Mahmi'id   Shdh,    Bakhtijir  Juman   Shdh,    Khair 

Shjih  and  Gharib   Shjih,  and   in   Shdhrig,  Akram   Shdh   and 

Jahdn  Shdh  {1905). 

The  Ahmadunai  Saiads  take  their  name  from  Saiad  Almiadunai 
Ahmad,  a  descendant  of  Saiad  Dur  Jaldl  Bukhdri,  who  came 
to  the  Kdkar  country  eighteen  generations  ago  during  the 
time  of  the  Mughals.  He  married  the  daughter  of  the 
governor  of  the  place  and  founded  the  village  of  Ahmadun 
where  his  descendants  still  reside.  Tliey  are  peasant 
proprietors,  and  :heir  leading  men  are  Mullds  Um^d, 
Kuddus,  Sheikh  Rakam  and  Abdul  Naim.  They  are 
affiliated  with  the  Kdkars  with  whom  they  intermarry  and 
whose  social  customs  they  observe. 

The  P^chi    Saiads   claim    their    descent  from    Saiad  Dale!    P'''^'^'- 
and  their  head-quarters  are  in  Pui  valley  in  the   Sanjdwi   tah- 
sil.    A   few  of  them  are  found    in    the  eastern    and  western 
parts  of  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  where  they  own  small  portions  of 
lands.     Their  leading  man  is  Mulld  Ydhya  (1905). 

The  founder  of  the  Kddidn  or  Kdzian    family  of  the  Saiads    Kadian. 
was    Ismdil    whose   tomb    is   at    Khost.     They  own  lands  in 
Khost,  Ambo  and  Gachina  and  their    leading  men  are  Kamdl 
Shdh  and  Mulld  Bardt. 

A  few  Bukhdri  Saiads  are  found  in  both  the  Sibi  and  Shdh-  Bukhiri 
rig  tahsi'Is.  In  the  latter  they  are  known  as  the  Jaldli  after 
their  ancestor  Saiad  Jaldl,  one  of  the  four  Saiad  brothers 
who  came  to  Pishin  from  Bukhdra  in  the  fourteenth  century. 
Their  principal  settlement  is  at  Midn  Kach  which  was  found- 
ed by  one  Bare,  so  ca'led  from  his  being  a  dweller  of  the 
baro  or  desert,  who  came  from  Uch  some  two  hundred  and 
fifty  years  ago.  He  was  held  in  great  veneration  by  the  Tarins 
and  became  known  as  the  Mian  Sdhib  and  his  place  of  resi- 
dence as  Midn  Kach.  This  gradua  ly  became  "  city  of  re- 
fuge"   and    was  upheld  as    such  by    the  neighbouring   tribes 


70  CHA PTER  I-  DESCRIPTl  VE. 

PopL'LATioN.  vvho  apparently  recognised  the  common  necessity  for  an  in- 
stitution i)t  tliis  kind.  During  the  early  days  of  the  occupa- 
tion of  Harnai  and  especially  at  the  time  of  construction  of 
the  railway,  the  settlement,  which  had  become  the  resort  of 
all  the  bad  characters  in  the  neighbourhood,  gave  much 
trouble.  The  leading  Saiad  Mir  Afzal  Shdh  was  imprisoned 
and  his  village  was  burnt  by  General  McGregor's  force  when 
on  its  way  to  the  Marri  country.  Saiad  Afzal  Shdh  still 
survives  (1905)  and  holds  his  lands  rent-free.  He  has  consi- 
derable local  influence  and  especially  among  the  Marris,  who 
used  to  give  him  a  share  of  the  loot  obtained  during  their 
expeditions.  The  leading  man  among  the  Bukhdri  Saiads 
in  the  Sibi  tahsil  is  Fakir  Shdh,  who  owns  lands  at  Kurk 
and  Mizri  and  is  also  paid  a  fixed  contribution  of  grain  by 
the  Kurks  at  each  harvest. 

Other  The  Gildni  Saiads  own  lands  at  Sdfi  Abdul  Wahdb    in    the 

Saiads  gjj^j  j-^j^gd^  jj,-,(.j  ^^e  given  ti  hes  by  the    Marghazdnis.      Their 

leading  man  is  Nur  Din  Shdh.  The  Khondis  live  at  Khajak 
and  subsist  mainly  on  alms  and  charity.  The  Kharshi'n  or 
Gharshi'n  are  agriculturists  and  own  land  at  Kurk  !n  the  Sibi 
tahsil,  and  at  Dirgi,  Ambo  and  Shdhrig  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil. 
Their  headmen  are  Murdd  Shdh  of  Kurk,  and  Mulld  Sabzal. 
The  Saiads  of  Nasirdbdd  (224)  are  scattered  throughout  the 
different  villages  and  are    supported    bv    alms   and    charity. 

The  Jats.  The  nucleus  of  the  race  would  seem  to  be  one  of  the  most 

ancient  stocks  in  the  priwince,  and  it  is  probable  that  some 
of  them  are  the  descendants  of  the  original  Hindu  inhabitants 
who  were  converted  to  Isldm  at  the  time  of  the  Muham- 
madan  conquests.  But  the  Jats,  as  recorded  in  the  Census 
of  1901,  may  be  said  to  represent  a  congeries  either  of 
Muhammadans,  who  are  not  Afghdns,  Baloch  or  Brdhuis  or 
Saiads  or  of  representatives  of  those  races  who  have 
fallen  in  the  social  scale  and  lost  their  nationality.  Thus  it 
is  found  that  Ardins  and  Gujars,  who  constitute  separate 
castes  in  the  neighbouring  provinces,  many  Loris,  who  are 
gypsies,  and  a  number  of  other  races  are  classed  under  the 
generic  term  of  Jat.  The  admixture  is  due  to  artificial  as 
well  as  to  natural  causes,  as  an  examination  of  the  figures 
shows  that  there  was  undoubtedly  a  tendency  to  include  as 
Jats  all  those  whose  origin  was  doubtful  ex  about 
whom    nothing    particular    was     known.      Hence  the  term 


J  ATS.  71 

came     to     be      used    in    some      cases    as      equivalent      to    Population. 

"others      and      unspecified."       Mr.      Hughes-Buller       has 

explained    in    the    Census  Report  of    1901   that  a  distinction 

exists    among'    the   Jats    themselves.       The   camelmen    and 

graziers  among  the  Baloch  are  shown  as    a   Jat    clan    within 

the  tribe  of  the  same  name,    but  their   name    is    pronounced 

with  a  soft  '  t '  (Persian  uu)  as  opposed  to  the  hard  '  t '  (cL>). 

These  camelmen    speak  a  different  language  to  other    Jats, 

and  many  of  their  customs  vary,  but  it  has  not  been  ascertained 

whether  there  is  any  real  ethnical  distinction. 

As  to  the  origin  of  the  Jats  Mr.  Hughes-Buller  says  :  "  It 
is  curious  to  note,  in  connection  with  the  theory  of  their  Cen- 
tral Asian  origin,  that  they  still  retain  traces  of  the  custom  of 
marriage  by  capture  as  it  is  in  vogue  in  Central  Asia,  the 
bride  being  carried  on  a  bullock  or  horse  behind  the  bride- 
groom and  married  at  the  latter's  house." 

The  tribesmen  look  upon  the  Jats  as  their  social  inferiors 
and  this  position  is  generally  accepted  by  the  Jats  them- 
selves. Baloch  men  may  marry  Jat  women,  but  do  not  give 
their  women  in  marriage  to  the  Jats.  Some  of  the  tribes 
are  of  fine  physique  and  the  women  of  the  camelmen  are 
renowned  for  their  beauty.  The  general  level  of  intelligence 
is  low,  but  on  the  whole  the  Jat  is  a  good  cultivator,  and 
is  less  extravagant  than  his  Baloch  neighbour. 

In  the  Census  of  1901  the  total  number  of  Jats  in  the 
district  was  17,136  :  males  9,269,  females  7,867,  which 
represented  about  25  per  cent,  of  the  total  rural  population. 
They  were  distributed  over  Sibi  (  4,762  )  and  Nasirdbdd 
(12,351),  and  include  30  different  clans  or  groups,  the  mosi, 
numerous  being  the  Abras  9,348  (males  5,075,  females  4,273), 
of  whom  1,947  were  in  the  Sibi,  7,400  in  the  Nasirdbad  and  i 
in  the  Kohlu  tahsil.  They  were  again  divided  into  34  sections 
which  included  266  Gola,  418  Hdmbi,  491  Mdchhi,  and  1 19 
Sumra  in  Sibi ;  and  334  Bhatti,  332  Burra,  681  Mdchhi  and  368 
Sumra  in  Nasirdbdd.  In  the  latter  tahsil  4,913  Abras  were 
classed  as  "  unspecified." 

Among  other  important  clans  may  be  mentioned  953 
Bhangar  (in  Naslrdbdd),  327  Chdchar  (i  25  in  Sibi  and  202 
in  Nasirdbdd),  2,402  Jat  or  camel  breeders  (1,911  in  Nasir- 
dbdd  and  491  in  Sibi),  591  Katpdr,  2S5  Lori  (all  in  Sibi), 
225    P^chua,     325    Sheikh,    116  Kori    or   weavers,    and    58 


72  CHAPTER  I- DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population.   Niiniris  or  manufacturers  of  earth  salt. 

The  majority  of  the  Jats  work  as  tenants,  a  few  have  acquir- 
ed land  in  Sibi  and  Nasi'rdb^d,  while  others  are  engaged  in 
menial  occupations.  The  headman  of  the  Abras  is  Hin  at  Ali 
who  lives  at  Shikdrpur,  and  the  leading  man  in  Sibi  is 
Malik  Kddar  Bakhsh.  The  Jat  (c>^)  \vith  the  soft  t  are 
chiefly  camel  breeders,  but  since  the  opening  of  the  railway 
many  of  them  have  taken  to  agriculture. 
Hindus.  In  the   Census  of  1901  the  total  number    of  Hindus  in  the 

administered  area  of  the  district  was  6,569  and  in  the  Marri 
and  Bugti  country  412.  The  formerfigure  includes  the  alien 
Hindus  residing  at  Sibi  and  in  the  bazars  along  the  railway 
line  ;  but  both  in  Sibi  and  Nasirjib^d  there  is  a  considerable 
number  of  domiciled  Hindus  who  are  scattered  throughout 
the  country.  Most  of  these  belong  to  the  Arora  caste  with 
a  complement  of  Brahmins  and  fakirs  of  various  persuasions. 
Their  religion  is  an  admixture  of  Sikhism  and  idol  worship, 
but  they  are  lax  in  their  observances  and  drink  out  of  a 
skin  and  use  the  same  vessels  as  Muhammadan*;.  Some  of 
them  also  observe  the  Muhammadan  fasts.  It  has,  however, 
been  observed  that  they  have  become  much  stricter  since 
they  came  in  contact  with  their  brethren  from  India.  Whilst 
subject  to  the  Muhammadans  they  were  net  allowed  to  wear 
turbans  or  to  ride  anything  but  donkeys.  This  custom  still 
prevails  to  great  extent  and  a  local  Hindu  is  easily  distin- 
guishable by  his  red  skull  cap  and  dhoti  {\o\v\  cloth). 

They  are  chiefly  engaged  in  trade,    and  are  also  the  finan- 
ciers   of  the   tribesmen  among  whom  they   live.     As  a   rule 
they  are  well  treated,  and  many  have    acquired  lands  in  Sibi 
and  Nasirdbdd. 
Religion.  Of  the  total  population  of  73,893  censused  in  icoi,  includ- 

ing natives  of  India,  66,Po7  or  90  per  cent,  were  ^lUhamma- 
dans,  6,569  or  9  per  cent.  Hindus ;  98  European  and 
Eurasian  Christians,  24  native  Christians,  377  Sikhs,  14 
Parsis  and  4  Jews.  In  the  Marri  and  Bugti  country  out  of  a 
total  of  38,919,  only  412  were  Hindus. 
Islim.  The    Muhammadans  of   the  district  belong  to  the   Sunni 

sect.  The  Saiads  and  mullds  alone  know  a  little  about  the 
forms  of  their  religion.  The  Afghans  and  tribesmen  in  the 
plains  are  generally  devout  in  performing  their  prayers  at 
the  stated  times,  in  keeping  the  fasts,  and  in  setting  apart  a 


ISLAM.  73 

portion  of  their  income  for  5«,^y//,  but  in  other  respects  gross  Population. 
supers[ition  takes  the  place  of  religion,  and  there  is  a 
general  belief  in  the  intervention  of  ancestors  and  saints  in 
the  pursuits  of  daily  life.  Saints  are  invoked  to  cure 
diseases,  to  avert  calamities,  to  bring  rain,  and  to  bless  the 
child! -^ss  with  offspring.  Saiads  and  miillds  also  play  an 
important  part,  and  their  amulets,  charms  and  blessings 
are  constantly  invoked.  Some  of  them  are  credited  with  the 
power  of  bring'ng  rain,  of  curing  disease,  of  granting 
children,  of  averting  rust  and  locusts  from  the  crops  and  of 
exorcising  evil  spirits.  A  list  of  the  most  influential  niullds 
is  given  in  table  III,  Volume  B. 

The  following  remarks  were  made  by  Mr.  R.  J,  Bruce  in 
1870  in  connection  with  the  hill  Baloch  :  —  "Thev  are 
nominally  Mulummadans  of  the  Sunni  sect,  but  are 
particularly  lax  in  their  religious  observances,  and  pay  little 
attention  to  fixed  times  of  prayer,  pilgrimages,  alms,  tithes, 
fasts,  etc.,  which  orthodox  Musalmdns  set  such  value  on.  A 
Baloch  on  being  asked  why  he  was  not  keeping  the  Ramzdn 
fast,  naively  replied  that  there  was  no  necessity  for  his 
doing  so,  as  his  chief  was  keeping  it  for  him.  As  might  be 
expected  from  their  lax  form  of  religion,  they  are  not  at  all 
bigoted.  They  are  superstitious  and  believe  in  omens, 
sui  h  as  particular  days,  particular  stars,  flights  of  birds,  etc., 
also  in  charms  andjins  and  tell  the  most  ridiculous  stories 
about  the  latter,  which  they  firmly  believe  to  be  true.*  " 

This  is  still  true  in  the  main,  but  it  would  appear  that  the 
more  travelled  Balcch  who  have  come  in  contact  with  other 
Muhammj  dans  are  becoming  stricter  in  their  observances 
and  especially  as  regards  the  Ramzdn. 

A  common  superstition  is  that  if  any  one  calls  to  a  tribes- 
man as  he  is  starting  on  a  journey,  he  must  sit  down  before 
going  farther.  If  immediately  after  starting  a  hare  crosses 
his  path,  he  must  return  home  and  start  again.  Among  the 
Makhidnis  blood  drawn  from  the  ear  of  a  cat  is  considered 
an  efficacious  remedy  for  snake  bites.  Before  starting  on  a 
raid  the  VVan^chis  were  accustomed  to  pass  under  a  sheet 
held  up  by  two  of  their  sacred  class  (TehAnris)  or  two  of 
their   elders  ;  and  this  was  considered    to  render   them  proof 

•  Notes   on  the  Ddra  Ghnzi  Khnn  District  and  its  border  tribes, 
by  R.  J.  Bruce  (Lahore,  1871). 


74  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

PopuLAriON.  against  the  bulla's  of  their  enemies,  though  not  against 
their  swords.  The  same  ceremony  is  observed  in  times  of 
cholera.  A  Pannt  will  not  start  on  a  journey  on  a  Friday 
and  a  Bdruzai  will  not  eat  the  flesh  of  an  ewe.  A  Jamdii 
will  not  cut  a  kandi  tree  which  is  dedicated  to  a  saint ;  will  not 
face  his  house  to  the  west,  and  will  not  travel  to  the  east  on 
the  1st  and  2nd  days  of  the  month,  to  the  south  on  the  3rd 
and  4th,  to  the  west  on  the  5th  and  6th,  and  to  the  nortn 
on  the  7th  and  8th.  It  is  considered  unpropitious  to  bury 
tlie  dead  on  the  gth  day,  and  a  horse  may  not  be  broken  in 
or  a  house  roofed  on  the  loth.  If  a  death  occurs  during 
the  panchak,  i.e.,  the  first  and  last  five  days  of  a  month,  it  is 
believed  that  it  will  be  followed  by  five  more  deaths  in  the 
same  family,  unless  the  calamity  is  averted  by  driving  an 
iron  nail  through  the  right  side  of  the  body  or  burying  an 
effigy  made  of  cloth. 

There  is  a  general  belief  in  evil  spirits  and  their  powers  of 
theft,  and  the  grain  on  the  threshing  floor  is  encircled  by  a 
line  drawn  with  a  sword,  and  a  copy  of  the  Kordn  is  placed 
over  it  until  it  can  be  measured  for  division,  for  fear  lest 
evil  spirits  should  interfere. 

Occupation.  Occupations  were  only  recorded  in  detail  in  1901  in  the 
areas  censused  on  the  standard  schedule,  the  population  of 
which  (in  the  old  Thal-Chotiali  district)  was  8,471  or  about 
9  per  cent,  of  the  total  population  of  the  district.  Of  these 
f,397  males  and  1 13  females  were  recorded  as  actual  workers, 
339  agriculturists  and  2,961  as  dependants.  Of  the  5,397 
(males)  actual  workers,  671  came  under  the  head  of  "ad- 
ministration," 84  under  '•  defence,"  239  under  "  agriculture," 
571  under  "personal  household  and  sanitary  services," 
1,409  under  "  various  trades  and  professions,"  1,449  under 
"transport,"  which  included  1,306  men  on  the  railway, 
and  462  under   "earth  work  and  labour." 

Outside  the  towns  and  bazars,  the  family  system  of 
enumeration  was  followed,  the  occupation  of  the  head  of  the 
family  being  assumed  to  be  that  of  the  remainder.  The 
population  of  the  administered  areas  in  this  case  may  be 
roughly  divided  into  six  classes  by  occupation  : — land- 
owners, cultivators,  flockowners,  traders,  labourers  and 
artisans.  The  landowners  are  the  most  numerous  class, 
and    the    other   classes    are     recruited    from    among    them. 


SOCIAL  LIFE,  75 

They  include   the   principal   tribes  of    the    district,  viz.,   the    Popilatiov. 

Kiikars,  Tarins,  Saiads,  Paiini  and   Zarlciin   Afg-hdns,   Jamdli 

and  Khosa  Baloch   and  Jats.     Most  of  these   cultivate  their 

lands  themselves,   except   the   Bdri'izai   Pannis,  some   of  the 

Saiads   and    the    wealthier  Baloch    zaminddrs  of   Nasirdbdd, 

who  employ  tenants.      In  the  plains  the  tenants  are  the  Jats 

and    Brdhuis.      The    flockowners    are    chiefly    the    Husain 

KhAnzai  and  Sarpr^karae  sections  of  the  Pdnezais,  almost  all 

the    Sdrangzais    and    Dumars,    and   a    few    Makhidni    and 

Wandchi    Tarins     of   Shdhrig,     the    Mams    of    Kohlu    and 

Quat-Mandai,    and   the  Jat  camelmen.     The   labourers     are 

chiefly    to    be    found   among    the    KdkHrs,  Jats,    Golas  and 

Brdhui    nomads.     The    artisans   indigenous    to    the    country 

are  the  blacksmith,  carpenter,    weaver,  leather  workers  and 

ntUidri  or   salt   manufacturers,  all    of    whom    are   classified 

under  the  term    'Jat.' 

Social  or  class  distinctions  are  little  observed  among  -ocial  life, 
Afghans  as  a  rule,  thougli  there  are  a  few  families,  such  as 
the  Baruzai  among  the  Panni  of  Sibi,  the  Torzai  among  the 
Makhidni,  and  some  of  the  Saiads,  who  for  various  reasons 
claim  a  superior  social  status  to  that  of  their  fellows. 
This  superiority  among  the  Bdruzais  and  Saiads  is  exempli- 
fied by  their  giving  their  daughter  in  marriage  to  selected 
individuals  only  ;  but  among  the  rest,  social  position  is  on 
a  uniform  level,  and  even  tlie  title  of  a  malik  confers  little 
distinction,  and  the  holder  of  the  title  is  treated  as  an  equal 
by  the  villai^ers.  In  the  absence  of  a  Saiad  or  mulld 
precedence  in  an  Afghdn  assembly  is  generally  given  to  the 
oldest. 

"  Among  the  Baloch  social  precedence  takes  a  more  de- 
finite form  than  among  the  Afghdns.  The  tribes  taking  their 
names  from  the  five  children  of  Jahll  Kiidn,  Rind,  Hot, 
Ldshdr,  Korai  and  Mai  Jato  are  looked  on  as  socially  superior 
to  the  rest,  and  as  Mir  Chdkar,  the  hero  of  all  Baloch  le- 
gends, was  a  Rind,  the  Rinds  are  the  most  respected  of  our 
Baloch  tribes.  The  Baloch  are  popular  as  a  race,  and  the 
result  is  that  Jats  and  others,  who  are  not  of  pure  Baloch 
origin,  often  term  themselves  Baloch,  with  the  hope  that  some 
day  they  may  be  looked  upon  as  true  members  of  the   race. 

'*  In  a  Baloch  tribe  the  particular  group  to  which  the  chief 
or  tianmiddr  belongs,  forms  a  small  bureaucracv  which  takes 


76  CHAPTER  l~DESCRIPTIVE. 

Population,  special  precedence  in  the  tribe.  The  BahAwalAnzai  amontj 
the  Marris,  the  Raht^jas  a-nong  the  Bug  is,  and  the  Sher 
Khdn;ini  among  the  Jamdlis  are  instances  in  point.  So 
great  is  the  veneration  of  a  B  iloch  tribesman  for  his  chief 
that  when  an  oath  is  required  of  him,  instead  of  swearing  by 
the  Kordn,  he  will  swear  by  the  head  or  beard  of  his  chief. 
*-  *  *  *  *  Owing  to  the  semi-military  constitution  of  the 
Baloch  tribes,  individual  precedence  is  also  easily  recognisa- 
ble. At  the  head  of  all  we  have  the  chief  or  tumanddr, 
whose  pre-eminent  position  no  one  woul  i  dare  to  dispute. 
Each  tribe  is  agiin  sub-divided  into  a  small  number  of  main 
groups  called  takkars  or  clans,  at  the  head  of  which  is  to  be 
found  a  mukadam.  Each  tnkkar  or  clan  is  divided  into  a 
number  oiphnllis  or  sections,  at  the  head  of  vvhich  is  a  loader  a, 
and  a  miikadam.  Each  section  is  again  sub-divided  into  sub- 
sections, at  the  head  of  which  is  a  viotabar,  Within-the  tribe 
the  head  of  each  sub-division  takes  precedence  in  the  order 
of  his    sub-division.*" 

The  Jats  have  already  been  mentioned  as  occupying  an 
inferior  position,  and  in  the  lowest  grade  are  to  be  found 
certain  subject  races  consisting  chiefly  of  occupational 
groups  an  I  g^'pgies.  These,  however,  are  invariably  includ- 
ed  by  the  tribesmen  under  the  generic  term  of  Jat. 

"  Before  the  arrival  of  the  Britisn  the  Hindus  merely 
resided  among  the  tribes  on  sufferance  in  their  capacity  as 
useful  agents  for  carrying  on  the  small  import  and  export 
trade  which  existed  in  former  days  *•******. 
Their  position  was  extremely  degraded  and  may  best  be 
gauged  by  the  fact  that  among  Baloch,  Brdhuis  and  Afghdns, 
there  was  an  unwritten  rule  that  in  the  course  of  raids  and 
counter  raids,  women,  children  and  Hindus  were  to  be 
spared. "t 

Zihdl'''^^^^  A  strictly  Baloch  custom  is  that  by  which  any  Baloch 
travelling  is  asked  by  those  whom  he  may  chance  to  meet 
for  the  news,  commonly  called  hdl  by  the  Baloch  themselves. 
The  hdl  means  the  latest    intelligence,    which    the    traveller 

•  Cfiisus  of  India,  1901,  Vol.  V.-A.,  pag-e  133. 
t  Census  of  India,  1901,  \"ol.  \'.-A.,  page  134. 


CO-OPERATION.  77 

is  bound  to  communicate  forthwith.  The  interrogator  in  Population. 
his  turn  repoits  the  news  he  has  gained  to  the  first  person 
he  meets,  and  thus  all  sorts  of  intelligence  are  quickly 
spread  among->t  the  Baloch.  The  custom  is  not  confined  to 
travellers,  but  when  men  of  position  meet,  the  hdl  must  be 
given  and  received,  in  strict  order  of  precedence.  The 
enquiries  are  profuse  and  cover  a  wide  range,  but  a  reference 
should  never  be  made  to  a  wife  or  other  female  relatives. 

When  addressing  a  chief,  the  term  "wdjha  sain,  dhani  (lord) 
are  used,  while  for  persons  of  sanctity  the  terms  are  />/> 
sahib,  shah  sahib  or  mulld  sahib. 

With  the  Baloch  hospitality  is  a  sacred  duty  and  may  also  Custom  of 
be  considered  a  part  of  his  religion.  A  tribesman's  door  is  ^°^P'  ^  '  y* 
open  to  all  comers,  and  an  enemy  even  may  not  come  to  his 
house  without  being  supplied  with  the  best  the  host  can 
offer.  Every  Baloch,  when  attending  his  tumanddr,  is 
ejitertained  at  hi-  tumanddr''s  expense  ;  and  when  going  on  a 
journey  he  does  not  burden  himself  with  carrying  food  but 
trusts  to  the  hospitality  of  his  neighbours. 

Among  the  Afghdos  hospitality  is  not  so  profuse  as  in  the 
case  of  the  Baloch  and  the  custom  is  limited  to  relatives  and 
friends,  who  are  entertained  according  to  their  position.  In 
every  Zarki'm  village  there  is,  however,  a  darbdn  whose 
special  duty  it  is  to  look  after  the  guests  who  are  entertained  on 
tiie  common  expense  of  the  villagers.  The  BAr\\za\  Jdgirddrs 
of  Kurk  and  Sdngdn,  the  Saiads  of  Mian  Kach,  and  some 
of  the  wealthy  zaminddrs  in  Nasirdbdd  and  Sibi  also  maintain 
guest-houses  in  which  all  strangers  are  accommodated. 

It  is  customary  among  the  Sanatia  Kdkars,  Makhidni  and    Co-operation 

Wanechi  Tari'ns,  and  Zarkuns,  to  raise  subscriptions  them-   amongst  the 

tribesmen, 
selves    on    certain    occasions,    the    system    bcmg  known   as 

bijjdr,  baspan  or  sawdl.  Such  subscriptions  are  raised  when 
an  individual  has  been  reduced  to  poverty  owing  to  unfore- 
seen circumstances,  such  as  the  burning  down  of  his  house, 
destruction  of  crops,  when  a  heavy  fine  has  been  imposed, 
or  when  he  is  heavily  in  debt.  Contributions  are  invited 
by  the  person  in  need  from  among  his  own  tribesmen,  who 
pay  him  in  cash  or  kind  according  to  their  means.  Among 
the  Makhidni  Tarins,  the  neighbouring  zaminddrs  co-operate 
m  reaping  the  harvest  [hushar girue)  and  while  so  employed 
are  led  by  the  owner  of  the  crop. 


78  CHAPTER  [—DESCRIPTIVE. 

PoPLLATiON  Among^  the  Baloch,  phor  takes  the  place  of  baspan,  and  a 
chief  or  tumanddr  may  invite  contributions  on  the  occasion 
of  a  marriage  or  to  meat  the  expenses  of  hospitality  :  he  may 
also  call  for  subscriptions  on  behalf  of  a  needy  tribesman, 
who  is  in  debt  or  has  a  heavy  fine  to  pay. 

Contributions  in  cash  known  as  mana    yyiokh  are    paid    by 
friends  and  relations   among  the   Panni  Afghans,    Jats    and 
Baloch  on  the  occasion  of  marriages,  and,  as  in  the  Punjab,  are 
treated  as  debts  of  lionourto  be  repaid  when  occasion  offers. 
Food.  The  majority  of  the  people  have  only  two  meals  daily,  one 

in  the  morning  and  the  other  at  sunset.  In  the  higher  parts 
of  the  district  wheat  is  the  staple  grain  food  and  is  made 
into  unleavened  cakes  {patiri)  baked  on  a  griddle.  In  the 
summer  leavened  cakes  [khamiri)  are  usually  eaten  for  the 
morning  meal.  Maize,  rice  and  millets  are  also  used.  In 
tlie  plains  the  staple  grain  foods  are  j'ndr  and  bdjri,  the 
former  being  the  most  common.  DdL  and  vegetables  are 
also  used,  but  wheat  flour  is  only  eaten  by  the  well-to-do. 
The  nomad  tribes  generally  bake  their  bread  in  the 
form  of  kdk  or  kiirmi,  which  is  made  by  wrapping  dough 
round  a  hot  stone  and  putting  it  on  the  embers. 

Most  people  eat  their  bread  plain  and  without  relish,  but 
an  infusion  of  krut  is  sometimes  poured  over  the  pieces  to 
which  boiling  ghi  is  added.  Flockowners  and  Jats  (camel 
breeders)  use  milk  and  its  preparations,  generally  butter- 
milk, with  their  meals.  Ogra  or  porridge  made  of  crushed 
wheat  or  maize,  boiled  in  water,  with  an  addition  of  butter- 
milk or  ghi,  is  popular  among  the  Kdkars. 

Meat  is  eaten  freely  when  it  can  be  obtained,  but  it  can 
seldom  be  afforded  by  the  poorer  classes.  Sajji  or  mutton 
roasted  before  a  wood  fire  is  a  speciality  of  the  Baloch  hill 
tribes  and  is  partaken  of  on  all  special  occasions  and  given 
to  important  guests.  The  use  of  Idndi,  a  kind  of  biltong, 
is  common  among  the  well-to-do  classes  and  also  among 
some  of  the  poorer  people  in  the  Kohlu  and  Shdhrig  tahsils. 
Another  name  for  it  \s  pursanda  and  it  is  known  as  kadit  or 
khadit  or  pattav  among  the  BrAhuis.  It  is  generally  made 
of  mutton,  but  occasionally  also  of  goat's  meat,  be.if  or 
camel's  flesh,  and  is  pickled  in  a  mixture  of  salt  and  asafoe- 
tida,  cut  into  strips  and  dried  in  the  sun. 

Now-a-days  the  diet  of  the   wealthier  classes   is   becoming 


DRESS.  79 

more  civilised.     Tliey  drink  g^reen  tea  and  sharbat  and  eat    Population. 
fowls  and   eg^gs.     The  use  of  intoxicating-  liquor  is    not  un- 
common among  the  Baloch  and  Jats  of  Nasirdbiid. 

In  the  highlands  mulberries,  grapes,  apricots,  pears  and  vegetables, 
melons  are  largely  eaten.  The  wild  fruits  in  use  are  the 
shinai  {pistacia  khanj'ak),  zarga  (wild  almonds)  and  the 
berries  of  the  juniper  tree  which  are  made  into  a  kind  of 
porridge  (dusha).  The  fruit  (tdku)  of  the  dwarf  palm  is  also 
used.  Vegetables  are  not  commonly  eaten  but  in  the  hills 
many  of  the  wild  plants  includmg  the  khokhai  (wild  onion), 
the  young  leaves  of  the  asafoetida  plant,  naghora  shergi  and 
biishki,  etc.,  are  often  used.  Dal  and  vegetables  are  grown 
in  the  plains,  the  fruits  of  the  dcr,  pi'hi,  dcla  an  J  the  seeds 
of  the  gam  and  sa7uar  ure  also    eaten. 

Except    among    the    Kdkars,    the    men    and     women     eat    ^leals. 
separately. 

The  cooking  utensils  ordinarily  in  use  are  few  and  dirty  ;    Utensils. 
they  consist  of  a  tripod,  a  stone  griddle,  an  earthen  pot,  a 
few  drinking  bowls,  a  wooden  plate  used  both  for  kneading 
and  eating,  and  a  copper  can  with  a  spout  (gadwa). 

A  Baloch  wears  a  \ong jdma  like  a  smock  frock  down  to  Dress, 
the  heels,  siUhan  or  loose  trousers,  a  long  chaddar  or  scarf,  a 
pagri  oi  coK.\.on.  cloth,  and  shoes  narrow  at  the  toe  or  sandals 
of  leather  or  grass.  He  wears  nothing  but  white,  and  has  an 
objection  to  colours  of  any  kind,  and  will  wear  nothing 
coloured  except  his  chogha  or  overcoat.  The  prejudice  is, 
however,  beginning  to  break  down,  and,  except  among  the 
Marris  and  Bugtis,  coloured  and  embroidered  coats  are 
sometimes  worn  by  the  leading  men.  A  Baloch  woman 
wears  a  red  or  ^vhite  cotton  sheet  over  her  head,  and  a  chola 
or  long  shift  resembling  a  night  gown,  which  reaches  down 
to  the  ankles  and  is  prettily  embroidered  in  front.  She  also 
wears  red  or  white  paijdmas.  The  hair  is  worn  in  a  long 
queue  and  the  ordinary  ornaments  in  use  are  bracelets,  a 
nose-ring,  a  necklet  and  ear-rings.  All  Baloch  men  vi  full 
age  carry  a  sword,  and  sometimes  shields  made  of  leaiher 
and  studded  with  silver  or  brass. 

Each  tribe  has  its  own  distinctive  marks  either  in  the  wav 
of  tying  \.\\Q  pagri  ox  in  the  cut  of  their  clothes.  These  are 
difficult  to  describe  but  are  readily  recognised  by  the  tribes- 
men themselves. 


8o  CHAPTER  I-  DESCRIPTIVE. 

PoPLLATioN.  The  dress  of  the  Jats  and  Pannis  resembles  that  of  the 
Baloch,  but  their  shirts  are  shorter,  and  the  Jats  often  wear 
khaki  or  blue  troupers  ;  the  trousers  of  their  married  women 
are  generally  red  and  those  of  the  girls  white. 

Among  other  Afgh^ins,  the  dress  of  a  male  consists  of 
baggy  trousers  {partuk)  or  {shalwdr)  jdbai  or  shirt  which 
reaches  to  the  knee,  patkae  or  turban  tied  over  a  conical  cap 
{khwalut),  a  poti  or  scarf  and  a  pair  of  shoes  or  sandals.  The 
women  have  a  wrapper  {tikrai)  and  a  long  shift  {rebi'ut  or 
kamis)  reaching  down  to  the  ankles,  which  in  the  case  of 
married  women  is  richly  embroidered  in  front.  In  the  high- 
1  inds,  felt  coats  [kosac)  and  pos^ms  are  worn  in  the  winter. 
Sandals  are  usually  worn  but  among  the  hill  tribes  these 
are  being  replaced  by  second-hand  ammunition  boots 
which  can  be  bought  for  about  Rs.  3. 

The  rise  in  the  stand  ird  of  living  has  led  to  a  general 
improvement  in  the  style  of  dress  among  the  wealthier 
classes  in  all  parts  of  the  district,  and  the  home  made 
materials  are  being  rapidly  replaced  by  the  finer  Indian 
piece-goods  and  muslins.  Better  maierijls  are  also  used  for 
the  dress  of  the  women. 

Hair.  All   the  tribesmen   Baloch,    Afghan,    and  Brdhui  as   well 

as  the  Jats  wear  long  hair  which  falls  in  curls  on  either  side 
of  the  face.  Among  the  Afghans  part  of  the  hair  of  un- 
married girls  is  made  into  fine  plaits  over  the  forehead  and 
tied  with  a  brooch  [sariingae]  the  mark  of  maidenhjod,  and 
the  rest  is  tied  in  a  single  plait  at  the  back.  That  of  the 
married  women  is  divided  by  a  parting,  brought  round  the 
ear  and  made  into  two  plaits  at  the  back. 

Dwellings.  The  nomads  of  the  highlands  generally  use   blanket   tents 

{kizhdi)  made  of  goats'  hair.  A  variation  of  the  kizhdi  is  the 
summer  shelter,  which  is  covered  with  mats  or  bushes 
instead  of  blankets  and  is  called  kudhal.  Many  of  the 
cultivators  in  the  Zawarah  valley  abandon  their  villages  in 
the  summer  and  erect  temporary  encampments  in  the  hills 
which  are  known  as  mena. 

In  the  plains  the  shelters  of  the  nomads  are  covered  with 
mats  made  of  the  dwarf  palm  or  of  reeds  and  are  known 
as  kiri. 

The  settled  inhabitants  of  the  poorer  classes  live  in  mud- 
huts,    consisting  generally   of  a  single    room.     The  roof  is 


AMUSEMENTS.  8i 

either  flat  or  sloping,   and  is  made   of  brushwood,  plastered    roriLAiiON. 

over  with  mud.     In  the  Zidrat  hills  where  juniper  trees  occur, 

the    roofs  are    thatched    with   juniper    bark,    and    somewhat 

resemble  English  cottages.     The  single    room    is   employed 

for  all  purposes,  including  use  as  a  cattle  shed.     The  houses 

of  the   wealthier  classes  in   Sibi   and   Nasirdbjld   have  been 

greatly   improved    in    recent   years,    and    consist    of  several 

rooms    surrounded    by   a    courtyard  with    separate  sheds  for 

cattle  and  stores  of  grain  and  b/uisa. 

The  method  of  burial  usual  among  Muhammadans  is  in  Disposal  of 
vogue,  the  body  bemg  laid  north  and  south  with  the  head  t^>e  <^eatl- 
inclined  to  the  west.  The  inulld  draws  the  kalima  either  on  the 
forehead  of  the  corpse  or  on  a  piece  of  pottery  or  clod  which 
is  placed  under  its  head.  Mourning  lasts  for  three  to  seven 
days  in  the  case  of  a  person  over  seven  years  old,  during 
which  time  visits  of  condolence  are  receiv^ed  and  prayers  are 
offered  for  the  sjuI  of  the  deceased.  Relations  and  friends 
commg  from  a  distance  to  condole  with  the  family  bring 
a  sheep  or  some  money  as  an  offering  and  are  entertained 
by  the  bereaved  family.  Among  many  of  the  tribes  new 
clothes  are  not  worn,  and  no  pleasures  are  indulged  in  during 
the  period  of  mourning.  The  members  of  the  deceased's 
family  among^the  Baloch  and  Jats  of  Sibi  do  not  sleep  on  a 
bedstead,  and  the  Baloch  abstain  from  milk  during  this 
period.  The  mourning  in  the  case  of  a  child  under  seven 
years  lasts  from  one  to  three  days.  Two  stones  are  general- 
ly placed  on  the  grave  of  a  man,  one  at  the  head  and  one 
at  the  foot,  and  three  on  that  of  a  woman,  the  third 
being  in  the  centre.  Among  the  KAkars  long  poles  are 
erected  over  the  graves  of  saintly  persons  as  a  mark  of 
reverence. 

The  only  in-door  game  is  chak  or  bet,  which  resembles  chess   Amusements 
and    is    played    by    two    or    four    players.       Boys    play    with    ^""^  festi- 
knuckle  bones  {badai)  and  are  fond  of  marbles. 

Of  out-door  games  may  be  mentioned  hetida^  resembling 
prisoners'  base,  played  by  the  Kdkars,  and  tir-kamdn  or 
spear  throwing  which  is  practised  by  the  Zarkuns.  The 
Marris  are  keen  marksmen  and  spend  much  time  in  shooting 
at  a  target.  The  well-to-do  classes  both  shoot  and  course. 
Dancing  {atlanr  or  jhi'ntiar)  is  popular  among  the  men  and 
women  on  all  festive  occasions.  Among  the  Wandchis  and 
6 


82  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE. 

PopiLATioN.  Jats  mixed  dances  are  held,  but  among  all  other  tribes  men 
and  women  dance  separately. 

The  only  festivals  of  consequence  are  the  two  his.     Horse 
races,  dancing  and  shooting  at   a  mark    and    wrestling  form 
the  amusements  on  these  occasions. 
Shrines.  Shrines  are  ubiquitous  in  the   district,  almost  every  village 

grave-yard  having  a  patron  saint,  who  in  his  lifetime  was 
a  village  or  tribal  elder.  Reverence  for  such  saints  is 
especially  strong  among  the  Kakar  and  Tarin  Afghans. 
Their  shrines  generally  consist  of  little  more  than  a  heap  of 
stones,  or  a  rough  mud  or  stone  enclosure,  surrounded  by 
some  poles  to  which  rags,  horns  and  metal  bells  are  attached. 
Shrines  in  ^^  ^^e  Shdhrig  tahsil   the  best   known    shrines    are    those 

Shihrig.  of:  (i)  Mano  Nika,  a  saint  of  the  Manra  valley,   who  mira- 

culously produced  a  spring  of  water  and  whose  shrine  cures 
many  diseases  and  is  specially  efiicacious  for  childless 
women  ;  (2)  Midn  Shadi  Nika  of  Kowds,  who  is  said  to  have 
destroyed  the  old  village  of  Kowds,  the  ruins  of  which  are 
still  pointed  out  ;  (3)  Kharwdri  Nika,  at  Goshki  nearZidrat  ; 
{4)  Ismdil  Nika,  a  Kadian  Saiad  at  Khost  who  produced  a 
spring  of  water  near  Khost  village  ;  (5)  Sheikh  Musa, 
whose  shrine  lies  at  about  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the 
Shdhrig  tahsil,  and  who  was  the  progenitor  of  the  Sheikhs, 
and  is  said  to  have  produced  the  water  which  irrigates  the 
Shdhrig  lands;  and  (6)  Bare  Shdh  of  Midn  Kach.t  The 
Want^chis  also  attach  great  reverence  to  the  shrine  of 
PIr  Bukhdri,  who  turned  the  water  of  the  Piii  stream  into 
milk  {pai  or  piii)  and  thus  gave  its  name  to  the  Pui  valley. 
Pir  Shdh  Mahmud,  whose  shrines  are  situated  at  Choti  in 
Kohlu.  the  Jandrdn   hill    and    at    Dathi  in  Bdrkhdn,  is  credited  with 

having  produced  a  spring  of  water  ;  he  is  also  supposed  to 
have  subsisted  solely  on  the  milk  of  the  wild  sheep.  The 
shrine  is  held  in  great  reverence  by  the  Zarkuns  of  Kohlu, 
the  Khdtrdns  and  by  the  Liini  Afghdns  of  Duki.  The  shrine 
at  Maiddn  Gari  of  the  Tawakli  Mast  Fakir,  a  Shirdni  Marri 
who  died  in  1892,  has  also  a  great  local  reputation. 

cu  •       ■  In  the  Sibi  tahsil    the    important    shrines  are  those  of:  (i) 

Shrines  in  ^  ^    ' 

Sibi.  Male  or  the  Akhund  Sdhib  near  Sdfi  ;  (2)    Pirak  Pir,  a   Marri 

saint  ;  (3)  Pir  Hdji  and  Pir  Bukhdri  whose   shrines    are    near 

i   Mentioned  under  Bukhdri  Saiads  at  page   69. 


NAMES  AND  TITLES.  83 

Sibi  ;  (4)  Sheikh  Katte  near  Ndri  ;  (5)  Hotmdn  the  Marri,  at   Popllation. 

Quat-Mandai  ;  and  (6)    Saiad    Nur    Muhammad    at    Sdngdn. 

Another  famous  saint  in  the  Sibi  district  was  Saiad    Bachan 

Shdh,  who,  in  order  to  show  his  miraculous  power  to  Nawdb 

Misri  Khdn,  Bdruzai,  cast  his  own  son,  Juman  Shdh,  into  the 

fire  and  broujjht  him  out  unhurt. 

Both  among-  girls  and  boys,  and  especially  among  the  Jats  Names  and 
and  Kdkars,  many  names  are  to  be  found  which  are  possibly  '^'"^^• 
of  totemistic  origin.  They  are  those  of  animals  or  plants, 
such  as  toil  (parrot)  and  khabar  (tree)  and  references  to 
colours  such  as  «//«/ (bay)  and  sainand  (dun).  In  other  cases 
the  denominations  used  for  men  are  those  usual  among 
Muhammadans,  while,  in  the  case  of  women,  names  begin- 
nin^'•  or  ending  with  Bibi,  Khdtun,  Ndz  or  Bdno  are  popular. 
Shortened  forms  of  the  long  names  given  to  men  as  Piru  for 
Pir  Muhammad,  Durru  for  Dur  Muhammad,  etc.,  are  fre- 
quently used.  Among  the  Baloch  and  Jats,  Pannis  and 
Zarkuns,  the  names  of  the  grand-parents  are  often  given  to 
the  children  of  both  sexes. 

Among  the  domiciled  Hindus,  abbreviated  names,  such  as 
D^i'i,  Aru,  Wihra,  Tota  are  much  used,  and  the  names  of  the 
girls  generally  follow  those  of  their  brothers,  thus,  if  the 
brother  is  called  Tota,  his  sister's  name  would  be  Toti,  and, 
if  Ganga,  Gangi. 

No  ceremonies  are  observed  on  the  birth  of  a  girl,  and  she 
is  named  by  the  mother  or  some  female  relative.  The  birth 
of  a  boy  is  announced  thrice  by  the  women  attending  the 
mother,  guns  are  fired,  and  there  are  general  congratulations. 
Among  the  wealthy  Baloch,  the  man  who  conveys  the  first 
ncivs  to  the  father  is  presented  with  a  camel  or  a  horse.  The 
boy  is  named  on  the  third  or  sixth  day,  after  consultation 
with  a  ?nulld.  The  ceremony  of  circumcision  takes  place 
before  the  seventh  birthday. 

In  stating  his  name  a  man  will  generally  add  that  of  his 
sub-section,  section,  clan  and  tribe  to  which  he  belongs. 
The  term  khdit  is  used  both  as  a  suffix  and  prefix,  and  in 
the  latter  Ciise  is  considered  a  mark  of  honour  among  the 
Afghdns.  The  tQ.vmmalik  is  applied  among  the  Afghans  not 
only  to  village  headmen  but  also  to  large  landowners  and 
men  of  influence.  Strictly  speaking,  the  term  sarddr  is  con- 
fined   to    the   chiefs   of  the  Marri,  Bugti,  and  Dombki  tribes 


84  CHAPTER  I— DESCRIPTIVE, 

Population,  and  to  the  head  of  the  Bdruzai  family  of  Sibi  ;  but  it  is  com- 
monly applied  by  the  Pdnt^zais,  Sdrangzais,  Zarkiins  and 
Dumars  to  their  leading  men.  The  term  wadera  is  used 
among-  the  Baloch  to  distinguish  the  headmen  of  the 
various  clans,  and  the  word  ?nir  is  also  a  title  of  honour. 
Among  the  Jats  the  term  ruis  is  given  to  their  leading  men. 
Among  titles  possessmg  a  religious  significance  may  be 
mentioned  the  prefix  shah  sahib  or  the  suffix  shiih,  which  are 
employed  by  Salads  ;  sheikh  is  also  sometimes  u>-ed  in  a 
similar  sense.  The  terms  niuLld  and  akhund  are  applied  to 
men  \\\\o  have  some  pretensions  to  religious  learning. 
Rules  of  A  knowledge  of  the   rules  of  iionour  {maydr),  which  pre- 

honour.  vailed  among  the  people   before  the   British  occupation  and 

which  still    influence   the  actions  of  many    of   them,    is    not 
without  importance  from  the  point  of  view  of  administration, 
and  a  brief  reference  may  be  made  to  them  here.     They  are 
gradually  giving  way  before  British  law  and  order. 
It  was  incumbent  on  a  tribesman  : — 
(i)     To  avenge  blood. 

(2)  To  fight  to  the  death  for  a  person  who  had  taken 
refuge  with  him.  The  refugee  was  called  hamsdyah  or  bhot, 
and  was  always  maintained  by  his  protector  so  long  as  he 
remained  unjer  the  latter's  roof.  An  adulterer  was, 
however,  generally  refused  protection. 

(3)  To  defend  to  the  last  property  entrusted  to  him. 

(4)  To  be  hospitable  and  to  provide  for  the  safety  of  the 
person  and  property  of  a  j^uest.  Responsibility  for  the  pro- 
perty of  a  guest  does  not  appear  to  have  been  undertaken 
by  the  Pannis  and  Jats  of  Sibi,  but  a  Tarin  or  Kdkar  of 
Sh^hrig  and  a  Zarkiin  was  bound  to  recoup  any  loss. 

(5)  To  refrain  from  killing  a  woman,  a  Hindu,  a  mins- 
trel or  a  boy  who  had  not  taken  to  trousers. 

(6)  To  pardon  an  offence  on  the  intercession  of  a  woman 
of  the  offender's  family,  a  Saiad  or  a  mulld^  an  exception 
being  always  made  in  cases  of  adultery  and  murder. 

(7)  To  refrain  from  killing  a  man  who  had  entered  the 
shrine  of  a  pir  so  long  as  he  remained  within  its  precincts  ; 
and  also  a  man  who,  whilst  fighting,  begged  for  quarter 
with  grass  in  his  mouth,  or  a  cloth  round  his  neck  or  wiio 
put  down  his  arms. 

(8)  To  cease  fighting  when  a  mulld,  a  Saiad,  or  a  woman 


BLOOD  COMPENSATION.  85 

bearing  the  Koran  011  liis  or  her  head,   intervened  between    Population 

the  panies. 

(9)     To  punish  an  adulterer  with  death. 

In  pre-British  days  blood  had  to  be  avenged  by  blood  if  System  of 
-  ,  .  .  ,    •    n  I  T     I        reprisals, 

the  parties  were  of  equal  position  and  influence  ;  but  it  the 

relations  of  the  person  killed  were  weak,  the  matter  was 
compromised  by  the  payment  of  compensation.  In  cases  in 
which  the  parties  belonged  to  the  same  tribe  and  the  offender 
himself  was  out  of  reich,  his  nearest  relation,  viz.,  his 
brother,  father  or  cousin  was  slain.  If,  however,  the  offender 
belonged  to  another  tribe,  it  was  incumbent  on  the  aggrieved 
party  to  kill  one  of  the  section,  clan  or  tribe  to  which 
the  former  belonged.  Sucli  a  system  was  liable  to  indefinite 
extension  and  led  to  interminable  blood-feuds  which  con- 
tinued until  either  the  authorities  or  friends  intervened  to 
arbitrate.  In  such  cases  the  losses  on  either  side  were 
reckoned  up  and  compensation  was  paid  to  the  side  which 
had  lost  most. 

Might  was  right  in  days  gone  by,   and   the   position  of  the    Blood  com- 
1  1  •      •       1  r     .,        •       J    ^         •    •         .Li        pensation. 

party  aggrieved  was  the  principal  factor  in  determining  the 

price  to  be  paid  for  blood  ;  hence  the  compensation    for  a 

nuilhi,  a  Saiad  or    a  person   belonging    to  a  sarddr  kliel  or 

leading   family    was   ordinarily   double    that    payable    for   a 

tribesman.     The  ordinary  rate  of  compensation    at  present 

among  the  JamdHs,  Golas  and  Khosas  is  a  girl  and  Rs.  20c; 

Umrdnis,   a  girl    and    Rs.  200    or    Rs.    1,500    if   no   girl  is 

given  ;  among  the  Jats  a  girl  or  Rs.  500  ;  among  the  tribes 

in   Sibi  it  is  Rs.    200   in   cash,   a  girl,   a  sword  and  a  gun  ; 

and  among  the  Pannis  two  girls.      Among  the  Afghdn  tribes 

of  Shdhrig    it    varies    from    Rs.    700  to  Rs.    2,500,   a   larger 

portion  of  which  is  made  up  in  kind  ;  while  among  the  Zarkuns 

of  Kohlu  the  rate  of  payment  is  a  girl,   a  sword   or  gun  and 

Rs.  500.     The  loss  of  an  eye  or  an  arm  counts  as  equivalent 

to  half  a  life  ;  and  the  compensation  for  a  tooth  varies  from 

Rs.  ID  to  Rs.  60.      In  former  days  in  Nasirdbdd  a  thief  was 

made  to  pay  eleven  times  the  value  of  the  stolen  property. 


CHAPTER    II. 


ECONOMIC. 


Agricul-      ^T^ he  two  dominant  features  which   present   themselves   in 
TURE.  1       connection  with  the   general   conditions   under   which 

ao-riculture  can  be  carried  out  are  the  presence  of  large 
mountainous  or  desert  tracts  which  can  never  be  brought 
under  cultivation  and  the  comparatively  small  proportion  of 
land  which  possesses  perennial  sources  of  irrigation.  A  large 
part  of  the  cultivable  area  consists  of  land  which  is  incapable 
of  permanent  irrigation  and  entirely  dependent  on  rainfall. 
This  cultivation  however  is  always  precarious  and  a  fair  crop 
cannot  be  expected  with  any  degree  of  certainty  oftener  than 
once  in  about  five  years. 

The  conditions  of  the  different  parts  of  the  district  vary  as 
o-reatly  as  the  physical  aspects.  Nasirabdd,  as  already  stated, 
is  provided  with  a  system  of  canals  ;  four  out  of  the  six 
circles  of  the  Sibi  tahsil  are  irrigated  by  channels  bringing 
a  permanent  supply  of  water  from  the  Ndri  river,  while  the 
others  consist  largely  of  dry-crop  area.  The  cultivation  ot 
the  Kohlu  plain  depends  chiefly  on  rain.  In  the  Harnai  valley 
water  is  abundant,  but  land  is  comparatively  scarce,  and  in 
the  Zidrat  hills  the  cultivation  is  principally  confined  to  the 
small  valleys  which  are  irrigated  by  springs  or  streams.  The 
Marri  and  Bugti  hills  afford  small  opportunity  for  cultivation 
and  their  general  conditions  are  dealt  with  separately  in 
Chapter  V. 
Soil.  The  soil  of  the  plains   of  Sibi   and    Naslrdbdd    is  alluvium 

commonly  known  as  pat;  in  the  lower  highlands  it  is 
sandy  ;  in  Kohlu  it  is  much  impregnated  with  salt  ;  and 
clay  and  gravel  occur  at  the  higher  elevations.  The 
best  soil  is  a   light  loam   called   viai  or    lat,    which    is  found 


RAINFALL.  87 

in    tlie    Sibi  and    Nasirabj'id   tahsils    and    is   suitable    for  all       Agricul- 

crops.      Next    comes    the    khauri,    which    has    a    light   clay         ture. 

surface,    retains     moisture     and    is     especially    suitable    for 

ftidr.       It    is    chiefly   found   in   the    Nasirdbdd   tahsil   and   at 

Marghzdni,  Bostdn,  Ddvi,  Usnit-ini  and  Sdfi   Pirak  in  the  Sibi 

tahsil,     A  dark  loam  called  torn  visakka  or  sidh  zamiii,  is  found 

in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil,  and  is  used  for  the  cultivation  of  wheat, 

rice    and  jiidr.     The    other  varieties    are    the    mitJii,    which 

contains  an  admixture  of  sand  and  clay  ;  the  thaddi,  a   fertile 

soil  found  in  Nasirdbdd  ;  and  the  ddnidfi,  containing  a  mixture 

of  gravel.      The   worst  kind   is  the  kallar^  kallari  or  kalrdti, 

which  produces  salt  efflorescence  ;  it  is  met  with  in  all  parts, 

but  chiefly  in  the  Sibi  plain  and  in  the  south-eastern  portion  of 

ihe  Kohlu  valley. 

The  rainfall  varies  with   the   altitude   from   4*95   inches  at   Rainfall  and 
Sibi  to  ii'5t  inches  at  Shdhrig.      In  the   upper  parts   of  the   cukiva'ti'on 
district    tiie    heaviest    rainfall    is    in     winter    from    October  in  relation 
to     March,    while    in    the    plains    the    rnost    important   rains      ^^'^^  °' 
are  those  which   fall  during  the   summer   months.     A  good 
rainfall   affects   not  only  the   rain   crop   cultivation  but  also 
the    irrigated    land    and    the    springs,    streams  and    kdreses, 
which  supply  the  water  for    irrigation.     For   a    really   good 
harvest  in  the  highlands  ram  or  snow  is  required  in  December 
and  January.     This  enables  a  large  amount  of  rain  crop  land 
to  be  brought  under  cultivation  and  replenishes  the    sources 
of  irrigation.      In  the  dry-crop  areas  in  the  plains   the    culti- 
vation ofyV/^-zV.  which  is  the   principal   crop,   is  dependent  on 
the  summer  rains  which  bringdown  the  flood  water  from  the 
hills.     The  lands  in  Nasirdbdd  are  mainly  dependent  on  the 
periodical  inundations  of  the  Indus  river  which  supplies    the 
high  level  canals.     These  floods  usually  occur  from  June  to 
September.      In  this  tahsil  the  local    rainfall    is   very   scanty 
(usually  about  3  inches),  and  the  khushkdba  cultivation  is  un- 
certain and  precarious. 

Table  IV,  Volume  B,  shows  the  irrigated  and  unirrigated    Irrigated 

villages  in  the  District  with  their  sources  of   irrigfation.      Of  ^"^  unirn 

the  298  villages,  198  are  wholly  irrigated,  39  depend  on  flood   in  the  Dis- 

water,  49  are  partly  irrigated,  while   12    have   no    permanent   tnct  and 

"...  ^  sources  of 

source  or  irrigation.  irrigation. 

Details  of  cultivable  and    irrigable   area   with   sources   of 

irrigation  in  the  Sibi,   ^^h^hrig  and  Nasirdbdd  tahsils  which 


88  CHAPTER  II  -ECONOMIC. 

Agricll-       have  been  partly  surveyed    are   given  in    table    V^    Vol.    B. 
TURE.        fhe  following  abstract  shows  the  areas  in  1904-05  :— 


Population 
dependent 
on  agricul- 
ture. 


Seasons  of 
the  year. 
Sowing 
and  harvest 
times. 


1 

j  Total  area 
Tahsil.              surveyed 
Acres. 

( 

^"^"•''-    Cultivable 

r-^^^          Acres. 
Acres. 

,           ,  -        Khush- 
Irrigable       ^^^^ 

A""-    j   Acres. 

Sibi      249,700(0)       124,462        125,238          81,591   143-647 

i 
Shihrig         ...        40,314  (/O         27,053          13,261          10,250       3,011 

Nasi'rdb/id     ...      501,234  (r)        186,980        314,254        303,606      10,648 

Total     ...      791,248 

338,495        452.753 

395.447      57.306 

((/)   Does  not  include  Ouat-.Mandai,    Badra,  Tokhi,   Pur    and 

other  tracts  still  unsurveyed. 
(6f  Does  not  include  Warikha  and   other  tracts  wliich   were 

not  surveyed, 
(c)  Does  not  include  the  dry   crop  area  of  Lahri,   Dombki, 

Sundari,  Dhdnda  and  NasirAb/id  estimated  at   about 

21,538  acres. 

In  the  administered  area  the  bulk  of  the  population  is  de- 
pendent on  agriculture,  but  the  highlanders,  as  a  rule,  com- 
bine flockowning  with  cultivation.  The  best  cultivators  are 
the  Jats  of  Sibi  and  the  Khosas,  Golas  and  Jats  of  Nasirdbad. 

Two  principal  harvests  are  recognised  :  the  spring  harvest 
which  is  known  in  different  parts  of  the  district  as  sarav  (Sibi 
and  Nasirdbdd),  ahari  (Marris)  and  dobae  or  kliushbar 
(Afghdns)  ;  and  the  sdnivanri  or  autumn  harvest  which  is 
also  known  z.%  soheli  {')s\<\xx\s)  and  manae  or  savzbar  (Afghans). 
Among  revenue  officials  these  harvests  are  known,  as  in 
India,  as  r«^z  and  kharif.  In  the  Sibi  and  Nasirabad  plains 
a  third  crop  known  as  chitri  is  sown  in  the  month  of  chetr 
(March)  and  reaped  in  the  month  of  June.  It  ciiiefly  consists 
of  melons  and  of  juary  which  is  intended  as  a    fodder    crop. 

In  the  highlands  the  rabi  crop  is  the  most  important  and 
is  appropriately  cd^Wo.^  \.\\Q.  ghati  fasal  or  major  crop.  It  is 
sown  between  the  months  of  October  and  December,  and  the 
harvesting  extends  from  May  till  July  according  to  the 
altitude.  In  the  dry  crop  areas  in  the  hills,  the  sowing 
of  wheat  takes  place  during  the  months  of  March  and 
April,     In  the  plains  the    crop  is  sown    between  the    months 


CROPS. 


i'9 


of  October  and  December  and  reaped  in  April.  The  kha- 
rif  is  sown  between  the  months  of  July  and  August  artd 
cut  between  October  and  December.  In  the  higher  altitudes, 
where  the  crop  matures  more  gradually,  it  is  sown  much 
earlier  so  that  it  may  be  harvested  before  the  frosts  set  in. 

The  following  are   the  chief   crops    produced    at    the    two 
principal  harvests  :  - 

(\)     Sibi  and  Naslrabdd  tahslls — 

Kharif. 


AGRICI'L- 
TURK. 


Rabi. 

Wheat  (  Triticiim  sativiini). 
Sar.shaf    {Brassica    caiiipex- 

tris   var  :    Si/ia/>/x  dicha- 

toma). 
Jamba  also  called   fiiraini'ni 

{Enica  sativd). 
Grnm  {Cicerarietinuin). 
Barley  {Hordeiun  vul^are). 
Matar  (Pimm  sa'^ivu??t). 
Tobacco    {IVicotinnn     taha- 

cum"). 
Palezdt  (.Cuciirbita). 
Lucerne  {Medicairo    saliva). 
(2)     SiiAhrig  and  Kohlu  tahsils- 


]\i{\.r{A  ndropogon  sorg-Jium).  * 
Rice  {Orysn  satir/a). 
Til  {Sesn77iiim  indic"7n). 
Cotton  {Gossypiitm). 
Indisjo        {Indigijera       tine- 
tori  a). 
Bdjri      {Pennisetum    typhoi- 

detivi). 
Mung  {P/iast'olus  i>iung-6). 
Moth    [l  haseclus     aconitifo- 

lius). 
Kirmg  {Setria  Italica). 


[Pan  it  II  in    viilia- 


Rabi.  Kharif. 

Wheat  Rice. 

Barley.  Ma'ze. 

Pdlezit. 
Lui  erne. 
Tobacco. 
Azhdin 
ceiim). 
Kangni  {Paniann  Italicnvi). 
The  only  fibre  crop  other  than  cotton  is   jute  (sun)  which  is 
sown  in  small  quantities  in  the    Nasirdbdd  tahsil  during  the 
/^Z/rtr// harvest. 

Table  VI,  Vol.  B,  gives  the  details  for  several  years  of  the 
areas  under  the  different  kinds  of  crop  in  the  tahsils  which 
have  been  surveyed. 

In  the  Sibi  tahsil  the  area  under  crops  in  1900-01  amounted 
to  37,717  acres:  18,170  acres  under  rabi,  and  19,547  under 
kharif;  the  areas  under  the  principal  crops  being  wheat 
J3>5'5  acres,  oil  seeds  4,248  a.cres,ju(h  18,314  acres,  rice  199 
acres  and  cotton  530. 

•  Andropogon  sorghum  is  known    .ts  jiiar    or  juir  in    Nasiribid  and  Sibi,    and  as 
iuiri  in  Shihrig  and  Kohlu. 


go  CHAPTER  H—ECOXOMIC. 

Agbicll-  In    the    Shihrig  tahsil    the    area  under    crops  in   1904-05 

TURE.  ^^^g    9,777  acres,    including    44  acres    under    gardens ;  the 

rfldi  crops    covered    6,191    acres    and    included  5,793    s^cres 

under   wheat  ;    while    there   were    3,542  acres  under   kharify 

including  maize  660  acres,  and  rice  2,368  acres. 

The  average  area  under  crop  in  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsii 
between  1893-4  and  1904-5  was  83,739  acres  :  rabi  16,675 
acres  and /t//«/'//' 67, 06 1  acres.  The  principal  crops  were: 
y««r  46,618  acres,  wheat  2,656  acres,  oil  seeds  including /^7 
22,253  acres,  rice  1,805  acres,  cotton  108  acres  and  indigo  77 
acres.  The  area  under  crop  in  this  tahsil  increased  from 
57,663  acres  in  1893-4  to  108,787  acres  in  1903-4  and  it  fell 
to  102,736  acres  in    1904-5. 

Staple  food-         The  largest  cultivation    oi  jiuir  is   in  Sibi  and    Nasirdbdd. 

^^^^^u'ir  The  following  varieties  are    recognised  in  Sibi   -.—  Chaububhi, 

turi,  tor,  tor,  gdhri,  inithri  or  mithra  ;  and  kahdni,  the  last 
named,  taking  its  name  from  Kahdn  in  the  Marri  country, 
whence  it  was  imported  some  years  ago.  The  first  four  are 
the  most  generally  cultivated.  The  grains  of  the  tor  and 
mithri  are  of  a  brownish  tint,  of  the  gahri  red,  and  of  all  the 
other  varieties  white.  The  chaububhi  is  noted  for  the 
sweetness  of  the  stalk  and  the  turi  fetches  the  best  price. 
The  /«rz  and  mithri  2^x0.  also  commonly  grown  in  Nasirdbdd, 
where  the  other  varieties  in  use  are  the  baghddr,  alakh, 
Junpur,  paldsho,  sdwara  and  sathri.  The  baghddr  and  alakh 
are  considered  the  best  and  are  largely  cultivated.  The 
baghddr,  turi  and  sdwara  were  originally  imported  from 
Kachhi  and  the  remainder  from  Sind.  The  different  varie- 
ties usually  take  from  four  and  a  half  to  five  n>onths  to 
ripen,  with  the  exception  of  the  sathri,  which  matures  early, 
being  ready  for  the  harvest  in  ninety  days  after  the  sowing  ; 
hence  the  saying  — 

"  mahi'na  patme  ;  mahina  ganne  ; 
maht'na  anne  ;'  i.e.,    "  one  month 
leaves  ;  one  month  stalks  ;    one  month  grain." 

In  irrigated  lands,  where  a  good  supply  of  water  can  be 
brought  on  to  the  ground,  one  watering  is  considered  suf- 
ficient to  prepare  the  ground  for  ploughing.  After  the 
ground  has  been  ploughed,  the  seed  is  usually  sown  broad- 
cast (chhat),  this  method  being  found  to  be  more  satisfactory 
than   drilling.     The  seeds  usually   germinate   in   about   four 


WHEA  T.  91 

days,  an6  on  the  seventh  day   the  young  plants  show    above      Agricul- 

•^  °  .  ....  TURE. 

the  ground.  There  is  no  fixed  time  for  sowing,  which  is 
dependent  on  the  supply  of  water,  the  following  being  the 
names  of  the  crops  which  are  sown  at  different  periods  : — 
C/id^ri  sown  in  March  [chctr),  jethi  sown  in  May  (jcih)  and 
sdnwari,  ?^\so  aWcd  agetrt  or  agdtfi  which,  is  sown  in  July 
or  earlier  if  water  is  available.  There  is  also  a  fourth 
crop  called  pcchhd tri  wh'xch  is  sown  in  August  and  reaped  in 
Decamber  or  January.  This  is  not  regarded  as  a  satisfac- 
tory crop  and  is  only  sown  as  a  last  resort. 

The  chclri.  which  requires  a  watering  in  May,  is  reaped  in 
June  and  is  principally  used  as  fodder.  The  stalks  often 
sprout  again,  and  if  water  can  be  given  in  July  and  again 
in  September,  produce  grain  in  about  November.  This  crop 
is  known  as  thadda  and  tejar.  The  stalks  of  the  thadda  are 
considered  as  dangerous  for  horses  and  cattle.  The  jethi 
is  considered  the  best  and  safest  crop,  'a.nd^' Jethi ghar  weihi" 
is  a  common  saying,  meaning  that  the  jetht  once  sown  is  as 
good  as  garnered.  When  the  ears  have  been  harvested, 
the  stalks,  known  as  tdnda  kdna  or  bhannar^  are  cut  and 
stored  for  fodder.  The  ordinary  method  of  threshing  is 
that  usual  in  India,  a  long  pole  being  placed  in  the  ground 
in  the  centre  of  the  threshing  floor  and  a  number  of  bullocks 
being  driven  round  it  to  tread  out  the  grain. 

The judr  is  a  hardy  crop  and  is  not  subject  to  many  diseases. 
The  stalk  is  sometimes  attacked  by  insects,  which  are  known 
as  ki/ivdn,  chirto  and  mdkar.  Kdnri'xs  a  kind  of  rust  which 
attacks  the  ear.  The  hot  south  winds  {Id  or  jhold)  cause 
y/io/a /^«/// or  withering  up  of  the  stalks.  Other  diseases  are 
kumbi  caused  by  cold  winds  and  want  of  moisture,  and  7ndla 
produced  by  over  irrijj^ation. 

In  the  Sibi  and  Shdhrig  tahsils  the    cultivation    of   wheat        Wheat, 
is  generally  confined  to  irrigated    lands    except   in    years    of 
good    rainfall  when  it  is    also  grown  in  dry  crop  areas.      In 
Kohlu  it  is  usually  a  khushkdba  crop,  while  in    Nasirdbcid    its 
cultivation  is  inconsiderable. 

The  principal  varieties  grown  in  the  plains  are  the  tvdru, 
sarkhosha,  relt  Idl  or  gdhri,  reli  pili  or  hdldari,  bdrkhdnt  a.n6. 
kahdni.  The  fir>t  two  are  indigenous,  rcli  Idl  and  reli  pili 
are  so  called  because  they  were  originally  brought  by  rail 
from  the  Punjab  and  Sind,    and   bdykhdni   and    kahdni  have 


92 


CHA  PTER  II~  ECONOMIC . 


Agricul- 
ti:re. 


Wheat  in 
unirrigfa- 
ted  land, 


Diseases. 


Rice. 


been  imporled  from  Bdrkhdn  and  Kahdn.  Relildl  is  consi. 
dered  the  best,  has  a  beardless  ear  and  is  not  subject  to 
rust.  The  ivdru  is  a  bearded  red  wheat  with  a  good  ear, 
but  it  is  a  delicate  crop  and  requires  much  water  and  can- 
not, therefore,  be  grown  in  dry  crop  areas.  The  wheat 
g-rown  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  is  of  two  kinds,  called  sra 
ghanam,  red  wheat,  and  spin  johanam,  white  wheat.  The 
seed  obtained  from  Pur  and  Wan'kha  is  generally  -ireferred. 

In  the  highlands  the  land  to  be  tilled  is  ploughed  over 
in  the  early  spring,  the  first  ploughing  being  called  shorn. 
The  land  is  again  ploughed  in  June,  in  October  the  land 
is  watered,  and  when  the  surface  is  dried  up  the  seed  is 
sown  broadcast  and  ploughed  in.  The  ground  is  then 
divided  into  beds.  The  wheat  sprouts  in  five  or  six 
days,  the  sprouts  being  called  zi'ika.  The  first  watering 
is  usually  given  at  the  time  of  sowing,  the  second  in  fifteen 
days,  after  germination  of  the  seed,  the  third  about  the  mid- 
dle of  January  and  the  fourth  known  as  khozha  nbo  or  sweet 
water  t  arly  in  March.  After  this,  water  is  given  regularly  at 
intervals  of  ten  or  fifteen  days  until  the  grain  has  formed 
in  the  ears.  In  the  plains  wheat  is  sown  in  the  months  of 
October  and  November  and  the  harvest  is  usually  ready 
about  the  end  of  April.  The  harvest  is  reaped  on  the  lai 
system  in  accordance  with  which  the  labourers  receive  a 
fixed  share  of  the  crop;  ni  Sibi  this  work  is  generally  done 
by  the  Brdhui  nomads  and  Jats  from  Kachhi  who  come  to  the 
district  in  large  numbers  for  this  purpose.  The  method  of 
threshing  is  the  same  as  that  followed  in  the  case  of  jiidr. 

In  unjrrigated  land>.  in  the  plams  the  ground  is  ploughed 
and  harrowed  after  the  summer  floods  and  the  seed  is  sown 
in  October.  In  the  upper  highlands  the  cultivation  is  some- 
times continued  as  late  as  March  if  there  has  been  heavy  snow. 

The  prmcipal  diseases  to  which  wheat  is  liable  are  kdnri, 
rata  and  wdwri.  The  first  is  caused  by  severe  cold  which 
shrivels  up  the  ears  and  turns  them  black.  Ratti  or  surkhai 
(rust)  attacks  the  crop  after  heavy  rain  if  cold  is  followed  by 
sudden  heat  and  damp,  cloudy  weather.  Wdvora  is  caused 
by  the  cold  west  wind  iknmbi)  which  withers  up  young  shoots 
during  the  winter. 

Rice  is  cultivated  in  the  Nasirdbsid  tahsil  and  at  Sdngdn, 
and  more  extensively   in  the  Shdhrig,  Harnai,  Bdbihdn  and 


MAIZE.  93 

Ghurmi  circles  of  the  Shdhri'^  tahsil,  where  it   is    the    prlnci-       Agriclx- 
pal  A/iar/'/crop.     Six  varieties  are   recognised  in    Nasir:lbdd,  ture. 

viz  : — suk/idasi,  parang;  tor,  sathri,    sujiehri  and  Idri,  the  first 
three  being^  of  the  white  and  the  remainder  of  the  red  variety. 
The  sowing  in  Nasirdbdd  and  Sibi  commences  early    in  June 
and  lasts  up  to  middle  of  Aui^ust,  the  harvest  being  ready  in 
November  and  December.     The  rice  generally    is   not   of   a 
good    quality.      In    Sh^hrig  the   three    principal    kinds    are 
sdda  7V0n'si  or  sdda  soli,  a  white  variety  ;  spitii  worisi  ox  zare 
soli,    which  is  yellowish  in  colour,  and  sre  worizi   or  tori  soli 
which  is  also  white  ;  all  are  indigenous  to  tiie  country.     The 
sdda    worizi  is    sown    in    March  ;   the   spini  worizi,    about  a 
month  later  and  the  ^rJ  wfl/'/s/  m   June.     The  first    two    are 
harvested  in  October  and  the    third  three    months  after    the 
seedlings    have  been  transplanted.     The  ground  required   for 
rice  cultivation  is  first  manured  with  the  leaves  and  twigs  of 
the  plants  known  as  spdnda  {Pegaimm  liarmala),  khamaziirgac 
(  Withania  coagulans)    and  zagha.     The  field  is  then  inundated 
and  ploughed  three  or  tour  times.      The  rice  seed    is  steeped 
for  three  days,  and  then  placed  under  a  warm  cloth    for    two 
days  until  it  begins  to  germinate  when  it  is  sown.      In  about 
three   weeks'  time  the  plants  are  thinned  out  and  transplant- 
ed (was?/ /^).     The  field  is  always  kept  under    water,    which    is 
frequently    renewed    until   the   ears  are    well    formed.     The 
general    harvest   begins    about   October,    and    the    grain    is 
threshed    out  {zangah)    in    the    usual  way  by  bullocks.     The 
stalks  (paldla)  are  used  as  fodder  for    cattle.     The   principal 
diseases    are    known    as    dangar   ranz  and  iortiki,  the  former 
being  caused  by  insufficient  irrigation  and  the    latter   by    the 
poverty  of   the  soil.     Rice  can    only  be    grown  where   there 
is  a   large    supply  of  water,    and  in  such  places  the  crop  is  a 
favourite   one,  as  it  is  certain  and  is  not   so  liable   to  disease 
or  damage  as  either  wheat  ox  judr. 

^\3.\ze  (niakai  ox  badaghar)\s  cultivated  almost  exclusively  Maize, 
on  irrigated  lands  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil,  and  forms  the  prin- 
cipal kharif  crop  in  the  Kach-Kowds  circle.  The  sowing 
takes  place  in  the  month  of  June  and  the  harvest  is  reaped 
early  in  October.  The  usual  diseases  are  known  as  torkai 
which  turns  the  grain  black  and  is  caused  by  the  cessation  of 
the  winds  and  a  high  temperature,  and  chinjai,  which  is  due 
to  scarcity  of  water. 


Q4 


CHAPTER  1 1— ECONOMIC 


Agricul- 
ture. 

Oil-seeds. 
Sarshaf 
3.nA  jdmba. 


Til. 


Gram. 


Oil-seeds  are  represented  by  three  varieties,  ^/Vr/z  or  sunHin 
{ Brass icd  campestris  Var  :  sinapis  cWchotoma),  Jdmba  (Emeu 
saliva)  and  ///,  all  of  which  are  cultivated  in  the  Sibi  and  Na- 
sirdbdd  tahsils.  The  oil  extracted  from  the  sireh  is  sweeter 
than  that  of  they«wZ»«,  and  both  the-,  seed  and  oil  sell  at  a 
better  price.  The  sireh  a.ndjdmba  sowings  take  place  late  in 
August  or  in  September  and  extend  till  October  ;  in  Nasir.-i- 
bdd  they  are  sometimes  continued  up  to  the  end  of  December; 
inatar  or  pulse  (Pisutn  sativum)  is  often  grown  in  the  same 
fields  and  in  dry-crop  areas,  sarvdn  is  also  sometimes 
sown  W\\.\ijiidr.  The  crop  requires  little  irrigation,  and  one 
watering  is  often  considered  sufficient.  The  young  plant  is 
commonly  used  as  a  vegetable,  and  the_^«/',  which  is  a  variety 
of  the  sireh,  is  generally  grown  exclusively  for  this  purpose. 
Both  varieties  are  attacked  by  insects  called  ulli  mdlo  and 
tid,  and  in  severe  winter  much  damage  is  caused  by  frost. 
Later  on  the  crops  are  liable  to  be  damaged  by  the  kdriwa  or 
hot  winds. 

Oil-seeds  are  largely  exported  to  Sind,  and    the    oil  is  also 
extracted   in    local    presses    known    as  gdhnra.     The  refuse 
khar  or  nari)   is  mixed  with    chopped    straw    and    given    to 
cattle,  and  the  chaff  {kali)  is  also  used  as  fodder. 

7Y/,  known  to  the  Jats  as  tir  and  to  the  Baloch  as  kunchid, 
is  an  autumn  crop,  generally  sown  in  July  or  August.  It  is 
only  grown  in  the  Nasirdbcid  and  Sibi  tahsds,  and  in  the 
former  represents  about  13  per  cent,  of  the  annual  area 
under  crop.  In  the  dry  crop  lands  its  cultivation  is  incon- 
siderable. There  are  two  varieties,  the  kdra  or  black 
and  the  achha  or  white,  both  of  which  were  originally 
imported  from  Sind  ;  the  black  variety  is  considered  the  best 
and  is  more  extensively  cultivated.  The  crop  ripens  in 
about  four  months  and  is  harvested  in  October  and  Novem- 
ber. Frequent  waterings  are  necessary,  and  the  crop  is 
often  cut  before  it  is  quite  ripe  in  order  to  avoid  the  risk  of 
losing  the  seed  by  the  opening  of  the  pods.  It  is  tied  in 
small  bundles  and  the  seed  is  shaken  out  by  hand. 

The  stalks  are  useless  as  fodder  for  cattle,  but  are  some- 
times given  to  camels.  The  bulk  of  the  produce  is  exported 
to  Sind. 

Gram  is  only  grown  in  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsi'I  and  is  includ- 
ed in  the  rati  harvest.     The   sowing  takes   place   from   the 


COTTOX.  95 

middle  of  September  to  the  end  of  Dacember   and    the   crop      Agricul- 
is  harvested  between  the  middle  of  February  and  the  end   of        tlre. 
April.      It  is  g'rown  on  irrigated  lands  and  does  best  in   soft 
sandy  soils. 

It  is  liable  to  be  damaged  by  frost  in  winter,  by  hot  winds 
in  March  and  by  caterpillars.  It  is  chiefly  exported  to 
Jacobdbdd  and  Shahdddpur  in  Sind. 

Cotton  locally  known  as  w«r,  ivajnvcir  kapdn,  and  karpds  Cotton, 
is  grown  in  both  the  Nasirjibdd  and  Sibi  tahsils  ;  in  the 
former  it  is  confined  to  the  inoki  or  canal  irrigated  lands, 
and  in  Sibi  is  found  only  at  GuIIu  Shahr,  Bhakra  and  in  the 
Talli  khushkdba  tracts.  It  is  not  a  favourite  crop,  as  it  re- 
quires much  water  and  labour.  The  best  season  for  sowing 
is  the  month  of  March,  but  in  Sibi  the  sowings  extend  up  to 
the  end  of  April,  and  in  NasirAbdd  there  is  a  second  sowing 
in  May  and  June.  The  March  crop  produces  the  best  out 
turn. 

Cotton  growing  would  appear  to  be  an  ancient  industry 
in  Sibi  as  will  be  seen  from  the  following  extract  taken  from 
Mir  Masiim's  History  of  Sind  written  in  1600*  A.  D.  "In 
Kor-zamin  and  Chhatur,  which  are  districts  of  Siwi,  cotton 
plants  grow  as  large  as  trees,  in  so  much  that  men  pick  the 
cotton  mounted.  On  each  cotton  plant  there  are  one  or  two 
hundred  snakes,  of  a  span  long,  so  that  men  are  obliged  to 
brush  them  off  with  sticks  and  drive  them  away  before  they 
can  pluck  the  pods." 

After  the  seed  has  been  sown,  regular  waterings  are  requir- 
ed at  intervals  of  10  or  12  days  till  October.  The  plants 
blossom  in  August,  the  bolls  burst  in  October,  and  at  the 
end  of  the  month  the  picking  {chiina)  is  commenced  and 
continues  at  intervals  of  Jo  or  12  days  till  the  end  of  January, 
the  first  picking  being  known  as  laiva.  After  the  last  pick- 
ing the  leaves  are  browsed  by  sheep  and  cattle,  and  the  dry- 
stalk  is  collected  and  used  for  fuel.  A  crop  lasts  for  three 
years,  the  first  year's  crop  being  known  as  rop  ;  the   second 

*  Elliot's  History  of  India,  Vol.  i,  p.  237,  Dawson's  edition. 


96  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Agricul-  as  tmindhi  and  the  third  as  treh  mundhi.  The  second  year's 
^  ^^'  crop  is  considered  the  best,  both  as  regards  productiveness 
and  quality.  The  only  disease  to  which  cotton  is  liable  is 
the  tnahla  which  is  caused  by  rains  in  November.  The  raw 
cotton  {7i)an7vd>')  is  separated  from  the  pods  by  women  and 
children,  and  the  cleaning  is  done  in  the  homes  of  the  people 
with  the  old  fashioned  hand-machine  known  as  aiiri.  It  is 
roughly  estimated  that  an  acre  of  ground  produces  from  125 
to  200  seers  of  raw  cotton,  and  that  a  maund  of  raw 
cotton  yields  about  11  seers  of  cleaned  cotton.  The  average 
price  obtainable  for  cleaned  cotton  is  one  rupee  for  4  seers, 
and  for  uncleaned  cotton  Rs.  2-8-0  per  maund.  Tiie  cotton 
seed  is  excellent  food  tor  cattle  and  sells  at  from  Rs.  1-14-0 
to  Rs.  2-8-0  per  maund. 

Indigo.  Indigo  (nil)  is  grown  in  Rojhdn  in   the    Xasirdbdd    tahsil, 

the  average  area  under  crop  being  about  1 16  acres  in  a  year. 
The  crop  is  only  grown  on  irrigated  land.  Sowing  takes 
place  in  the  month  of  June  and  the  crop  is  harvested  in 
November  and  December.  It  is  usually  sown  every  year, 
but  it  is  possible  and  common  to  get  crops  for  three 
years  off  the  same  plants.  The  first  year's  crop  is  known  as 
rop.  the  second  as  mundhi  and  the  third  as  treh  mundhi.  In 
the  third  year  the  yield  of  dye  is  small  and  the  crop  is 
generally  kept  for  seed.  Tiie  profits  of  the  indigo  vary 
greatly.  If  the  canals  fail  early  in  tiie  season,  the  plants 
are  liable  to  wither,  while  if  the  supply  is  excessive,  the  dye 
is  washed  out  and  blight  sets  in.  For  about  a  month  after 
sowing  it  is  necessary  to  irrigate  the  land  every  third  day, 
but  at  the  end  of  this  period  irrigation  every  eighth  day  is 
suffijient.  After  being  cut  the  plants  are  steeped  in  vats  and 
the  sediment  which  takes  the  form  of  a  paste  is  made  into 
small  balls,  in  which  form  it  is  exported  to  Sind  and  the 
Punjab 

Rotation  The  following  extract  is   taken   from   a   report   written   in 

of  or^ncipa"      '9°^^  ^^  ^'*'  ^'  ^'    ^°'^'">   '^^^   Revenue   Commissioner,  in 
crops,  etc.       connection  with  the  settlement  of  the  Shdhrig  tahsil: — 

"  Except  for  a  few  mahdls  which  lie  in  the  hills,  the  quality 
of  the  lands  in   all   five   circles   is  fairly   uniform.     The   land 


ROTATION  OF  CROPS.  97 

available  for  cultivation  is,   as   a  general   rule,   limited,   and       Agricul- 
the  water  available  from  the  hill  stream   is   generally  (in  the  ^^^ 

Harnai,  Ghurmi  and  Bc-ibihcin  circles  almostMnvariably)  more 
than  sufficient  for  the  land  *****  Xhe  people 
are  perpetually  occupied  in  improving  or  at  any  rate  main- 
taining the  quality  of  their  lands,  and  manage  to  cultivate  a 
great  portion  thereof  twice  in  the  year  or  at  any  rate  three 
times  in  two  years."  Manure  is  accordingly  more  commonly 
used  in  this  tahsil  than  in  other  parts  of  the  district.  The 
stalks  of  wheat  and  rice  are  also  burnt,  the  ashes  serving 
as  manure  ;  and  for  rice  crops  certain  plants  and  branches 
of  trees,  as  already  explained,  are  buried  in  the  ground. 
In  other  parts  of  the  district  manure  is  seldom  used  except 
for  special  crops  near  the  villages  and  in  Nasirdbj^d  for  the 
cotton  fields.  The  necessity  is  not  so  great  owing  to  the 
system  of  allowing  ground  to  lie  fallow,  which  is  possible 
owing  to  the  large  area  of  land  available  for  cultivation. 
Land  is  seldom  cropped  twice  in  the  same  year  except  in 
Nasirdbdd  when,  if  the  kharif  has  failed,  the  same  ground 
is  utilised  for  the  following  spring  harvest ;  the  system  being 
known  as  dubdri.  In  Kohlu  land  is  generally  allowed  to  lie 
fallow  for  one  year;  in  Nasirabdd  for  two  to  three  years 
sehsdla  and  chdrsdla  ,  while  in  Sibi  the  rule  varies  according 
to  the  extent  of  land  available  in  each  circle,  from  2  crops 
in  3  years  to  i  crop  in  3  years  and  sometimes  to  even  only 
I  crop  in  5  years.  In  dry  crop  areas  and  in  lands  irrigated 
by  flood-water  there  is  no  precise  rule,  the  ground  being 
cultivated  whenever  opportunity  off"ers. 

There  is  no  regular  system  of  rotation.  In  Sh^ihrig,  where 
much  of  the  land  is  cultivated  every  year,  wheat  is  often 
followed  by  rice,  and  rice  by  maize  or  judr ;  but  the  last 
named  is  not  much  grown,  and  it  is  the  practice  to  grow 
wheat  and  rice  in  alternate  years  or  to  grow  wheat  or  rice 
successively  in  the  same  plot  for  two  or  three  years,  the 
wheat  being  followed  by  rice  and  vice  versa.  In  other 
parts  judr  may  follow  wheat,  but  after  jtidr  the  land  is 
usually  allowed  to  lie  fallow  before  wheat  ox  judr  are  sown 
again. 


98 


CHAPTER  11— ECONOMIC. 


Agricul-  The  following-  statement  shows  the  results    of  crop  experi- 

TURE.  ments,  giving  the   outturn  per  acre   of  the  various  crops   in 

the  different  tahsils  : — 


{•"ruit  and 
vegetable 
production. 


PdUzdt. 


Nasirdbad. 
Maunds 

Sibi. 
Maunds 

Shah  rig. 
Maunds 

Kohlu. 
Maunds 

per  acre. 

per  acre. 

per  acre. 

per  acre. 

Jtiar            

22 

17! 

Wheat 

Land         irrigated 
and  manured. 

is'i^c 

21U 

Land          irrigated 
and    not      man- 
ured. 

i7i 

I2i 

'9 

Dr}'  crop  land 

I3IS 

Hi 

Rice            

17   tr>   20 

19 

The  average  produce  of  7«fl/&fl^  in  Shdhrig  tahsil  is  \']W 
maunds,  and  of  sin'h,  j'dtnba  and  gram  in  Naslrjibjid  6\^ 
to  23  maunds,  while  that  of  til  varies  from  6^;  to  1 1^ 
maunds. 

Gardens  and  orchards  are  not  a  feature  of  the  district,  and 
with  the  exception  of  the  Harnai  and  Kach-Kowas  valleys, 
little  fruit  is  grown.  The  majority  of  the  villages  in  these 
valleys  have  orchards,  and  the  principal  fruits  are  the 
mulberry,  apricot  and  grape  (a  fine  black  variety  of  which  is 
grown  in  the  villages  near  Harnai)  and  sinjid  {Elceagnus 
hortensis)  in  the  Harnai  valley,  and  the  apricot,  pear  and 
sinjid  in  villages  in  the  hills. 

The  cultivation  of  cucurbitaceous  crops  (pdlesdi),  which 
term  includes  various  kinds  of  melons  {kharbusa  and  iarbtis), 
cucumbers  [bddrang)  and  pumpkins  and  gourd  [kadii),  is 
indigenous  to  the  country,  but  its  extent  is  limited.  As 
regards  vegetables,  pumpkins,  gourds,  cucumbers  and  car- 
rots appear  to  be  the  varieties  indigenous  to  the  country, 
and  the  bdnjan  [Q^'g  plant)  and  pdlak  (spinach)  have  only 
been  recently  introduced.  The  people  of  the  country  are, 
however,  still  ignorant  of  the  use  of  kitchen  vegetables,  and 
their  cultivation  is  chiefly  confined  to  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  bazars  and    railway  stations.     Of  recent  years,  owinSto 


EXTENSIOIV  OF  CULTIVATION.  99 

the    formation  of  a  summer  military   camp  at  Ziiirat,  an  im-       Agricul. 
petus  has  been    given  to  the    cultivation  of  veg'etables   in  the  ture.- 

neig-hboarhood,  and  potatoes,  onions  and  melons  have  been 
grown  with  great  success  at  Kowds.  The  total  area  under 
gardens  and  orchards  (including  Government  and  Railway 
gardens)  in  the  Harnai  valley  amounted  to  44  acres  in  1905. 
Mulberry  trees  are  grown  in  considerable  numbers  in  the 
Harnai  valley,  and  the  fruit  ripens  about  the  middle  of  May. 
The  season  lasts  for  about  a  month,  and  during  this  time  the 
fruit  forms  one  of  the  chief  articles  of  diet  among  the 
people.  It  is  chiefly  eaten  raw.  An  improved  kind  of  mul- 
berry, the  leaves  of  which  are  suitable  for  sericulture,  has 
recently  been  introduced,  and  large  numbers  of  young  trees 
have  been  yrown  from  seed  in  the  Government  gardens. 

In  the  plains  little  or  no  fruit  is  grown  except  at  Sibi 
itself  and  at  Mehrdbpur  in  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil,  where 
gardens  have  been  started.  Country  vegetables  such  as 
pulse,  gourds,  radish,  carrot  and  brinjdl  are  grown  in  most 
of  the  villages,  and  at  Sibi  itself  market-gardening  is  be- 
coming a  growing  industry.  The  vegetables  include  the 
ordinary  English  and  Indian  varieties,  and  are  exported  re- 
gularly to  Quetta  during  the  winter  months. 

Experiments  have  recently  been  made  with  sugar-cane, 
both  at  Khost  and  Sibi,  and  samples  produced  at  the  former 
place  have  been  pronounced  to  be  "  remarkably  fine." 

Owing    to  the  many    changes  that  have    taken  place  from    Extension  of 
time    to    time    in   the    composition    of   the    district  and    the    cultivation, 
absence  of  reliable    data  during   its  earlier  history,    it  is  not 
possible  to  show  the  extension  of  cultivation  by  figures. 

No  statistics  are  available  as  regards  the  Sibi  tahsil  during 
the  first  years  of  British  occupation  ;  but  from  an  examina- 
tion of  the  figures  for  the  decade  ending  with  1901,  it  would 
appear  that  while  the  area  of  land  irrigated  from  perennial 
sources  has  not  undergone  any  very  considerable  increase, 
there  has  been  a  marked  general  extension  of  khushkdba 
and  saih'iba  cultivation.  This  increase,  however,  cannot  be 
illustrated  by  figures,  as  the  cultivation  is  dependent  on  raif- 
fall  and  varies  from  year  to  year  according  to  the  seasons. 
In  the  Shdhrig  tahsil,  where  the  amount  of  culturable  land 
is  limited,  the  area  actually  under  cultivation  has  increased 
rom  8,399  acres  in  1899- 1900  to  9>777  acres    in    1904-5.     In 


lOO 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Agricul-  Kohlu  there  has  been  a  marked  increase,  as  prior  to  the 
Britisli  occupation  in  1892  there  appears  to  have  been  little 
or  no  cultivation  except  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the 
villages. 

The  great  increase  hat  been  in  the  Nasirabdd  sub-division, 
which  prior  to  the  construction  of  the  canals  was  practically 
a  desert  waste,  inhabited  by  a  nomad  population.  With  re- 
gard to  more  recent  years,  the  area  of  land  actually  under 
cultivation  lias  increased  from  57,663  acres  in  1893-4  to 
102,736  acres  in  1904-5.  During  the  same  period  the 
cultivation  of  jiuir  has  increased  from  30,944  acres  to  49,486 
acres,  of  wheat  from  361  to  8,714  acres,  and  of  rice  from 
868  to  4,141  acres.  On  the  other  hand  there  has  been  a  fall- 
ing off  in  tha  cultivation  oi  both  til  and  cotton. 
Ao-ricultural  ^^  I'st  c  f  implements  used  with  the  vernacular  name  of 
■mplements.  eich,  both  in  Pashti'i  and  Jatki,  will  be  found  in  appendix  II. 
The  principal  implements  include  the  plough,  which  is 
known  as  yivi,  hal  or  har ;  the  plank  harrow  or  scrap- 
er keiir,  khdl,  ken  with  which  embankments  are  made, 
and  the  clodcrusher  or  log  used  in  place  of  a  roller  for 
breaking  clods  and  smoothing  the  ground,  known  as 
mala.  Among  minor  implements  may  be  mentioned 
the  rainhae  or  ramba  or  weeding  spud  ;  the  kodnl  or  hoe  ; 
the  dal  or  dhal  or  wooden  spade  worked  by  two  men  with 
a  rope  for  making  small  embankments  ;  the  sickle  {lor 
or  ddtri)  for  reaping  ;  the  four  or  two-pronged  forks  {char 
shdkha  or  tryang  and  doa  shdklia  or  bidni)  and  the  wooden 
winnowing  spade  {dhrapae  or  ilhalli) ;  the  rake  [pdra  or 
pahora)  for  collecting  the  grain  and  straw  scattered  on  the 
threshing  floor.  There  has  been  no  appreciable  improve- 
ment in  these  implements,  though  rakes,  axes,  hand-saws 
and  knives  of  English  manufacture  are  now  sometimes 
used,  and  the  use  of  iron  for  agricultural  work  is  probably 
more  general  than  in  former  days.  Appendix  III  contains 
a  list  of  revenue  and  agricultural  terms. 

The  Land  Improvement  Loans  Act,  XIX  of  1883,  and  the 
Agriculturists'  Loans  Act,  XII  of  1884,  have  not  been  applied 
to  the  Agency,  but  the  question  of  their  extension  is  under 
consideration.  Rules  to  regulate  such  advances  have  been 
promulgated  under  the  executive  orders  from  the  Govern- 
ment of  India,  and  are  embodied  in  the   Baluchistan  Takdvi 


Agricultural 
advances. 


AGRICULTURAL  ADVANCES.  loi 

Advance  Manual,  1902.  The  annual  grant  for  the  whole  Agricul- 
Agency  is  Rs.  60,000,  of  which  Rs.  8, 000  are  allotted  for  ture. 
the  Sibi  district.  The  Political  Agent  is  authorised,  within 
the  limit  of  his  grant,  to  sanction  advances  not  exceeding 
Rs.  1,000  in  each  case,  and  the  Revenue  Commissioner  up 
to  Rs.  3,000  ;  the  sanction  of  the  Local  Government  is  neces- 
sary for  advances  in  excess  of  this  amount.  The  ordinary 
rate  of  interest  is  i  anna  in  the  rupee  or  6:^  per  cent,  per 
annum,  but  in  a  case  in  which  the  Political  Agent  is  satis- 
fied that  the  project  is  a  sound  one  financially,  and  is  likely  to 
lead  to  an  increase  of  revenue,  which,  within  the  term  fixed 
for  the  complete  repayment  of  the  advance,  will  amount  to  not 
less  than  the  whole  interest  ordinarily  chargeable  under  the 
rules,  he  is  at  liberty  to  grant  the  advances  free  of  interest. 
The  advances  can  be  granted  either  for  works  carried  out  by 
the  Political  Agent  himself  or  by  the  agricultural  population. 

During  the  years  1897-8  to  1904-5,  advances  amounting  to 
Rs.  12,790  were  granted  under  the  Land  Improvement  Loans 
Act,  and  Rs.  40,413  under  the  Agriculturists'  Loans  Act; 
the  recoveries  during  the  same  period  being  Rs,  24,284*  and 
Rs.  35,612  respectively.  Details  by  tahsils  for  each  year  are 
given  in  table  VII,  Vol.  B.  The  largest  amount  has  in  each 
case  been  utilised  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  (Rs.  28,000). 

The  advances  are  ordinarily  given  for  sinking  new  kdrcses, 
repairing  and  improving  old  ones,  digging  nullahs.,  making 
embankments  (banls),  sinking  wells,  and  in  times  of  drought 
and  scarcity  for  the  relief  of  distress  and  the  purchase  of 
seed  and  cattle.  A  tendency  among  the  recipients  to  devote 
the  advances  to  purposes  other  than  those  for  which  they 
were  granted  has  been  checked  in  recent  years. 

Repayments  of  advances  taken  for  the  improvement  of 
khushkdba  lands  are  usually  recovered  yearly,  and  in  other 
cases  half-yearly  instalments. 

Suspensions  are  sometimes  granted,  but  there  have  been 
no  cases  during  the  ten  years  ending  1904  in  which  advances 
have  had  to  be  remitted. 

In  the  beginning  the  people  had  strong  objections  to  pay- 
ing interest,  but  their  prejudices  se3m  to  have  gradually  dis- 
appeared and  they  now  readily  avail  themselves   of  the  loans. 

*  Includes  recoveries  made  on  account  of  adv'ances  given   in  pre- 
vious years. 


ness. 


I02  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Agricul-  The  saminddrs  of  the  district  are  ready  to  take  small  loans, 

'^^^^-         and  these  are  freely  given  ;  but  the  majority  are  too  poor  to 

undertake  large  loans,   and  these  are  not    encouraged  unless 

there  is  a  fair  chance  of  success.     In  cases  of  large  loans  for 

important  works  interest  is  often  exempted. 

Agricultural         In    the    Material    Progress    Report    of  the    Thal-Chotidli 
llilt^^^*^'         district  for  the   decade    ending    1901,   the  Deputy  Commis- 
sioner remarked  : — 

"The  cultivators  of  the  district  are  poor,  but  as  a  rule 
they  are  able  to  maintain  themselves  and  have  no  very  ex- 
travagant tastes.  Indebtedness  is  therefore  not  general,  but 
of  late  years  the  scarcity  and  famine,  which  have  prevailed 
throughout  the  district,  have  had  a  bad  effect,  and  indebted- 
ness is  now  greater  than  it  was  a  few  years  ago.  The 
principal  cause  of  this  is  the  failure  of  the  crops  for  several 
seasons.  The  custom  of  the  payment  o{  walwar  is  also  a 
frequent  source  of  debt.  Figures  showing  the  mortgage 
liabilities  of  the  whole  district  are  not  available,  but  in  the 
Shdhrig  tahsil,  which  has  lately  come  under  settlement,  it  is 
computed  that  the  area  under  mortgage  amounts  to  about 
one  thirty-seventh  of  the  total  area  of  the  tahsil.  The  indebt- 
edness in  this  tahsil  is  known  to  he  heavier  than  in 
most  parts  of  the  district.  Special  measures  have  now 
been  taken  to  prevent  the  further  transfer  of  land  to 
aliens." 

The  succession  of  bad  seasons  would  also  seem  to  have 
increased  the  indebtedness  of  the  people  of  the  Sibi  tahsil, 
and  the  amount  of  cash  loans  raised  on  lands  by  cultivators 
during  the  four  years  1899  to  1903  and  entered  in  the  tahsil 
registers  amounted  to  Rs.  99,368,  of  which  Rs.  57,027 
were  on  account  of  mortgages  and  Rs.  42,341  on  account 
of  sales.  Dealing  with  the  transfers  of  land,  the  report, 
referred  to  above,  says  : — 

"Reliable  statistics  of  sales  and  mortgages  in  this  district 
are  not  available,  as  in  many  parts  both  sales  and  mortgages 
are  often  negotiated  among  the  people  themselves  without 
the  formality  of  registration  deeds.  The  majority  of  these 
transactions  are  between  the  people  of  the  country  ;  and  the 
number  of  aliens  into  the  hands  of  whom  lands  have  passed 
is  inconsiderable.     In  Sibi,  for  instance,    the  total   value  of 


AGRICULTURAL  INDEBTEDNESS. 


103 


land  sold  to  Hindus  during  the  last  ten  years  has  only 
amounted  to  Rs.  11,692.  The  majority  of  these  were  local 
Hindus  belonging  to  the  villages." 

The  following  statement  gives  figures  of  mortgages  and 
sales  which  were  registered  in  the  district  during  the  years 
1903-4  and    1904-5  :— 


Agricul- 
ture. 


Details. 


Tahsi'I. 


Mortijages. 


.\mount. 


District 
Total. 


Sales. 


Amount 


District 
Total. 


Mortg-aged  or 
sold  by  cultiva 
tors  to  Hindus 


Mortgaged  or  | 
sold  by  cultiva-  | 
tors  to  cuUiva-'i 
tors.  ' 

Mortgaged  or 
sold  by  Hindus 
to  cultivators. 


Sibi 

Nasi'rdH.id. 
Shdhrig... 
Kohlu     ... 

Sibi 
Nasirdbdd. 

Shdhrig  .. 
Kohlu      ... 

Sibi 


Mortgaged    or    |  Sibi 
sold    by    cultiva- 
tors and   Hindus 
to   Government. 


Mortgaged   or     |  Sibi 
sold  by  Hindus  to 
Hindus. 


Mortgaged  or 
sold  by  aliens 
and  contractors 
from  ti.e  Punjab 
among  them- 

selves. 


Sh.-ihrig. 


Rs.  a. 

5.89s     8 

19,560     o 

208     o 


5.540    o 


Rs.  a. 


25,663     S 


5.S40     o 


497    6 


Rs.   a. 

,122     o 
,476     o 


070 

432    13 
500 


625 


382   13 


300     o 


3. '35     o 


Rs.  a. 

5.598    o 

39,002   13 
625    o 

382  13 

300    o 


497     6 


3.13s     o 


The  rates  of  interest  charged  to  cultivators  by  the  Hindu 
money-lenders  vary  in  different  localities,  and  according  to 
the  circumstances  of  the  cases,  ranging  from  2  pies  in  the 
rupee  per  mensem  or  12A  per  cent,  per  annum  to  i  anna  in 
the    rupee  per  mensem  or  75  per  cent,   per  annum.      Interest 


I04 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Agricul- 
ture. 


Domestic 
animals. 


for  advances  of  grain  is  usually  charged  at  the  rate  of  25 
\QX  cent,  and  is  repayable  in  kind  at  the  next  harvest. 

The  cultivators  also  finance  each  other,  and  in  this  case 
interest  is  not  mentioned  or  charged  in  a  direct  form.  For 
religious  reasons  the  orthodox  will  not  pay  interest  in  cash, 
but  have  no  scruple  about  paying  its  equivalent  in  grain, 
and  an  arrangement  is  made  either  on  these  lines  in  grain, 
or  the  terms  of  mortijages  are  so  arranged  that  the  re- 
coveries include  enough  to  cover  both  principal  and  interest. 
The  systems  followed  are  the  ijdra  or  contract  and  the 
salam.  Under  the  former  system  the  land  or  land  and  water 
is  mortgaged  as  security  for  an  advance  and  the  mortgager 
continues  to  cultivate  it,  but  gives  a  fixed  quantity  of  grain, 
as  previously  agreed  upon,  at  each  harvest  to  the  mortgagee 
as  interest  until  the  loan  is  repaid.  In  Nasirabad  the  usual 
system  is  to  mortgage  the  land  with  possession  for  a  period 
of  years  settled  by  mutual  arrangement.  If  at  the  lapse  of 
this  period  the  mortgager  is  unable  to  redeem  his  debt,  the 
land  is  valued  and  such  portion  of  it  as  is  considered 
equivalent  in  value  to  the  debt  lapses  to  the  mortgagee, 
while  the  remainder  is  handed  over  to  the  owner.  This 
system  also  prevails  in  Kohlu  and  is  known  as  turdna  girao 
by  the  Afghans  and  beriband  by  the  Baloch. 

T\\Q.  salam  systeai  takes  different  forms  ;  when  a  cultivator 
obtains  a  loan  he  agrees  at  the  time  to  repay  it  at  a  fixed 
rate  at  the  next  harvest,  this  rate  being  generally  much  higher 
than  that  current  at  the  time  of  the  loan.  Thus  if  a  man 
takes  a  loan  of  Rs.  50  at  a  time  when  wheat  is  selling  at  the 
rate  of  10  seers  to  a  rupee,  he  will  agree  to  repay  the  loan 
in  wheat  at  the  rate  of  15  or  20  seers  to  the  rupee.  This 
system  is  also  applied  to  advances  of  grain.  If  a  man 
obtains  10  maunds  of  wheat  when  the  sale  price  is  16  seers, 
he  will  either  take  the  grain  at  a  lower  valuaticn,  say  12 
seers  for  the  rupee,  and  agree  to  repay  in  cash  at  the  current 
rate  of  16  seers  at  the  next  harvest,  or  he  will  agree  to  repay 
the  loan  in  grain  at  higher  rate,  say  20  seers  to  the  rupee. 

Horses,  bullocks, camels,  donkeys,  sheep  and  goats  are  the 
principal  domestic  animals.  Buffaloes  are  found  in  Nasirabad 
and  Sibi,  also  occasionally  in  the  Shahrig  tahsi'l.  Fowls  ate 
kept  in  most  of  the  villages  and  fetch  about  4  annas 
apiece.      Eggs  cost  from  3  to  6  annas  per  dozen. 


HORSE-BREEDING. 


105 


The  following-  table  shows  the  number  of  camels,  donkeys,       Agricul- 
cattle,    sheep    and   goats    and    buffaloes    belonging-    to    the  ture. 

permanent  inhabitants  in  each  tahsil  in  1904  : — 


Tahsll. 

Camels. 

Don- 
keys. 

Bullocks 
and  cows. 

Sheep  and 
goats. 

Buffa- 
loes. 

Sibi  tahsil 

1.337 

526 

4,691 

16,649 

128 

Kohlu  tahsil 

638 

792 

1.979 

32.339 

Shdhrig  tahsil     ... 

100 

923 

5,020 

44,690 

10 

Nasirabad 

2,000 
4.075 

500 
2,741 

5,000 

6,000 
99,678 

400 

Total     ... 

16,690 

5  3« 

The    numbers    in    possession    of   the    nomads  are  roughly 
estimated  to  be  as  under  : — 


Tahsil. 

Camels. 

Don- 
ke\s. 

Bullocks 
and  cows. 

Sheep  and 
goats. 

Buffa- 
loes. 

Sibi  tahsil 

4,042 

529 

128 

14,164 

•  •• 

Kohlu  tahsil 

150 

9 

2 

9 

... 

Shahrig  tahsil 

1,017 

3S9 

77 

2,227 

18 

Total     ... 

5.209 

9-7 

207 

16  400 

18 

Information   about  the    different  breeds    of  horses  in  Bala-    Horses, 
chistdn,  their  rearing  and  training,  and  the  system  of  breed- 
ing   adopted    by  the    Army    Remount    Department    will    be 
found  in  a  monograph  published  in  1905  under  the  authority 
of  the  Revenue  Commissioner  in  Baluchistan.* 

Sibi  is  the  centre  of  horse-breeding  operations  in  the  lower    Sibi  Horse 
part  of  the    Agency,   and  the    annual  fair  held  in  the  month    ^^"■' 
of  February  each  year  is  one  of  the   best  for  young  stock  in 
Northern    India.      It  was   first    instituted   in  18S5,    and  table 
VllI,  Volume  B,  shows    the  numbers  of  the    animals  which 

*Horses,  Hvrse-breeding  and  Horse  Management  in  Baluchistan, 
by  R.  Hughes- BuUer,  I.C.S.,  with  an  appendix  by  Major  H.  M.Patter- 
son, Army  Remount   Department. 


io6 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Agricul- 
ture. 


have  been  exhibited  during"  the  ten  years  ending  with  1904, 
and  the  amount  of  the  expenditure  incurred  in  prize.s  and 
other  items.  This  expenditure  varies  from  Rs.  3,278  to 
Rs.  4,176,  and  is  met  by  contributions  from  the  Imperial  and 
Provincial  Revenues  and  Local  Funds. 

Difficulties  arise  in  analysing  the  results,  owing  partly  to 
a  change  in  the  system  of  the  registration  of  ponies  which 
took  place  in  1900,  and  partly  to  the  absence  of  figures  for 
northern  and  dealers'  horses.  It  may  be  assumed,  however, 
that  the  number  of  these  is  on  the  decrease  owing  to  the 
prohibition  of  export  of  horses  from  Afghdnistdn  and  to  the 
fact  that  a  great  number  of  dealers'  horses  are  disposed 
of  in  a  fair  which  takes  place  in  Sind  earlier  in  the  year.  In 
only  two  years,  1900  and  1903,  have  serious  decreases  occur- 
red. In  the  first  year  this  appears  to  have  been  due  to  the 
prolonged  drought  of  four  years  which  culminated  in  1900, 
whilst  the  diminution  in  1903  is  attributed  to  large  purchases 
made  by  speculative  settlers  from  the  colonies  on  the  Jhelum 
Canal  and  the  Punjab.  On  the  whole  it  may  be  said  that 
the  number  of  exhibits  of  local  horses  is  being  maintained, 
while  the  quality  is  undoubtedly  improving. 

In  1903  the  horse-breeding  operations,  which  had  hitherto 
been  carried  on  by  the  Civil  Veterinary  Department,  were 
handed  over  to  officers  of  the  Army  Remount  Department. 
There  are  no  local  breeders  of  importance  to  be  found  in  the 
district  and  most  of  the  horses  brought  to  the  fair  are  bred 
in  Kachhi  and  in  the  highland  districts  of  Baluchistdn,  the 
principal  importers  being  Brahuis.  The  following  statement 
gives  statistics  of  branded  mares,  &c.,  in  the  Sibi  district 
on  March  31,  1904  : — 


Name  of 
tahsil. 

Name  of 
stand. 

Nos.  of 

stallions 

at  each 

stand. 

No.  of 

branded 

mares  in 

each 

tahsil. 

Number  in  each 
tahsil. 

No. 

Colts  by 
Govern- 
ment 
stallions. 

Fillies  by 
Govern- 
ment 
stallions. 

Geld- 
ings. 

1 

2 

Sibi    .. 
Nasiribdd   .. 

Sibi    .. 
NasirabAd   .. 

Total      .. 

I 

60 
94 

■4 

24 

40 

I 

154 

14 

24 

40 

CAMELS.  107 

The  Quetta  and   Kahit  stallions  are    broug-ht  down  to  Sibi       Agricul- 
in  winter.     During  the  winter,    too,  a  stallion  belonging-    to        ture. 
the  Pishin  Bazar  Fund  is  sent  to    Sibi  and  the  expenses  con- 
nected with  its  keep  are  paid  by  the    Sibi  Municipal  Fund. 

The  bullocks  bred  in  the  Billa  Niiri  and  Bhjig  Ndri  which  Cattle, 
come  from  the  districts  of  Kachhi  are  well  known  and  are 
suitable  for  agricultural,  siege  train  and  army  transport  pur- 
poses. They  are  of  two  distinct  types.  The  larger  are  56 
inches  at  the  shoulder,  white  or  fawn  in  colour,  and  with 
horns  growing  upwards  and  inwards.  The  other  type  is  a 
smoky  white  in  colour  with  black  legs  and  neck,  42  to  48 
inches  at  the  shoulder  and  with  horns  growing  slightly 
upwards  and  b.ickwards.  Both  kinds  fetch  good  prices,  a 
pair  selling  for  Rs.  100  and  over.  The  cows  are  good 
milkers.  The  hill  cattle  are  much  smaller,  but  they  are 
very  hardy  and  can  carry  heavy  loads  for  considerable  dis- 
tances. Prizes  for  cattle  are  also  given  at  the  Sibi  Fair. 
The  principal  breeds  known  from  their  colour  are  haggiiy 
Idly  jharrdy  kdla  and  sdwa. 

The  importance  and  usefulness  of  the  camel  has  decreased  Camels, 
since  the  opening  of  the  railways,  but  it  is  still  the  most 
common  transport  animal.  The  large  majority  of  the  animals 
kept  by  the  permanent  inhabitants  are  females,  which  are 
used  for  breeding  purposes  and  are  usually  placed  in  charge 
of  the  professional  Jat  graziers. 

The  non-indigenous  camels  belong  chiefly  to  tiie  Ldngav 
Brahui  nomads  who  visit  the  district  during  winter. 
Their  estimated  number  is  about  1,200  in  an  ordinary 
\ear.  Other  owners  are  the  Badijzai  and  Snjihozai  Ban- 
gulzais,  Pirkdnis,  Sheikh  Husainis,  Hdrunis  and  Muhammad 
Hasnis.  In  the  Shahrig  tahsil  the  transport  trade  between 
Harnai  and  Loralai  and  Fort  Sandeman  is  in  the  hands 
of  the  Ldngav  and  Ghilzai  camelmen. 

The  principal  breeds  found  in  the  district  are  known  as 
the  barela  or  the  Punjab  camel  ;  the  viakrdni  which  comes 
from  Makrdn,  the  kachhi  and  the  doband  which  is  indi- 
genous. The  principal  breeders  in  the  district  are  Khosas, 
Jakrdnis  and  Jamdlis  in  Nasirdbdd,  Bijjdrzai  Bangulzais, 
Marghzdnis,  Bdn'izais  and  Jats  in  Sibi  and  the  Marris  in  Kohlu. 

The  donkey  is  chiefly  used   for  transport  and   by  Afghdn    Donkeys, 
labourers  for   carrying    building   and    embanking    materials. 


io8 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Agricul- 
ture. 


Sheep  and 
g-oats. 


Average 
value  of 
each  kind 
of  animal. 


Pasture 
grounds  and 
grazing. 


They  carry  on  an  average  about  2  maunds  and  their  price 
varies  from  Rs.  20  to  Rs.  25.  Tlie  ordinary  indigenous 
breed  is  poor,  but  a  better  stamp  of  animal  is  kept  by  the 
Hindus  who  use  them  largely  for  riding. 

The  indigenous  breed  of  sheep  in  the  highlands  is  of  the 
thick-tailed  hornless  variety,  generally  white  in  colour  and 
of  low  build,  the  different  kinds  being  known  as  bherd  or 
bhert  and  khetrdni.  Other  varieties  found  in  the  Harnai 
valley  are  the  sra  mezh,  which  is  brownish  in  colour,  and 
the  sheep  from  the  I\Iarri  hills  which  are  lighter  in  size  and 
have  smaller  tails.  In  the  plains  the  indigenous  sheep  is 
known  as  the  kuk  and  has  a  small  tail.  The  different 
varieties  of  the  goat  are  the  mdrak,  gorak,  modi  or  hornless 
variety,  koshi,  gdhri,  kmiitar  and  barbari.  The  kamtar  which 
has  long  white  ears  and  the  barbari  vj\\\c\\  is  usually  brown 
and  white  in  colour  with  short  ears  are  considered  the  best. 

A  goat  produces  about  12  ounces  of  wool  each  year,  a 
sheep  2  to  3  pounds  and  a  camel  about  2  pounds.  Goat 
iiair  [cids)  is  used  by  nomads  for  making  ropes,  sacks  and 
kishdi  blankets  ;  and  camel  wool  [milis)  for  sacks  and  a  rough 
cloth.  The  price  of  sheep's  wool  depends  on  the  Karachi 
market,  to  which  it  is  exported,  and  exhibits  considerable 
variations,  being  sometimes  as  low  as  Rs.  13  and  sometimes 
as  high  as  Rs.  22  per  maund.  The  buyers  are  chiefly  mid- 
dlemen. 

Male  camels  vary  in  price  from  Rs,  50  to  Rs.  70  ;  female 
camels  fetch  from  Rs.  50  to  Rs.  65  ;  ordinary  small  ponies 
can  be  purchased  from  Rs.  50  to  Rs.  100  ;  the  price  of  horses 
varies  considerably,  good  ones  fetching  Rs.  300  or  more. 
The  price  of  a  pair  of  bullocks  varies  from  Rs.  60  to  Rs.  100. 
The  price  of  a  cow  depends  on  the  quantity  of  its  milk  and 
ranges  from  Rs.  25  to  Rs.  100.  Sheep  fetch  from  Rs.  5 
to  Rs.  10;  goats  from  Rs.  5  to  Rs.  10,  and  lambs  and  kids 
from  Rs.  2  to  Rs.  3-8. 

In  the  upper  parts  of  the  district  the  area  of  pasturage  is 
practically  unlimited,  and  in  normal  years  the  hill  sides  are 
covered  with  grass  and  numerous  small  cruciferous  and 
leguminous  plants  which  afford  excellent  grazing  for  sheep 
and  goats.  Good  camel  grazing  is  obtainable  in  most  places. 
In  the  irrigated  tracts  bhusa,  green  wheat  and  barley 
{khid  or  khasil)  and  green  stalks  of  maize  and  judr  are  also 


CA  TTL  E  DISK  A  SES.  1 09 

used  in  their  seasons  as  fodder  for«laorses   and    cattle.      In       Agricul- 

years  of  continued  drout^ht  the  Marris  and   Hugtis  and  the  tore. 

people  of  Kohlii,   who  have  but  little  cultivation,  are  often 

brought    to  considerable    straits    and    in   exceptionally    bad 

seasons  are  forced  to  emig'rate  with   their  flocks   and  herds 

to  Sind  and  Nasirdbdd.    There  are  no  restrictions  as  regards 

grazing  except  in  the  Government  forests  ;  though  cultivated 

areas  are  protected,  and  in   many  places  small  areas  in  the 

immediate    neighbourhood    of  cultivation    are    reserved    for 

local  use.      In  the  administered    areas    the    principal    tracts 

noted  for  good  pasturage  are  the  Barg  in  Kohlu,  and   the 

Khawazarai,  Sahra  Nishpa,     Tormana,   Pdn,   Pur,  the  Zar- 

ghi'in  hills  and   Sham,   Aghbarg  and   Lakrai  in  the  Shdhrig 

tahsil.     The  local  names  of  the  principal   grasses  found  in 

Shdhrig  are  sdbd  sargari,  viurgha,  barwas,   shakna,    khoryds, 

kdz  and  ghasidna  ;  and  the  gandi'l,  s/war,    chopa,  chdbar    and 

siimokh  or  sdivar  in  Kohlu. 

In  the  plains  numerous  grasses  spring  up  in  great 
luxuriance  after  the  floods.  Of  these  the  Paniciim  antidotale 
called  by  the  natives  gam  is  the  most  important,  often  forming 
large  bushes.  The  Eleiisine  jiagellijera  and  a  species  of 
Eragrostis  are  also  abundant.  In  Nasirdbdd  a  grass  known 
as  wi  is  cultivated  and  watered  and  is  stored  for  the  use 
of  horses.  In  the  autumn  and  winter  the  stalks  of  the  Judr 
and  maize  (karbi)  which  are  grown  in  large  quantities  are 
used  as  fodder.  Camels  find  abundant  fodder  in  the 
salsolaceous  plants,  tamarisk,  kikar,  kandi  and  other  trees 
and  bushes.  In  addition  to  the  gam  and  wi,  the  principal 
grasses  are  khiv  or  khinv,  gandhil,  sdwra,  sinr,  darab  and 
char. 

No  scientific  enquiries  into  prevailing  cattle  diseases  have  p  ,., 
ever  been  made.  Mention  may,  however,  be  made  of  a  few  diseases, 
of  the  more  common  diseases  known  to  the  cultivators,  their 
characteristics  and  the  local  remedies.  In  most  cases  the 
branding  iron  is  resorted  to  and  the  miillas  charm  is  regard- 
ed as  the  best  specific.  Among  cattle  the  most  fatal  disease 
is  sirao,  sidr  or  gau  marg,  the  symptoms  of  which  are 
discharges  of  fluid  from  the  nose,  loss  of  appetite  and  erup- 
tions on  the  lungs.  It  generally  proves  fatal  in  about 
fifteen  days,  and  the  animal  appears  to  be  in  great  pain. 
Animals   that    survive   this    period    are   made    to  inhale  the 


no  CHAPTER  II  -ECONOMIC. 

Agricul-  smoke  oi gangti  [Orthonnopsis  intermedia).  Branding  on  the 
'^^'^^-  forehead  and  back  is  resorted  to  and  a  mixture  of  whey  is 
administered.  This  disease  is  possibly  pleuro-pneumonia. 
Other  common  diseases  are  foot  and  mouth  disease  [muhdro), 
known  to  the  Afghdns  as  kardo  and  to  the  Baloch  as  chdro. 
Branding  on  the  forehead  or  back  is  usually  practised  in  the 
case  of  the  former.  An  animal  sick  wiih  kdliiva  generally  suc- 
cumbs at  once  and  no  treatment  is  known.  Diarrhoea  (bhtik)  and 
phiphri  (lung  disease)  are  also  not  uncommon,  but  are  seldom 
fatal.  In  both  cases  branding  is  the  usual  remedy.  Other 
cattle  diseases  known  in  Kohlu  are  tapp  or  choripai,  which  is 
a  swelling  of  the  legs  followed  by  lameness;  and  gulgand 
or  ^«/^««^/rt/^  a  swelling  of  the  throat.  Surt>a\s  peculiar  to 
camels,  the  symptoms  being  a  cough  and  discharge  of 
fluid  from  eyes  and  nose.  It  is  possibly  acute  bronchitis. 
The  remedies  include  branding  the  upper  lip,  chicken  soup 
and  a  preparation  of  pepper,  ajzodin,  dried  ginger,  cloves  and 
cinnamon  mixed  in  a  quarter  of  a  seer  of  molasses.  Segrega- 
tion is  generally  resorted  to  in  cases  of  khullok  or  tokhae 
(cough;  and  garr  (itch).  For  itch  the  camelmen  apply  a 
mixture  made  of  the  ashes  of  the  kirar  tree  and  subsequently 
rub  th3  body  with  mustard  or  kerosine  oil.  Sinabaiid  or 
bharij^  which  causes  lameness  and  is  probably  due  to  over- 
fatigue and  over-driving,  is  common.  Branding  and  a  mixture 
of  urine,  molasses,  liquor  2iX\Ci  gxir  are  the  usual  remedies. 

.\mong  goats  buzmarg,  known  also  as  biismdr  or  laiizntdr, 
is  the  most  fatal  disease.  The  symptoms  are  the  same  as  the 
5zrao  and  it  is  probably  the  same  disease.  It  causes  great 
mortality  and  is  very  infectious.  "  A  hundred  goats"  says 
the  local  proverb,  "  are  only  one  meal  for  the  wiizmdrT  A 
kind  of  inoculation  is  practised  by  taking  a  portion  of  the 
lung  of  a  diseased  animal  and  mixing  it  with  equal  quantities 
of  powdered  cloves,  pepper,  turmeric,  aniseed  and  ginger, 
and  inserting  the  mixture  in  a  slit  in  the  ear  of  each  of  the 
remainder  of  the  flock.  Other  diseases  are  muhdro,  a  species 
of  foot  and  mouth  disease,  itch,  for  which  the  animal  is 
anointed  with  a  mixture  made  of  the  body  of  a  snake  boiled 
in  ghiy  bhuk  (diarrhoea);  phiphri  (a  lung  disease)  and  dukh. 
The  two  last  named  are  fatal.  A  sheep  afflicted  with  tak  is 
said  to  stagger,  fall  and  die  at  once.  Post-mortem  examina- 
tions show  that  the  flesh  has  assumed  a  dark-red  colour.     No 


CANALS.  Ill 

local  remedy  except  a  mulld's  charm  is  known  for  it.     Sheep       Agricul- 
also    suffer  from    small-pox    [zari  gurpukh  or  liuii),  foot  and  ture. 

mouth  disease  {kurdo,  chdro  or  vinhdro)  and  a  disease  known 
as  rdl  by  which  worms  are  produced  in  the  stomach.  All 
are  fatal  and  no  specific  remedies  are  known  except  charms. 

Canals  are  found  only  in  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil,  and  the  Canals. 
area  irrigated  by  them  formed  90  per  cent,  of  the  total  culti- 
vated area  in  the  tahsil  (1905).  These  canals  are  the  BegAri 
and  the  Desert  or  Slidhiwdh,  both  of  which  are  taken  off 
from  the  river  Indus.  The  former,  which  has  two  branches, 
the  Nurwah  and  the  Sirwdh,  irrigates  the  lands  of  the  circles 
of  Khdnpur,  Muhammadpur  and  Sirwdh. 

The  Bagari  is  the  largest  channel  in  the  western  system 
of  the  Jacobdbdd  canals,  and  it  is  said  to  have  been  origi- 
nally begun  in  the  time  of  Ni'ir  jNIuhammad  Kalhora,  and 
takes  its  name  from  the  fact  that  begdr  or  impressed  labour 
was  employed.  In  1851  the  canal  at  its  head  was  only  24 
feet  wide  with  a  depth  of  9  feet  ;  it  was  enlarged  in  1852  to 
1854  and  again  extended  in  1856.  Schemes  for  a  still  further 
extension  are  now  under  consideration  (1905). 

The  Desert  canal  irrigates  lands  in  the  following  circles  : — 

(i)  Lahri  Dombki  circle,  where  68  per  cent,  of  the  area 
under  cultivation  is  under  canal  irrigation  ;  (2)  Sanari 
(with  80  per  cent,  of  the  cultivation  under  canal  irrigation); 
(3)  Mdnjhipur  (99  per  cent.) ;  (4)  Dhdnddh  (72  per  cent.)  ;  (5) 
Sohbatpur  with  the  whole  of  the  cultivated  area  under  canal 
irrigation,  and  (6)  Nasirdbdd  (75  per  cent.) 

This  canal  has  four  branches,  the  Shdhiwdh,  Frontier 
Rajbha,  Uch  Rdjbha  and  Manjuthi  Rdjbha. 

The  basis  of  the  Desert  or  Shahi  canal  is  an  old  channel 
of  the  Maqsud  VVah,  which  is  also  said  to  have  been  begun 
in  the  time  of  the  Kalhoras.  This  channel  was  improved  in 
1870  by  local  landowners.  In  1873  the  work  was  taken  over 
by  Government  and  the  c^nal  was  widened  and  extended, 
and  subsequently  much  improved.  The  capital  outlay  up  to 
1899  amounted  to  Ks.  12,72,581.  The  canals  were  made 
primarily  with  the  object  of  benefiting  the  Upper  Sind  Fron- 
tier District.  A  secondary  object,  however,  and  especially 
in  the  case  of  the  Desert  Canal,  was  to  supply  water  to  the 
large  tracts  of  land  in  Kaldt  territory,  thereby  introducing 
a  powerful  stimulus  to  the  settlement  and  pacification  of  the 


112  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Agricul-  country  on  the  Sind  border.  The  canals  in  tlie  sub-division 
TURE.  ^^g  under  the  general  supervision  of  the  Executive  Kng-ineer 
of  the  Begari  Division. 

The  details  of  the  area  cultivated  during  each  of  the  twenty- 
fouryears  between  1881-2  and  1904-5  by  both  canals  and  the 
amount  of  the  revenue  are  shewn  in  table  IX,  Vol.  B.  Dur- 
ing the  ten  years  ending  in  1901,  the  annual  area  irrigated 
in  Kalat  territory  averaged  72,173  acres  and  the  revenue 
Rs.  72,359.  Of  these,  37,223  acres  were  under  the  Desert 
Canal  and  34,950  acres  under  the  Begari  Canal,  the  average 
revenue  being  Rs.  37,405  and  Rs.  31,954  respectively.  In 
1904-5  the  irrigated  area  amounted  to  71,348  acres  under 
the  Desert  Canal  and  31,737  under  the  Begari  Canal  (total 
103,085  acres)  and  the  revenue  assessed  was  Rs.  1,07,021 
and  Rs.  31,759  respectively,  making  a  total  of  Rs.    1,38,780. 

The  largest  area  under  cultivation  and  the  largest  amount 

of  revenue  was  during  1903-4,  for  which  the  figures  were  as 

follows  : — 

Area  cultivated.  Assessment. 

Desert  Canal  ...         ...         ...         ...       68,302  acres.  Rs.   1,02,617 

Begdri      ,,      40,486       ,,  ,,       40,489 

108,788  Rs.   1,43,106 


Until  1903,  when  the  nidbat  was  leased  to  the  British 
Government,  the  administration  was  carried  on  under  a  dual 
system,  a  tahsildar  and  a  staff  of  patwAris,  paid  by  Government, 
assessing  the  demand  at  each  harvest,  and  the  Khdn's  ndib  or 
deputy  making  the  actual  collection. 

The  water  of  the  canals  is  either  brought  to  the  land  by 
gravitation,  in  which  case  the  system  is  known  as  moki^  or 
by  the  lift  system  [chark/n),  the  water  being  raised  by  means 
of  Persian  wheels.  The  main  canal  is  known  as  imh  and  the 
branches  as  rdj-wdh  and  both  are  maintained  by  Government. 
From  the  rdjwdh,  nullahs  are  taken  off  by  the  cultivators 
and  subsidiary  channels  taken  from  the  nidlahs  are  known 
as  Idr.  Ihe  charkhi  used  on  the  canals  is  either  drawn  by 
one  or  two  bullocks  ;  that  drawn  by  two  bullocks  is  known 
as  air  and  irrigates  about  2  bighas  in  twelve  hours  ;  the 
other  drawn  by  one  bullock  is  called  iirla  and  irrigates  about 
i^  bighas  in  the  same  time. 

The  canals  are  generally  filled  in  June  and  are  generally 
closed  about  the  end  of  January. 


I R RIGA  TION. 


113 


The  only  other  irrigatioa  work  executed  by  Government 
is  that  known  as  the  Nari  Gorge  scheme,  by  which  the 
permanent  water  of  the  N.iri  river  is  taken  off  for  the  irriga- 
tion of  the  Sibi  cultivation.  In  former  times  the  water  was 
drawn  off  by  means  of  tem.porary  or  kacha  dams,  which 
were  constantly  being  washed  away  by  floods.  A  masonry 
regulator  was  completed  in  1904  at  a  cost  of  Rs.  22,517,  and 
is  working  successtully  (1905). 

The  sources  of  irrigation  are  given  in  detail  in  table  IV 
Vol.  B,  and  include,  in  addition  to  the  Nasirabdd  canals, 
20  streams,  19  kdreses,  152  springs  and  28  wells.  Of  the 
total  amount  of  land  under  cultivation  in  the  administered 
district  in  1904-5,  the  area  under  permanent  irrigation  was 
represented  by  90  per  cent,  in  Nasirabdd,  77  per  cent,  in 
Shdhrig,  and  65  per  cent,  in  the  Sibi  tahsil. 

The  principal  streams  are  the  Nari  in  Sibi  tahsil  ;  and  the 
Shdhrig,  the  Nasaka,  the  Tormana,  the  Sraghara,  the  Chanu- 
kdn  and  the  Shufa  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil. 

The  permanent  water  of  the  Ndri  is  taken  off  at  Ndri 
Gorge  and  diverted  into  channels,  which  distribute  it  among 
the  villages  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Sibi,  The  different 
shares  and  the  details  of  the  distribution*  are  given-in  the 
followin":  table  : — 


Agricul- 
ture. 

N/iri  Gorge 
scheme. 


Sources  of 
irrig'ation. 


Streams. 


The  Nc^ri 
stream. 


Serial 

No. 

Circle. 

Mauza. 

Quantity 
of  water. 

Remarks. 

I 

Kurk 

Liini    ... 

4 

2 

,, 

Sdfi  Abdul  WahAb 

'(           B 

3 

Sibi 

Sdfi  Pi'rak     

4 

Bost/in           

\           » 

5 

MarghazAni 

6 

Mizri 

3 

7 

Dehp/il          

6 

8 

>) 

Municipal  Sibi         

4 

9 

Railway  Department 

I 

10 

Bhakra  Ghul/im  Bolak     ... 

2 

ti 

Bhakra  Shakar  KhAn 

I 

12 

Kurk 

Kurk  ... 

9 

'3 

UsmAni 

I 

>4 

DAwi  ... 

I 

"5 

Gullu  Shalir... 

4 

16 

Khajak. 

Khajak           

Total 

16 

68  i 

•  This  distribution  is  taken  from  the  Settlement  Report  of  1904. 


114  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Agricul-  The  greater   portion  of  the   flocd-water  passes  through  to 

Kachhi.     A   small  imh   has,   however,    recently  been   taken 

gation.  °^   ^y    Walhari   Khan    Marghazdni,  a  s^^w/w^rtr  of  Sibi,  near 

the  Ndri  station,  and  irrigates  the  Kach  lands  5  miles  below 
Sibi. 

Flood  irrigation  {satldba)  is  inconsiderable  except  in  Kohlu 
and  in  the  Talli  and  Mai  circles  of  the  Sibi  tahsi'l.  The 
principal  floods  occur  in  the  Lahri  or  Sidr  river  in  Kohlu  ; 
the  Mushkaf  nullah,  the  Talli  and  Nari  in  Sibi.  There 
are  also  numerous  small  mountain  torrents.  I  he  usual 
method  is  to  throw  a  mud  embankment  across  the  bed 
of  the  river  or  stream  to  divert  a  portion  of  the  water 
into  channels  [ivdh)  which  lead  to  the  land  required  to 
be  irrigated.  These  dams,  which  are  locally  known  as 
ganda  or  chhdp,  are  constructed  jointly  by  the  cultivators 
of  each  locality,  the  labour  and  expenditure  being  supplied 
in  proportion  to  their  shares  in  land.  They  are  constructed 
at  intervals  along  the  bed  of  the  stream,  and  being  only 
of  a  temporary  nature  are  liable  to  be  washed  away  or 
greatly  damaged  by  every  big  flood  ;  but  they  effect  their 
purpose  by  diverting  a  portion  of  the  water  into  the  irriga- 
tion channels.  The  ganda  is  constructed  of  mud,  broad 
at  the  foundation  and  narrow  at  the  top  ;  the  chhdp  is  a 
species  of  break-water  made  by  driving  piles  into  the  river- 
bed and  filling  up  the  spaces  with  mud,  trees  and  bushes. 
The  principal  flood-water  cultivation  is  along  the  banks 
of  the  Talli  stream  which  has  four  chhdps  and  eight  gandas, 
namely,  Balawah,  H^thlawah,  Sangar,  Sail,  Khuh  Mdchhi, 
Kaisar,  Raza,  Chachar,  Chandia,  Makhan  Bela,  Korzamin, 
and  Gohr^mzai.  The  labour  and  time  spent  in  the  con- 
struction an-i  repair  of  these  dams  is  considerable,  and  owing 
to  the  uncertainty  of  the  floods,  the  cultivation  at  its  best 
is  precarious. 

Springs.  The  springs  are  found  mostly  in  the   Shdhrig  tahsil  which 

has  144  out  of  the  total  of  152  in  the  whole  district.  The 
area  in  this  tahsil  irrigated  by  springs  was  estimated  at 
4,963  acres  during  the  Settlement  of  1902. 

Kdr^zes.  The  kdrezes  *    are    few    in    number    and    unimportant.      In 

•  A  full  description  of  the  history  and  the  methods  of  working  a 
kdr^s  is  given  in  the  Gazetteer  of  the  Quetta-Pishin  District,  Chapter 
II,  pp.  142  —  145. 


kAr^ZES.  115 

1905  the  total  number  was  ig,  of  which  14  were  in  the  Shdhrig       Agricul 

tahsil  and  5    in  Kohhi.      In  the    former    tahsil   the    total    irri-  ture. 

gable  area  was  549  acres,   the  principal   kcirczes   beini:    the 

Lowar  karez  and  Ki'iz  kdrez  at  Kowas  which  irrigate  about  300 

acres,  and  the  Khushdil  kdrcz  at  Zandra  which   irrigates   200 

acres. 

In  the  Shdhrig  tahsil,  owing  to  the  limited  nature  of  the 
cultivable  land  and  a  good  supply  ot  permanent  water  from 
streams  and  springs,  the  kdrcz  is  not  an  important  source 
of  irrigation.  In  Kohlu,  kdrczes  have  only  been  started 
in  comparatively  recent  years,  but  the  locality  appears  to  be 
favourable,  and  it  maybe  expected  that  their  numbers  will 
increase  considerably.  The  question-regarding  the  distances 
which  should  be  preserved  between  kdrezcs  in  this  locality  is 
under  consideration. 

As,  owing  to  various  causes,  the  general  level  of  kdrezes  Depth  of 
and  channels  appears  to  be  gradually  sinking  and  the  '^"^""^'s. 
question  of  lowering  the  depth  of  the  water-w-ay  under 
bridges  and  culverts  on  the  railway  and  military  roads  is 
frequently  raised,  it  will  be  useful,  for  the  purposes  of  district 
administration,  to  quote  the  following  extract  from  a  memo- 
randum, dated  the  4th  of  October  1899,  ^y  Major  Ramsay, 
C.I.E.,  Officiating  Revenue  Commissioner: — 

"  The  Agent  to  the  Governor-General  in  his  letter  No.  3680, 
dated  the  28th  June  1892,  to  the  Manager,  North-Western 
Railway,  laid  down  that,  to  avoid  future  disputes  in  every 
case  in  which  a  water  course  for  irrigation  or  a  kdrez  crosses 
the  railway  line,  the  railway  should  obtain  the  signature  of 
the  Civil  Officer  to  some  drawing  or  other  document,  expli- 
citly stating  that  it  is  his  wish  and  recommendation  that  the 
floor  of  the  culvert  should  be  laid  at  a  certain  reduced 
level.  If  after  obtaining  the  signature  of  the  Civil  Officer 
the  railway  built  the  culvert  in  accordance  with  the  draw- 
ing, there  would  be  no  further  responsibility  on  the 
railway.  This  clears  up  all  disputes  in  the  case  of  culverts 
that  have  been  lowered  at  the  request  of  the  Civil 
Officers.  If  the  railway  have  protected  themselves  by 
obtaining  the  signature  of  the  Civil  Officers,  they  are  free 
from  further  claims.  If  they  have  not  done  so,  they  are 
responsible  in  the  same  way  that  they  would  be  if  the  culvert 
had  not  been  lowered.' 


:i6  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Agricul-  The      orders     of    Government      are     contained      in     letter 

^'^'^^'  Xo.  2444-E.,  dated  the    1st  of  December  J893.     They  are  as 

follows  : — 

*'  The  railway  should  pay  for  all  alterations  required  in 
existing  culverts  owing  to  the  normal  deepening  and  repair- 
ing of  kar^zes  crossed  by  the  line  :  the  necessity  for  such 
alterations  being  decided  by  a  Committee  of  Civil  and 
Railway  Officers.  The  Governor-General's  Agent  having 
the  casting  vote. 

"  The  same  rule  to  be  applied  to  existing  kdrezes  which 
cross  military  and  other  roads. 

"  Regarding  passage  for  the  water  of  new  kdrezes,  the 
orders  are  that  each  case  is  to  be  dealt  with  on  its  merits  and 
submitted  separately  for  orders. 

"  As  showing  what  is  included  in  the  term  '  normal  deepen- 
ing and  repairing,'  it  may  be  noted  that  the  case  which 
gave  rise  to  the  reference  to  the  Government  was  that  of  the 
Gadezai  kdrez.  This  culvert  had  to  be  lowered  7  feet,  and 
the  Government  decided  that  the  railway  should  bear  the 
cost.  iN'ow  as  the  bed  could  not  have  been  lowered  7  feet 
by  ordinary  cleaning  or  k/ia(kashi\  the  kdrez  must  have  been 
deepened,  consequently  the  inference  is  that  if  a  zamindar 
wishes  to  deepen  his  kardz,  the  railway  is  obliged  to  provide 
a  way  for  his  water  at  the  cost  of  the  railway       *       *       * 

"  If  a  zamindar  wishes  to  have  a  culvert  lowered,  the 
District  Officer  should  ask  the  Executive  Engineer  concerned 
to  visit  the  place  with  him,  and  then  submit  a  report  showing 
whether  both  officers  agree  that  the  work  is  needed. 
Having  come  to  the  conclusion  that  it  is  needed,  a  written 
statement  should  be  taken  from  the  sharers  in  the  kdrez 
showing  how  far  it  is  proposed  to  lower  the  culvert,  and  also 
clearly  stating  that  the  sharers  are  aware  that  the  Govern- 
ment will  not  again  alter  the  level  of  the  culvert  except 
at  the  cost  of  the  sharers  ;  further  that  the  cost  will  have 
to  be  paid  in  cash  to  the  department  concerned,  and  the 
sharers  will  not  be  allowed  to  do  the  work  themselves." 
Wells.  The    number    of    irrigation   wells    in    1905    was    28  {22^  in 

Nasiribdd  and  5  in  Shahrig).  For  purposes  of  irrigation,  the 
Persian  wheel  [charkhi)  is  invariably  used.  The  average  cost 
ot  a  masonry  well  in  Nasirabad,  where  the  depth  varies  from 


water. 


D I  VIS  10  X  OF  WATER.  117 

25  to  60  feet,  is  estimated  at  about  Rs.  600.    On  the  Shc-ihi'wah,       Agricll- 
where    the    level    is   lower,  the  cost    is   sometimes    estimated  ture. 

at  as    much  as    Rs,    1,000.     The    area    irrigated    by  a  single 
well  varies  according  toils  depth    from  5    bighas  to  10  acres. 

Permanent    sources  of  water    are    divided    into   a    number    Divisio.i  of 
of  shares,    the    usual    unit   of   division    being  the  shabunato^ 
or  the  flow  of  a  day  and  night. 

The  minor  divisions  of  a  sliabdnaroz  differ  in  various  parts  of 
the  district,  but  those  in  commonest  use  are  indicated  in  the 
following  table  : — 

Shdhrig  Tahsil. 
(i)   Kowds  circle — The  lowest  unit  is  a  pal. 
8  pal  =    I    shingri. 

4  shingri  =    i    wakt. 
2  wake      =    I   shabdnaroz. 

(2)  Mangi  circle — The  lowest  unit  is  a  shingri. 

8  shingri  =    i    shabanaroz. 

(3)  Ahmadiin  circle — The  lowest  unit  is  a  haus. 

2   hauz       =    I   kanar, 

8  kanar     =    i    shabdnaroz. 

(4)  Kach  circle — The  lowest  unit  is  a  iiitn  shitigri : 

2   nim  shingri    —    i    shingri. 
2  shingri  =    i   sdya. 

4  saya  =    i   wial 

2  wial  =    I   shabdnaroz. 

Sibi  Tahsil. 

(5)  Sdngdn  circle — The  lowest   unit  is  a  7iim  chdryak. 

2  nim  chdryak    =    i   chdryak. 
2  chdryak  =    i   oma. 

2   oma  =    I   shabdnaroz. 

2  shabdnaroz      =    i   pakha. 
Anotlier  method  of  dividing  water  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  is 
by  taghdr  which  is  the  term  applied  to  a  wooden  water-divide, 
which  is  pierced    with    holes    according    to    the    number  of 
shares  in  which  the   water  is  divided.      The  water    passing 
through  each  hole  {ivadh)  is  carried  off  by  a  separate  channel. 
These  channels  are  again  sub-divided,  and  the  turns  of  water 
given  to  each  plot  of  cultivation  are  determined  by  lot  (piich- 
cha'aiiddzi).     The  iaghdr  is  also  sometimes  made  of  stone. 
The   division  of   the  Ndri    water  is    carried  out   in  the   first 
stance  by  a   masonry  regulator  at    the   Ndri    Gorge,  where 


ii8  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Agricul  the  water  is  taken  off  from  the  river.  Every  village  has  a 
TURE.  right  to  a  certain  number  of  shares  which  are  permanently 
fixed,  each  share  being  known  2ls  pdo.  The  pdo  is  divided 
into  dahdnaSy  the  number  of  which  vary  indifferent  localities  ; 
and  the  dahdna  is  again  sub-divided  into  rdhkis  the  number 
of  which  also  varies  in  different  villages  according  to  the 
requirements  of  the  cultivation  attached  to  each  village. 
The  village  distribution  is  made  by  means  of  the  shal  which 
resembles  the  taghdr.  The  minor  divisions  are  regulated  by 
time,  and  for  this  purpose  the  day  and  night  are  divided  into 
periods  of  6  hours  {chdryak)  and  again  into  periods  of  3 
hours  {nim  chdryak).  The  time  by  day  is  calculated  by  means 
of  a  rough  sun  dial,  and  at  night  by  the  position  of  the  moon 
and  stars. 

In  Nasirdbad  the  necessity  for  such  minute  divisions  does 
not  exist  and  the  canal  water  is  taken  off  into  their  separate 
nullahs  by  the  land  owners.  VVliere  these  nullahs  do  not 
exist  and  the  supply  of  water  is  small,  the  several  cultivators 
who  hold  land  in  one  block  [thdla)  receive  their  turns  of 
water  by  rotation  [^vdrabandi),  the  flow  being  regulated  by 
time.  It  is  the  rule,  however,  that  the  lands  lying  nearer 
the  source  of  the  water  have  the  prior  claim  to  irrigation. 
The  system  is  known  as  chakbat.  The  internal  distribution 
in  each  block  is  arranged  in  the  same  way,  each  block  being 
divided  into  a  number  of  small  units.  Thus  for  instance  the 
Deh  Mai  is  divided  into  4  blocks  [thdla)^  each  of  which  is 
again  sub-divided  into  8  parts.  The  custom  which  allows 
the  lands  higher  up  the  stream  to  claim  the  prior  right  to 
irrigation  is  also  observed  on  all  lands  irrigated  by  flood 
water  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  and  is  known  as  sarwarkh. 
Water  mills.  There  are  43  water  mills  in  the  district,  of  which  3S  are  in 
Shahrig  and  5  in  Sibi,  The  stones  used  in  Sibi  and  Shdhrig 
are  imported  from  Amritsar  and  Multcin  in  the  Punjab,  and 
cost  from  Rs.  30  to  Rs.  40  ;  in  the  Zidrat  hills  they  are 
obtained  locally  from  the  Warozha  and  Sagar  hills  near 
Warchum  and  Ahmad un. 

Mills  are  generally  constructed  by  the  owners  of  the  land 
and  water,  and  the  initial  expenditure  varies  from  about  Rs. 
150  to  Rs.  300.  The  miller  {asewdn)  is  usually  given  about 
one-fourth  of  the  proceeds  as  his  wages,  and  the  owner  pays 
the  Government  revenue.     The  out-turn  of  a  mill  varies  with 


REXTS,    WAGES  AND  PRICES.  119 

the  water  power.      It  is  estimated  at  about    2^  to  75  maunds       Agricul- 
in  Shjlhrigc  and  about  5  maunds  in  Sibi  in  a    day  of  12  hours.         ture. 
The    charge  for    grinding    [tntis  or   shdgirddna)    is   generally 
levied  in    the  shape  of  a  share  of  the  corn  to  be  ground,  and 
is  about  one-twentieth  o^  jitdr  and  maize  and  one  twenty-fifth 
of  wheat. 

In  parts  of  the   district  where  there  are  no   mills,    grinding    Hand    mills. 
is  left  entirely  to  the  women  and  is   done   with   the    quern    or 
hand  mill  [mccJian)   consisting  of  two   grooved    stones  about 
a  foot  and  a  half  in  diameter. 

Reference  will  be  found  to  the  character  of  the  tenures  and    Rents, 
^1      ^  .        .      ^,         ,.       .   ^    .  ,  ^  .  .       Wages  and 

the  tenancies    m   the    district   in    a   subsequent   section.     As   prices. 

might    be  expected  in  a  backward  country  in  which   crops    Rents. 

are  liable   to  great  variations,    rent   almost  always  consists 

in  a  share  of  the  grain  heap. 

In    such    cases    the    distribution    in    unirrigated    lands    is    Produce 
generally   made  on  the  principle   of  an  assignment  of  one-   method  of 

fourth    of   the    produce    for    each    of  the  chief  requisites  of  distribution 
...  .  ,11,  1      .      .1       ,  111  T       of  the  erain 

cultivation,    i.e.,    the    land,  seed,    bullocks    and   labour.      In    heap. 

irrigated  lands  a  further  share  is  assigned  for  the  water. 
Variations  occur  in  difiFerent  parts  of  the  district  and  in  the 
distribution  of  the  produce  on  various  kinds  of  land,  and  a 
brief  account  is,  therefore,  given  of  the  rates  generally  pre- 
valent in  each  tahsil. 

In  Naslrdbad,  the  revenue,  water  rate  and  the  cess  on  Nasi'rdb^d 
canal  irrigated  lands  are  paid  by  the  landlord,  the  tenant 
supplying  seed,  bullocks  and  labour.  After  deducting  from 
2  to  4  kdsas  f'-om  each  kharwdr  for  miscellaneous  expenses, 
the  produce  under  flow  irrigation  {moki)  is  divided  equally 
between  landlord  and  tha  tenant  ;  under  lift  irrigation 
[charkhi)  their  respective  shares  are  two-fifths  and  three- 
fifths.  Under  both  systems,  if  the  tenant  provides  labour 
only,  he  is  entitled  to  one-half  of  the  produce,  and  the  land- 
lord has  the  right  to  feed  his  cattle  on  the  green  fodder.  To 
these  general  rules  there  are  some  exceptions  in  respect  ot 
lands  irrigated  by  flow,  as  for  instance  in  the  Sohbatpur 
circle,  where  the  landlord's  share  is  three-fifths  of  all  crops, 
except  wheat  of  which  he  gets  two-fifths.  In  the  Khdnpur 
lappa,  the  landlord  receives  five-ninths  in  all  villages  except- 
ing Mama',  where  his  share  is  three-fifths. 


I20  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Rents,  In  the  case  of  dry-crop  lands  the  tenant  generally  finds  the 

Wages  AND    seed,  bullocks  and    labour,   and    receives    half    the    produce 

Prices  ^ 

Dry  crop         after   the   Government  share  has  been  deducted.      But  if  the 

lands  in  the     landlord  provides  the  bullocks,  his  share  is    three-fourths   of 

tahsi'l.  the  net  produce, 

Sibi  tahsil.  In  the  irrigated  lands  of  the  Sibi  tahsil  the  usual    arrange- 

ment  is  that  the  tenant  provides  labour  and  the  bullocks, 
and,  after  the  revenue  has  been  deducted  from  the  gross 
produce^  pays  the  landlord  from  two-fifths  to  one-half  of  the 
balance.  When  the  tenant  provides  labour  only,  the  land- 
lord's share  varies  from  one-half  to  five-sixths.  In  dry  crop 
lands  the  tenant  generally  supplies  the  seed,  labour  and 
bullocks,  and  pays  the  landlord  from  one-twentieth  to  one- 
tenth  of  the  net  produce,  but  if  he  supplies  labour  only,  the 
landlord  receives  from  one-fourth  to  one-half. 

Shabrig  In    irrigated   lands   in  the  Shahrig  tahsil  when  the   tenant 

'^       •  supplies  the  labour  only,    he   generally   receives   one-sixth   of 

the  produce,  the  revenue  demand  being  paid  by  the  landlord  ; 
with  these  exceptions  that  in  the  Shahrig  circle  his  share  is 
one-fourth  of  the  rice  crop,  and  in  the  Harnai  circle  one-tenth 
of  the  wheat.  When  the  tenant  finds  the  labour  and  bul- 
locks, he  receives  one-third  of  the  produce,  the  revenue  being 
paid  by  both  the  landlord  and  tenant  in  proportionate  shares. 
When  he  also  provides  seed,  the  produce  is  equally  divided 
between  him  and  the  landlord.  In  dry  crop  areas  the  rent 
{bohdl)  is  generally  one-tenth  of  the  nat  produce,  the  tenant 
providing  all  requisites, 

Kohlu  tahsil.  In  the  irrigated  lands  of  the  Kohlu  tahsil,  when  the  tenant 
supplies  labour  only,  he  pays  two-thirds  of  the  net  produce 
to  the  landlord,  but  if  he  supplies  the  seed,  labour  and  bul- 
locks, the  produce  is  equally  divided.  In  khushkdba  lands, 
when  the  tenant  supplies  labour  only,  he  pays  the  landlord 
two-thirds  ;  when  he  supplies  labour  and  bullocks,  one  half; 
and  when  he  supplies  labour,  bullocks  and  seed,  from  one 
fifth  to  one-fourth. 

In  other  cases  the  rates  are  settled  by  mutual   agreement. 

Cash  rents.  As  already  remarked,  cash  rents  are  rare.  They  prevail 
only  in  the  municipal  lands  at  Sibi  and  Harnai,  and  in  certain 
parts  of  the  Nasirab^d  tahsil.  The  rates  for  the  .Sibi  munici- 
pal lands  vary  from  Rs,  2-S  to  Rs,  4  per  acre  ;  the  municipal 
lands   at  Harnai  pay  Rs.  10  per  acre,  which  includes   revenue 


USAGES.  121 

as  well  as   rent;   while  the   rates   in    Nasi'rdbdd  range  from        Rents, 
„  ,-  ^,  J  1  *-  t  •     Wages  AM) 

Rs.  2  to  Rs.  lo  per  acre,  the  revenue  demand,  water  rate  anci        prices. 

cess  being-  paid  by  the  landlord. 

No  cooly  class  exists  among  the  cultivating  population  ;  Wages, 
tenants-at-will  perform  certain  services  for  the  landlords, 
whilst  the  household  work  of  the  richer  men  is  performed  by 
their  servile  dependants.  In  the  Sibi  tahsil,  at  harvest  time, 
the  labourers,  who  are  generally  Brahui  nomads  and  Jats 
from  Kachhi  and  include  men,  women  and  children,  receive  a 
share  of  the  crop,  generally  one-twentieth.  In  Kohlu,  a 
fixed  quantity  of  grain  is  given  daily  to  each  reaper,  the 
average  rates  being  6  seers  of  grain  for  boys,  lo  seers  for 
women  and  12  seers  for  the  men.  In  Shahrig,  the  crops 
are  usually  gathered  by  the  samhiddrs  themselves,  but  if 
labourers  are  employed,  they  are  given  from  5  to  6  seers  of 
grain  a  day.  In  Nasirabdd,  the  wages  are  paid  partly  in 
cash  and  partly  in  kind  and  vary  in  different  circles,  the  aver- 
age rate  for  men  being  from  3  to  4  annas  and  3  to  4  pd/i's 
of  grain  per  diem. 

Shepherds  are  generally  engaged  by  the  year,  and  are  Shepherds, 
given  their  food,  a  proportion  of  the  lambs  and  kids  born  and  cattle 
during  the  year,  part  of  the  wool  and  occasionally  clothes,  herds. 
In  Sibi,  a  shepherd  receives  annually,  in  addition  to  clothes 
and  shoes,  two  sheep  or  goats  for  every  ten  animals  entrust- 
ed to  his  charge,  6  ^dsas  (42  seers)  of  wheat,  the  same 
quantity  of  j'luir  and  from  4  to  5  rupees  in  cash.  In  the 
Shdhrig  tahsil,  when  the  cattle  belong  to  several  persons,  the 
usual  wages  are  half  a  pa/h  of  grain  per  animal  per  month 
in  addition  to  his  food,  which  is  supplied  in  turn  by  the 
different  owners.  When  the  flock  belongs  to  one  man,  the 
wages  of  the  shepherd  are  paid  at  the  following  rates  : — 
from  October  to  March  i /6th  of  the  male  and  i/20th  of  the 
female  lambs  born  during  the  year;  from  April  to  July  one 
rupee  for  every  ten  sheep  and  goats,  i  seer  of  a//(i  per  diem 
and  a  pair  of  shoes  ;  and  from  August  to  September  i/4th  of 
the  wool  shorn  froin  the  flock.  In  Kohlu,  a  shepherd 
receives,  besides  food,  12  rupees  per  annum,  i/6th  of  the 
wool,  and  i/6th  of  the  male  and  i/i5th  of  the  female  lambs 
and  kids  boin  during  the  year.  In  Nasirdbad  the  wages  are 
usual  y  paid  in  cash  and  vary  from  2  to  3  rupees  a  month  in 
addition  to  food. 


122  CHAPTER  If~ECOXOAIIC. 

Rents,  Camelherds  in  Sibi  receive  8  annas   per  camel   per  annum, 

PRfc^E^^^    and  in  Nasirabad  a  fixed   wage  of  about  4   rupees   per  men- 
Camelherds     ^^"^  '"  addition  to  food.      In  Kohlu,   the   usual    remuneration 
is  I  rupee  and  12  seers  of  grain  per  camel  per  annum. 

V'illage  Each  important  village   has  one  or  more  headmen,   whose 

servants.  .-  •  ^-  1      •        ^1  •  t         j 

remuneration     is     mentioned     in     the     section     on     Land 

Revenue.  There  is  also  generally  a  midld  who  conducts 
prayers,  teaches  children  and  officiates  at  marriage,  funeral 
and  other  domestic  ceremonies,  and  who  lives  by  the  fees, 
alms  and  zakdt  of  the  villagers.  The  zakdl  is  supposed  to 
comprise  i/ioth  of  the  produce  from  land  and  i/40th  from 
the  live-stock  ;  but  this  portion  is  not  set  aside  in  all  cases, 
and  in  the  course  of  lime  the  tithe  has  been  compounded  for 
a  fixed  payment  in  kind.  Thus,  in  the  Sibi  tahsil,  the  inulld 
is  entitled  at  the  harvest  time  to  2  kdsas  (14  seers)  of  grain 
from  each  heap,  one  kdsa  being  dedicated  as  an  offering  to 
the  Prophet  and  being  known  as  the  nisiUwde,  while  the 
other  is  given  in  the  name  of  the  Kordn,  and  is  called  the 
KordJiwde.  In  Kohlu,  the  cultivators  pay  their  vmLlds  in  the 
month  of  Ramzan  at  the  rate  of  3  seers  of  grain  for  every 
male  member  of  the  community.  In  the  Nasirabad  sub- 
division, in  addition  to  the  ordinary  inulld,  each  large  village 
maintains  a  saiad  muqitn  (local  saiad),  a  saiad  nmrshid 
(spiritual  guide)  and  a  inaulvi  sdhib,  the  duty  of  the  last 
named  being  to  interpret  the  law  and  to  arbitrate  in  cases 
affecting  inheritance,  matrimony  and  domestic  occurrences. 
The  saiad  muqim  receives  about  a  kharivdr  *  of  grain  at  each 
harvest,  or  a  plot  of  land  rent  free  which  is  known  as  the 
serimirdn.  The  saiad  nmrshid  \'i  gwtn  i  rupee  per  annum 
for  every  male  in  the  community,  the  donation  being  known 
as  thiik  or  dan.  The  remuneration  of  the  vunilvi  sdhib 
varies  in  different  areas,  but  consists  generally  of  a  plot  of 
land  rent  free,  and  from  i  to  2  kharimrs  of  grain  per 
annum. 

The  only  ubiquitous  village  servant  is  the  blacksmith 
who  makes  and  repairs  the  implements  of  husbandry,  but 
in  many  places  the  carpenter,  the  water  superintendent 
[rais  jamaddr  or  ndib),  the  water  and  the  crop  watcher 
iiohae),  the  barber,  the  guest  server  (ddva  or  darbdfi),  the 
potter,  the  minstrel  (langa  or  diim),  the  snake  doctor 
•  A  kharwdr  =  2y  maunds. 


WAGES.  123 

imdrwd/a)   and  the  locust  charmer  (malak/nvdla  ox  pir   mdkar)        Rents, 

,  .       •.,  Wages  and 

are  also  met  with.  Pricks 

The  blacksmiths  in  Nasirdbdd  and  Sibi  and  the  carpenters 
in  Shdhrig'  receive  no  fixed  remuneration,  but  are  paid  in 
cash  according  to  their  work.  In  the  Shahrig  villages,  the 
annual  payment  made  to  the  blacksmith  consists  of  as  large 
a  load  of  harvested  wheat  as  he  can  carry  off,  i  kdsa 
(5  seers)  of  grain  for  each  sJiabdnaroz  of  water  and  a  piece  of 
dried  meat  in  winter.  Each  flockovi'ner  also  gives  him  the 
wool  shorn  from  a  single  sheep  and  the  butter  extracted 
from  one  milking  of  the  whole  flock  in  spring.  Blacksmiths 
in  Kohlu  receive  one-fortieth  of  the  produce  of  the  kJiarif 
and  rabi  harvests,  4  seers  of  grain  for  every  5  maunds  sown. 
2  seers  of  grain  in  summer  from  every  household,  one-tenth 
of  the  meat  dried  by  each  family  for  use  in  \vinter,  and 
one-tenth  of  the  meat  of  sheep  and  goats  slaughtered  on 
special  occasions.  As  is  the  case  in  Shdhrig  he  also  receives 
from  flockowners  the  wool  shorn  from  a  single  sheep  and 
the  butter  extracted  from  one  milking  of  the  whole  flock. 
In  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil  the  wnges  of  the  carpenters  vary^ 
but  consist  approximately  of  about  22  daris  or  3  maunds 
17  seers  per  nrla  (water  lift  worked  by  i  bullock).  In 
the  irrigated  villages  of  the  Sibi  tahsil  a  carpenter  receives 
10  kdsas  oi judr  for  every  dahdna  of  water  and  i  kliavvidr 
(10^  maunds)  of  wheat  for  every /rt'o  of  water,  whilst  in  the 
khushkdha  tracts  the  wages  vary  from  2  to  4  kdsas  oi Jtidr. 

The  water  superintendent  (m/j-,  ndib  ox  jamaddr).  who  is 
in  charge  of  the  division  of  water  and  of  the  maintenance  of 
water  channels,  is  compensated  in  some  places  by  a  special 
allowance  of  land  and  water  free  from  rent  and  in  others  by 
payment  in  grain  at  fixed  rates.  The  tohae  or  water  watcher 
is  known  in  Sibi  only  and  receives  12  maunds  of  wheat  at 
the  rabi  harvest  and  20  maunds  oi  judr  at  the  khartf.  The 
zaminddrs  of  NasirdbikI  employ  kard-wa/is  or  crop  watchers 
whose  wages  vary  from  Rs.  4  to  Rs.  5  per  mensem. 

Potters  are  found  in  the  Xasirabad  and  Sibi  tahsils  only, 
and  in  the  former  receive  fixed  wages,  generally  in  kind, 
varying  from  6  dans  to  3  kdsas  pex  jora. 

A  xx\msixe\  {laiiffa  ox  diim)  is  maintained  in  all  the  more 
important  villages,  and  is  remunerated  ordinarily  by  alms 
and  gifts  given  on  special  occasions,  but  in  some  places  he  is 


124  CHAPTER  11— ECONOMIC. 

Rents,        also  paid  certain    fixed  allowances  of  grain,    which   vary   in 
Wages  and    g^^^i^     tahsil     and    sometimes    in     the    different    villaees     ol 

rRICES.  => 

a  tahsil. 

The  nidrwdla  or  snake  doctor  is  found  in  the  Kohlu  tahsil 
only,  and  receives  a  fixed  allowance  of  2  seers  of  wheat  at 
the  rabi  harvest  from  each  family. 

Locust  charmers  are  also  met  with  in  the  NasirabAd  and 
Kohlu  tahsils  where  they  are  known  as  pir  mdkar  and 
vialnkhwdla  respectively.  The  former  ordinarily  reside  in 
Sind  and  only  visit  the  district  when  their  services  are 
required  ;  on  suc1i  occasions  they  are  usually  presented  with 
a  sheep  or  goat.  In  Kohlu  one  Mughal  Shjih,  a  Saiad  of 
Chotiali,  is  the  recognised  malakhwdla  and  receives  a 
regular  payment  at  the  rate  of  4  annas  per  j'ora  at  each 
harvest. 
Sweepers.  Sweepers  are  found  in  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil  only,    and   are 

known  as  bdldshdhi,  and  their  remuneration  consists  of  three 
quarters  of  a  fl?fl/-/' of  grain  per  khanmr  at  each  harvest,  or 
about  Rs.  3   per  mensem  in  addition  to  food. 

Cooly  work  proper  is  a  peculiarity  of  the  industrial  centres, 
which  have  grown  up  since  the  British  occupation,  and  in 
which  a  plentiful  supply  of  labour  from  Makrdn,  Afghanistan, 
Sind  and  the  Punjab  is  always  to  be  found.  Before  the 
opening  of  the  railway,  the  rates  paid  to  this  class  were  high, 
out  in  1893  efforts  were  made  by  the  principal  Government 
Departments  to  reduce  monthly  wages  to  Rs.  10  or  5  annas 
a  day.  In  190 1,  suggestions  were  made  for  the  adoption  of 
a  daily  rate  of  5  annas  4  pies  a  day,  but  except  in  Nasirdbad 
and  Kohlu  the  rate  remains  at  about  6  annas  a  day.  In  the 
coal  mines  at  Khost,  the  colliers  earn  from  Rs.  12  to  Rs.  15 
per  mensem  according  to  the  nature  of  their  work.  Good 
Afghdn  navies  can  also  earn  8  annas  a  day. 
Labourers.  Domestic    servants  and   almost    all    skilled    labourers  are 

imported  from  India,  chiefly  from  Sind  and  the  Punjab,  and 
their  Wdges  are  higher  than  those  usually  prevalent  in  India. 
The  rates  of  pay  for  menial  servants,  such  as  sweepers, 
bhishties,  cliaukiddys  and  office  peons  vary  from  Rs.  8  to 
Rs.  10  per  mensem.  The  wages  of  skilled  labourers  and 
artisans  vary  from  Rs.  30  to  Rs.  45.  Indigenous  coolies, 
when  employed  as  day  labourers  by  the  local  people,  are 
paid  their  wages  at  the   following  rates  : — -In   Nasirdbdd  an 


WAGES.  125 

ordinary  cooly  receives  4  annas  per  diem,  a  rice-husker  Rents, 
Rs.  3-8  per  k/iarwdr,  a  bricklayer  from  Re.  i  to  Rs.  2  per  r,ooo  ^^agks  and 
bricks  and  a  weaver  Re.  i  per  42  yards  of  cloth  i^khadar). 
In  Sibi  a  cooly  gets  3  annas  per  diem  with  food,  whilst  in  the 
Shdhrig'  tahsil  he  is  given  4  annas  per  diem.  Ploughmen  in 
Shdhrig  are  given,  besides  food,  4  paths  of  grain  per  man 
per  diem,  the  bullocks  and  plough  being  supplied  by  the 
saminddr. 

Kdfes  digging,  which  is  a  special  occupation,  is  in  the  Kdrez 
hands  of  trans-border  Afghdns,  chiefly  Ghilzais,  who  visit  the  '^'S'^ers. 
tlistrict  in  winter.  They  generally  work  in  parties  of  four, 
and,  in  addition  to  such  other  payment  as  may  be  agreed 
upon,  usually  receive  food  from  their  employers.  Kdrezes 
are  found  only  in  the  Shdhrig  and  Kohlu  tahsils,  and  the 
food  allowance  ordinarily  consists  of  35  seers  of  wheat, 
I  rupee  on  account  of  meat  and  ^/z/ and  a  seer  of  salt  and 
half  a  seer  of  tobacco  per  man  per  month.  The  owner  also 
supplies  the  windlass  {charkh),  all  necessary  tools,  oil  for 
lamps  and  loin  cloths  [lung).  Tiie  money  wages,  paid  in 
addition  to  the  food  allowances,  vary  with  the  nature  of  the 
soil  in  which  the  kdres  is  extracted,  and  the  following  rates 
may  be  regarded  as  fairly  representative  : — 

Shdhrig  Rates. 

\a)     For  a  well  3  feet  long,  2  feet  broad  and  4  feet  deep. 

Re.  I  to  Rs.  1-8. 
{h)     Tunnel  4    feet    long,    2    feet  broad  and  3  feet  high, 

Re.  1-4  to  Re.  1-8. 

Kohlu  Rates. 

(a)     For  a  well  5  yards  deep Re.     i 

{d)     Tunnel  3I  yards  long ,,       i 

(c)     Open  channel  16  yards  long ,,       i 

On  the  Begdriwdh,  wages  for  digging  old  channels  vary 
from  Re.  1-9  to  Rs.  7-6,  and  those  for  digging  new  ones  from 
Rs.  2  to  Rs.  14  per  1,000  cubic  feet.  In  the  Shdhiudh, 
wages  for  the  former  vary  from  Rs.  2  to  Rs.  5-8  and  those  for 
the  1  itter  from  Rs.  4  to  Rs.  8  per  1,000  cubic  feet. 

Wheat    is    the  staple    food  grain    in     the    highlands,    and    Prices. 
j'udr    in  the  tahsils  of  Sibi  and  Nasirdbdd.     Firewood    and 
chopped  straw  for    fodder    also  form  important  items    in    the 
domestic  economy. 


126  CHAPTER  Tl-ECOXOMIC. 

Rents,  The   prices  of  staple   articles  for  each  tahsil  for  the  twelve 

Wages  AND    years  endinjj:  with    IQ04   are  shown  in  table  X,  Vol.   B.     The 
Prices.         •  ^  .  .    .  ,  .  . 

average  price  ot  wheat  in  the  Sibi   tahsil   during   this    period 

was    14^    seers    per    rupee,    the  lowest  rate  being  9J  seers  in 
February  1897,  and  the  highest  20  seers  in  February  1895. 

The  average  rate  oi j'udr  in  the  same  tahsil  for  the  twelve 
years  ending  with  1904  was  21  seers  to  the  rupee,  the 
lowest  being  10.^  seers  in  July  1900  and  the  highest  32 
seers  in  February  1894.  In  1905  the  average  price  of  wheat 
was  12^  seers  per  rupee  and  of  jndr  i^\}.  seers. 

Writing  in  1887  in  connection  with  the  conversion  of  the 
revenue  levied  in  kind  in  certain  villages  in  the  Pishin  Dis- 
trict into  cash  assessment,  Sir  Oliver  St  John  said  : — "  The 
prices  of  wheat  in  Quetta  and  the  assigned  districts  in  future 
years  will,  it  would  seem,  be  mainly  governed,  like  those  in 
Northern  India,  by  the  English  market.  The  present  is  an 
abnormally  dear  year,  wheat  has  been  scarce  in  the  Punjab  and 
too  dear  for  export  to  England.  The  railway  has  therefore 
exercised  little  influence  on  prices  here.  Supposing,  however, 
that  wheat  falls  to  its  normal  price  in  the  Punjab 
and  Sind,  it  is  obvious  that  its  cost  in  Quetta  should 
fall  to  the  rate  prevailing  at  Sukkur  plus  the  cost  of  transport 
from  Sukkur  to  Quetta."  The  truth  of  these  words  is  ex- 
emplified by  the  approximation  of  prices  in  places  on  or  near 
the  railway  line  with  those  prevailing  in  Sind  and  parts  of 
the  Punjab  as  shown  in  the  following  table  which  gives 
the  price  of  wheat  in  February  1905  :  — 

Nasirdbiid  ...  ...      i2i;  seers  per  rupee. 

Sibi  

Shahrig  ... 

Jacobdbdd 

Shikdrpur 

Multc^n 

Montgomery 

Lahore     ... 

Weights  Before  British  occupation  the  seer  in  general  use  consisted 

^^^  of  88  tolas.      Indian   weights,  with   a  seer  of  80  tolas    and  a 

Measures.  .     .  ,  .•,,.,. 

Measures  of  maund  of  40  seers,  have  now  been  mtroduced  throughout  the 

weight.  district.     The  weights  in   general    use  are  those  of   5  seers, 

2^  seers,  2  seers,  i  seer,  \  seer,  pdo  or  \  seer,  adh   pdo     or  J 

seer,  chittack,    half-chittack    and   diika    or    one-fourth   of   a 


I21 

do. 

12 

do. 

12 

do. 

14 

do. 

I4t 

do. 

16 

do. 

16 

do. 

WEIGHTS  AND  MEASURES.  127 

chittack.  Bulky  articles,  such  as  coal,  fuel,  fodder  are  usually      Weights 
dealt    with    in  large  bazars   by  the  maund  of  Jr2    or    100  lbs.      ^^,?.res*' 
Spring  balances  are  also  used  by  some  of  the  shopkeepers  in 
the  larger  bazars,  but  the  people  of  the  country  still   mistrust 
this  method  of  \\  eighment. 

The  weights  used  by  the    goldsmiths    are  those    in  use    in    Troy 
other  parts  of  India,  the  lowest  unit  being  a  iniing  or  grain  ;   weights. 
2  ;««w_^  make  i  ratti,  8  ruttis  i  mdsha    and  12  vidshas  1  tola. 
The  rupee,  eight-anna,  four-anna,   and   two-anna   pieces  are 
also  used   as    weights,     representing    respectively     i    tola,  6 
mdshas,  3  mdshas,  and  a  vidsha  and  half. 

Outside  the  towns  and  bazars  grain  is  still  sold  by  wooden    Measures  of 
measures  and  not  by  weight,  these  measures  being  of  differ-   S''"^'"- 
ent  capacity  in  different  parts  of  the  district.     The    following 
are  the  measures  in  ordinary  use  :— 

Nasirdbdd  Tahsil. 

{a)  Area  irrigated  by    Shihiwdh    canal.      Toya  is  the  unit 
which  contains  about  6|  chittacks  of  miing. 


2  toya 

= 

I   pdti 

2  p^lti 

= 

I   pinki 

4  pinki 

^= 

I    dari 

4  dari 

= 

I   pai 

4  Pai 

= 

I    toka 

10  toka 

= 

I    kharwar, 

(b)  Area  irrigated  by  the  Begdriwdh. 

I.  Mamal  village. 

Tvya  (  17-28  chittacks )  is  the  unit. 

6j  to)  a  ^  J  dari 
16  dari  =  i  toka 
10  toka     =      I   kharwiir. 

II.  Rojhin  and  the    Muhammadpur  lappa,  exclusive  of 
Ndla  Shdhalzai. 

7o;'«  containing  12  chittacks  oi  miing  is  the  unit. 

9  toya  =  1  dari 
16  dari  =  i  toka 
24  tO)a     =     I   kdsa 

6  kdsa  =  I  toka 
10  toka     =      I   kharwdr. 


28 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Weights 
AND  Mea- 
sures. 


III.     Ndla  Sh.-ihalzai    and  the    Si'rwdh  lappa.     The  unit 
is  the  /oiv"  containing  4^  chittacks  oi  miins^. 
4  toyi  or  chuthai  =    i   pjlti 
4  pAti  =   I   toya 

4  toya  =   I   kdsa 

30  kdsa  ==^   I   khai 

2  khai  =    I    kharvvcir. 

The  weights  of  different  kinds  of  grains  vary,  the  average 
proportion  of  a  khatiSiHir  of  grain  of  each  kind  being  as 
follows  : — 


mung 

== 

27 

maunds. 

wheat 

= 

26 

do. 

juar 

= 

25 

do. 

bdjri 

= 

26r 

. 

do. 

sarshaf 

= 

22 

do. 

gram 

= 

27 

do. 

kunjud 

= 

20 

do. 

kirang 

= 

10 

do. 

Kohlii 

Tahsil. 

I.     Among  the  Marris  the  unit  is 

th 

e  chuthai  containing  2.V 

chittacks  of  wheat. 

2%  chuthai 

= 

nim  pinki 

2     nim  pinki 

:= 

pinki 

2     pinki 

= 

mango 

2     mdngo 

= 

topa 

2     topa 

= 

pai 

2     pai 

= 

kasagh 

10     kiisagh 

= 

tang 

2     tang 

= 

khai  or  gawdne 

-x     khai  or 

gawane^ 

kharwdr 

II.     Among  the  Zarkuns    the   lap   is    the    unit  containing 


about  ^th  of  a  seer  of  wheat. 


2      lap 

=      I 

pan 

I'i  pdn 

=      I 

tsloram 

2|  tsloram 

=      I 

paropi 

if  paropi 

=      I 

path 

2. J  path 

=      I 

topa 

40  topa 

=      I 

ghund. 

The  weight  oi  juur  and  barley  is  i  and  2  chittacks  per  seer 
respectively  less  than  that   of   wheat,    while    the    weight   of 
djri,  china  and  miing  is  equal  to  that  of  wheat. 


WEIGHTS  AND  MEASURES.  129 

Sibi  Tahsil.  ^'eights 

I.  Circles  other  than  Sdngcin.  -^^'^  '^'^^^^■ 

SURES. 

The  unit  is  the  paropi  ox  thiila  containing   if  chittacks   of 
wheat. 

2  paropi  =  I  mdnga 

2  m^nga    ^=  i   pinki 

4  pinki  =  I  topa 

4  topa  =  I   kasa 

30  kdsa  =  I   bori 

2  bori  =^  I   kharwdr  or  kharar. 

II.  Sdngdn  circle. 

The  unit  is  the  paropi  or  pinki  containing   6   chittacks    of 
wheat. 

4  paropi  or  pinki    =■     1  topa  or  path 
4  topa  or  path        =      i   kdsa 
10  kdsa  =      I   kharwdr 

The  weight  of  a  Msn  of  each   kind   of  grain   at   Sibi   is  as 
under  : — 


w^heat 

= 

7     seers 

mung 

= 

8       do. 

moth 

= 

7  or  8  seers 

bdjri 

= 

7     seers 

til 

= 

5       do. 

ju^r 

= 

6  to  7  seers 

coriander 

= 

3     seers 

sarshaf 

= 

6       do. 

barley 

= 

5       do. 

In  Sdngdn  the  kdsa  of  wheat  or  rice  is   taken  as   weighing 
6  seers. 

III.     In  Quat-Mandai  the  unit  is  the  pinki  (wheat   |   seer, 
jiidr  I  seer). 

S  pinkis  make  i  da ri  a.nd  20  daris  make  i  kdsa. 
Shdhrig    Tahsil. 

i.      Kach  and  Kowds  circles. 

Manga  is  the  unit  containing  lo  chittacks  of  wheat. 

2  mjinga     =      1   path 

4  path         =     I  kdsa 

50  kdsa         =^     I  ghundae 

80  kdsa         :=      I  kharwdr. 
9 


130 


CHAPTER  II-ECONOMIC. 


Weights 

AND 

Measires 


Miscel- 
laneous 
measures. 


Linear 
measures. 


II.      Other  circles. 

Lap    (handful)    is    the    unit,    containing   approximately 
chittacks  of  wheat. 


Superficial 
measures. 


2   lap 

2  tsloram 

2  mdnga 

10  path 

2~i  shdnak 


1  tsloram 
I    mdnga 
1   path 
I   shdnak 
I   gfhind. 


In  the  highlands,  green  fodder,  such  as  lucerne  or  maize, 
is  usually  sold  as  standing  crop  by  kiirdas  or  plots,  the  area 
of  which  varies,  and  bundles  of  dry  lucerne  [mora)  are  sold 
by  the  number. 

In  the  plains  standing  crops  such  as  jucir  an.!  green  corn 
are  sold  by  the  square  cubit  [Jiath  hatha).  Bhiisa  in  Kach- 
Kowds  is  sold  by  the  sack  {khurjhi),  a  khurjin  being 
usually  about  3  yards  long  and  i  yard  wide.  Fodder  and 
fuel  is  generally  sold  by  the  camel,  donkey,  or  bullock  load, 
or  by  the  peti  or  load  which  a  man  can  carry  on  his  back. 
It  is  also  sold  by  the  trangar  or  sack  load. 

In  the  towns  and  bazars,  the  standard  yard  of  16  gitahs  or 
36  inches  is  used,  but  the  people  of  the   country  still   employ 
the  cubit  [hath).     The  latter  is  an  indefinite  measure  which 
varies  with  the  stature  of  the  customer,  and  is  measured  from 
the  projecting  bone  of  the  customer's  elbow  round  the  end  of 
the  middle  finger,  when  extended  straight,  and    back   to    the 
lower  knuckle  joint.     In   every    vilhige  there  is  generally  a 
man  whose  hath  is  considered  as  the    standard  of  measure- 
ment and  who   is    referred    to  in    all    cases    of   dispute.      In 
Shdhrig  and  Kohlu  2  haths  moke  i  Kaldti  or  Kandahjiri  yard, 
and  a  standard  yard  is  equal   to   if  haths.     In    Naslrdbdd  a 
hath  is  equal  to  i  foot  and  94'  inches  in  length,  i\  haths  being 
equal  to  a  standard  yard.      In  Sibi,  the  local  measure  in    use 
is  \.\\Q  gaziwh'xch  is  about  ']  girahs  in  length.      Cloth    is   also 
measured  by  the  hath  (about  \o  girahs),  15  haths  being  equal 
to  a  standard  yard. 

During  the  settlement  in  Shahrig  and  Sibi,  the  measures 
adopted  were  acres,  roods  and  poles,  and  these  are  beginning 
to  be  recognised  by  the  people.  In  the  revenue  papers  in 
Nasirdbad,  the  area  is  shown  m  karis,  zanjirs,  gathas  and 
acres  ;  16  karis  making  i  chain  [zanjir)  and  40  square  sanjirs 
OT  gathas  i   acre.      In  the  greater  part  of  the  district,   how- 


WEIGHTS  AND  MEASURES. 


i-,i 


ever,  irrigated  land  is  known  by  the  proportion  of  water 
attached  to  it,  while  unirrigated  land  is  sold  by  joras,  yavgis 
or  bands.  Thus,  the  land  and  water  under  a  permanent 
source  of  irrigation  are  both  divided,  and  the  amount  of  land 
is  recognised  which  is  attached  to  a  ahahdnaroz  or  rdhki  of 
water  or  other  minor  division.  The  term  jora  is  frequently 
used,  but  has  no  definite  value,  merely  denoting  the  amount  of 
land  that  can  be  ploughed  by  a  pair  of  oxen  in  twelve  hours. 
In  Nasirdbad,  the  usual  local  standard  of  measurement  is  the 
kdna,  which  is  5  cubits  (Jiaths)  in  length  and  equal  to  7^  stand- 
ard feet  ;  20  square  kdtias  making  i  wiswa,  20  wis^oas  i  ja?-/b 
or  bigah,  and  zjaribs  i  acre,  which,  according  to  this  calcula- 
tion, comprises  45,000  square  feet  or  5,000  square  yards,  be- 
ing 160  square  yards  in  excess  of  the  standard  acre. 

The  measure  of  distance  throughout  the  district  is  the 
kos  of  about  2  miles. 

People  who  resort  to  the  towns  and  frequently  come 
in  contact  with  Government  officials  know  the  English 
months,  but,  as  a  general  rule,  in  that  part  of  the  dis- 
trict where  Pashtu  is  spoken,  the  Muhammadan  lunar 
year  is  still  observed.  The  Arabic  names  of  the  months  and 
their  local  equivalents  are  given  below  : — 


Weights 

AND 

Measures, 


Arabic  name. 

Local  month. 

Remarks. 

Muharram 

Hasan-Husain. 

Safar       ... 

Safar-Sapar  or  Saparrah. 

Rabi-ul-awal     ... 

Olnai,     Unrmai,     Urmai 

or 

The  Wanecliis  caU  it 

Lumrai   Khor  and  Awa! 

am 

Pezani  khor. 

Khor. 

RHbi-iis-s.iiii     .  . 

Doem,    Diinia,       Dauma 
Duniia  Khor. 

or 

Jamadi-ul-awal. 

Dream    or    Tream    khor 
Dre-ama  !{fior 

or 

J;ii)iadi-uls;ini  .. 

Tsloram  or   Tsre  KlK>r... 

The    Wanechis    cvi! 

— • 

it  Balami  Khor. 

R;.iab     

Khiidai     MiAsht,      Mdsht 

or 

MAst     and     Khudai     TAla 

.MAst. 

S'i;'ib.iil   ... 

BarAt      „           

... 

The  Zarkuns   call  it 
Rasul  Midst. 

Measure  o< 
time. 


132 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Weights 

AND  Arabic  name. 

Measures. 


Local   month. 


Remarks. 


Currency. 


Ramzdn 

Roza  or  Ramzan  Miis. 

Shaw/il 

Urkai  or  Wurkai  .Akhtar, 
Alak  or  Halag  Akhtar  or 
Kuchanai  Akhtar. 

Ziqad 

Zilhaj      

Manzi  Miin,  Manj  Miin,  or 
ManzMiast,  or  VVara  Akh- 
tar Midst. 

Loe-Akhtar  or  Loe-Id. 

In  other  parts  of  the  district  the  months  in  use  are  those 
observed  by  Hindus  in  Northern  India  and  are  : — Wisai<h, 
J^th,  Arhar,  Sanwanr,  Bhadra,  Asu  or  Asun,  Katen  or  Katin, 
Manghar  or  Maghar,  Poh,  Mangh,  Phagunr  or  Phagan 
and  Chetra. 

The  seasons  recognised  by  cultivators  and  flockowners  are 
described  in  the  section  on  Agriculture.  The  days  of  the 
week  are  those  recognised  by  Muhammadans,  Friday  (jiima) 
being  the  first  day.  The  names  of  the  days  in  the  Pashti'i 
speaking  districts  are  Juma  (Friday),  Hafta  (Saturday), 
Yakshamba  (Sunday),  Doshamba  (Monday),  Sehshamba  (Tues- 
day), Charshamba  (Wednesday),  Panjshamba  (Thursday) : 
and  in  Sibi  and  Nasirabad,  Juma,  Chhanchanr  or  Sakhri, 
Achar  or  Artw^r,  Sumar,  Angara,  Arba  and  Khamis. 

The  divisions  of  the  day  most  generally  recognised  are 
those  connected  with  the  Muhammadan  hours  of  prayer,  viz., 
sahdr  (morning),  mdpaskin  or  nimds-i-peshin  (afternoon), 
mdzigar  or  nimdz-i-digar  (sunset)  and  mdkhustan  or  nimds-i- 
khuftan  (9  to  lo  p.m). 

Before  the  British  occupation  the  kalddr  or  British  Indian 
rupee  was  sparsely  used,  the  coins  most  generally  current  in 
that  part  of  the  district  which  was  under  Afghan  rule  being 
known  as  Zaman  sh^hi  or  Kibuli  and  Kandahari.  In  Nasirji- 
bdd  the  Ikeshdhi  rupees  introduced  by  the  Mirs  of  Khairpur 
(Sind)  formed  the  standard  coinage.  At  the  present  time 
Indian    money  is   exclusively  used  throughout  the    District, 


MATERIAL  CONDITION  OF  THE  PEOPLE.     133 


the  names  given  to  each  coin  in  the  different   areas  being-  as       Weights 

.-    ,1  AND 

follows  :-  Ml-asl'res. 


Name  of  coin. 


Sibi  and  Nasi'rd- 
bad  tahsils. 


Rupee 

Eight    -    anna 
piece. 

Four     -     anna 
piece. 

Two      ■    anna 
piece. 

One  anna 

Half-anna 

Pice     ... 

Half-pice 

Pie      


Kalddr,    rupia    or 
rupayo. 

Adhri-abb.isi        or 
ni'ma  rupia. 

P.-ioli  

ShAhi  

Adh-shahi 

Taka,       tako       or 
adhani. 

Paisa  or  paiso     ... 

Adht^la      or       mm 
paisa, 

Pai  or  pdhi 


Shdlirig. 


Kohlu. 


Rupi,  kald.ir,  ru- 
pia, kaldarae  or 
chehra  shdlii. 

Kandahdri,  habd- 
si,  abdsi,  nimkai 
athaiii. 

Pdola,  paopli,pdoli 
or  choani. 

Shdhi  or  doani     ... 


Ana 

Dabal     paisa      or 
taka« 

Pais  


Pdwae 


Rupai         or 
rupi. 

Abdsi   or  ha- 
bdsi. 


Misgdli  or 
pae. 

Slid  hi  or 

sdhi. 

Ana. 

Dabal  or 

taka. 

Paisa  or 

paiso. 

Nim  paisa  or 
nim  paiso. 

Pdi. 


The  hulk  of  the  people  are  poor,  but  there  has  been  a 
steady  improvement  in  their  condition  generally  throughout 
the  District  since  British  occupation,  consequent  on  a  settled 
Government,  the  cessation  of  internal  feuds  and  an  immunity 
from  external  raids.  The  railway  and  the  extension  of  roads 
have  also  opened  out  better  markets,  and  straw,  fuel  and 
fodder,  which  formerly  had  little  or  no  value,  now  fetch  good 
prices.  The  increase  or  prosperity  is  especially  marked  in 
the  Nasirabad  sub-division,  where  the  extension  of  the  Sind 
canals  has  changed  the  bulk  of  the  inhabitants  from  nomad 
tribesmen  living  in  tents  and  dependent  on  a  precarious  dry- 
crop  cultivation  into  a  body  of  settled  and  fairly  well-to-do 
agriculturists.  The  more  prosperous  condition  of  the  country 
is  shown  by  the  higher  price  of  land  and  water,  the  better 
material  used  for  dress  both  by  men  and  women,  the  exten- 
sion of  agriculture,  in  the  improvements  of  the  villages  and 


Maikrial 

Condition 

OF  THE 

People. 


'34 


CHAPTER  ^/—ECONOMIC. 


Material 
Condition 

OF  THE 

People. 


Forests. 
Area  under 
forest 


in  the  gfeneral   rise   in  the  bride  price   (walwar)  and  marriage 
expenses. 

Writing  in  1902  in  connection  with  the  decade,  1891-1901, 
Major  Tighe,  the  Political  Agent,  said  : — "  /v7i7/.?/t^f/6fl  cultiva- 
tion and  crops  irrigated  from  flood  water  from  rivers  and 
torrents  has  been  extended  to  a  very  great  extent.  The 
extension  of  communications  has  been  steadily  carried  on 
within  the  l:ist  ten  years  and  roads  have  been  gradually 
opened  out  in  the  t)utlying  par(^  of  the  District.  These 
roads  have  had  a  great  political  effect  in  tranquillizing  the 
country  and  opening  out  inter-communications  between  the 
tribes.  They  have  also  had  the  effect  of  increasing  trade 
between  the  different  parts  of  the  District.  The  value  of 
land  has  increased  considerably  since  the  advent  of  the 
British  Government,  and  this  is  chiefly  owing  to  the  establish- 
ment of  a  settled  Government  and  the  consequent  general 
feeling  of  security." 

But  this  same  improvement  in  the  general  condition  of  the 
country  and  the  feeling  of  security,  alluded  to  above,  has  led 
to  a  higher  standard  of  living  and  among  some  of  the 
Zaminddrs  to  habits  of  extravagance.  This,  coupled  with  the 
fact  that  money  can  easily  be  borrowed,  has  brought  about  a 
state  of  indebtedness  in  certain  parts  of  the  District,  which 
has  already  been  mentioned  in  the  section  on  Agriculture  ■' 
This  condition  has  been  aggravated  by  a  cycle  of  unfavour- 
able seasons,  which  have  lately  visited  the  District  and  have 
added  greatly  to  the  difficulties  of  those  cultivators  who  are 
dependent  on  dry-crop  cultivation.  The  Marris  and  Bugtis, 
whose  conditions  are  somewhat  different  to  the  inhabitants  of 
the  administered  areas,  are  dealt  wiih  separately  in  Chapter  V. 

The  district  possesses  fifteen  forests,  covering  an  area  of 
about  107  square  miles.  Juniper  [jmiipcrus  excelsa),  wild  olive 
[Olcu  ciispidata),  shisham  [Dalbergia  sissu),  tamarisk  (j'/inu) 
[Tamarix  Indicci).,  babi'il  (^Acacia  Arabica),  kandi  [Pfosopis 
sptcigera),  karil  [Capparis  aphylla)  and  pilu  {Salvadorii)  are 
the  principal  trees. 

The  forests  of  Pil,  Shahidan,  Zargat,  Dehpdl,  Gulu  Shahr, 
Abdul  Kh^li,  Lahri,  Niri  bank,  Bakhra  and  Wdm  Tangi 
were  reserved  in  1890,  Wdm    Kach    in    189 1,   Talli   in    1892, 

•  Section  on  Agricultural  Indebtedness,  Chapter  II — Economic, 
pages  102-104. 


FORESTS.  135 

Gohar  and  Kach  Mjlngi  in    1894,  Torshor  and   Siirghund   in       Forests. 
1895  ^"d  Batsargi  in  1904. 

The  juniper  forests  which  cover  an  area  of  about  68  square    juniper 
miles  are  Pil  (1,280  acres),   Shahidiin    (2,520  acres),  Zargat   reserves. 
(2,760 acres),  Gohar  (1,500  acres),  Kach  M^ngi  (9,400  acres), 
Surghund  (7,500    acres),  and  Batsargi   (7,680  acres),   all   in 
the    vicinity    of    Zidrat  in    the    Zidrat    range   and  Torshor 
in   the   Zarghun  hills. 

One-third  of  the  area  of  tte  Kach  Mdngi  reserve  is  available 
in  rotation  for  the  grazing  of  cattle  and  flocks  belonging  to 
certain  individual  right  owners  ;  and  certain  villages  are  per- 
mitted to  pasture  a  limited  number  of  cattle  and  flocks  in  a 
portion  of  the  Gohar  forest  which  has  been  specially  marked 
off"  for  this  purpose.  The  question  regarding  the  grazing  in 
the  Basargi  reserve  is  still  under  consideration  (1905.) 
With  these  exceptions,  the  remainder  of  the  reserves  are 
closed  to  grazing. 

Siirghund  (total  area  16,000  acres)  lies  partly  in  the  Quetta- 
Pishi'n  and  partly  in  the  Sibi  District.  The  portion  in  Sibi 
has  an  area  of  7,500  acres,  and  the  Sarangzai,  Timarzai  and 
the  Braimzai  tribes  have  the  right  of  pasture  in  certain  select- 
ed portions  of  this  area. 

The  Torshor  reserve  (11,000  acres)  is  situated  in  the  Zar- 
ghi'm  range,  and  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  Quetta  forest 
reserves  of  North  and  Central  Zarghi'm.  Certain  Dumars 
have  the  right  to  pasture  a  limited  number  of  their  flocks  and 
herds  within  one-third  of  the  area  in  such  localities  as  may  be 
fixed  from  time  to  time  by  the  Forest  Department.  Outside 
these  reserves  the  juniper  is  also  found  more  or  less  in  50  square 
miles  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Zidrat. 

The  juniper  in  these  forests  is  almost  gregarious,  but  is  Juniper, 
mixed  with  an  underwood  of  Zarga  [Priaius  eburned)  and 
Mdkhi  [Caragand),  other  trees  met  with  are  the  ash  and  pista- 
chio, which,  however,  are  not  found  in  any  great  numbers. 
The  juniper  only  grows  in  hilly  country,  and  apparently  there 
are  two  essentials  to  its  existence,  viz.,  absolute  altitude, 
that  is  to  say,  it  must  have  a  certain  minimum  altitude,  and 
relative  altitude,  that  is,  its  absolute  altitude  must  be  less 
than  that  of  the  hills  in  the  neighbourhood  which  aff"ord  it 
protection.  Subordinate  to  these  conditions  there  must  be 
a  certain  degree  of  moisture. 


136  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Forests.  In  places  where  these  favourable  conditions  exist,  accompa- 

nied  by  limestone   formatton  or   limestone  mixed  with  other 
stones,   the  juniper  is  generally  found  at  altitudes  from  6,500 
to  8,500  feet,  but  more  vigorously   from   8,000  to  8,500  feet. 
The   wood   is   light,  and,  though   not  strong,   withstands  the 
action  of  moisture   to  a  remarkable    degree.      It  is  used    for 
making  water  channels    {tarnd'was),  house  posts  and    beams. 
In  the  highlands  the  bark  of  the  tree  is  largely  used  for  roof- 
ing huts,    and  temporary  shelters   known   as   manhas.     The 
trees  are  extremely  slow  in  growth  and  never  attain  a  great 
height,    few  being  over  60  or  70   feet.     The  fruit,  which  is 
known    as   pdlo   by   the    Pathdns,  appears  in  spring  and   is 
believed  by  the  people  to  ripen  in  the   third  year.     For  food 
the  berries  are  boiled  in  a  small  quantity  of  water,  when  they 
become  like  jelly  and  are  blackish  in  colour.     After  extracting 
the   kernels,   the  jelly,   which  is   locally   known  as  dosha,   is 
eaten  by  the  poorer  classes  and  more  especially   in  times   of 
scarcity.     It  is  also  believed  to  be  a  cure  for  colds.     The  jelly 
is  sometimes  mixed  with  ghi  and    used  for  lining  the    skins 
isik)  in  which  ghi  is  stored,  as  the  resinous  substance  sticks 
to  the  skin  and  prevents  percolation.     The  green  leaves  are 
also   used   for  medicinal  purposes.     Up  to  the  present  time 
the  berries   have   not   been   found   to  be   of  any  commercial 
value.      No    experiments  seem   to    have    been    made    in    the 
artificial  reproduction  of  juniper,   and    the    Extra   Assistant 
Conservator   states    that    measures     on     a     large    scale   for 
artificial    reproduction    are     not    practicable    for     want     of 
sufficient  moisture  and  on  financial  grounds.      In    the    closed 
areas  natural  regeneration  is  showing  signs  of  improvement, 
but  it  has  not  been    uniformly   successful    owing   chiefly    to 
the  impoverishment  of  the  soil,  caused  hy    heavy   browsing 
previous  to  reservation. 
Shisham  and        '^^^    shisha7n  is    found    in  the  forest    reserves    of    ^^^dm 
olive       re-      Tangi   (area    1,233   acres)    and    olive  in   VVdm    Kach    (2,320 
acres).       Both     these    reserves    are    situated    in    the    hilly 
country    to  the  north-west  of  Harnai  in  the   Shahrig   tahsil. 
The  shisham  isissji)    is  indigenous  to  this  part  of  the  country, 
and  is  found  up  to  a  height  of  about   4,000   feet  ;  the  growth 
is,  however,  small  and  the  largest    trees    seldom    exceed  a 
height  of  35  feet  with  a  girth  of  from  3  to  4  feet.     The  wood 
is  hard   and  durable,  does  not  warp  and  is   highly   esteemed 


serves. 


FORESTS.  137 

for  all  purposes  where  strength  and  elasticity  are  required.  Forests. 
Most  of  these  trees  are  fit  for  fuel  and  the  number  of  those 
that  can  yield  valuable  timber  is  smaU.  The  wild  olive, 
which  is  locally  known  as  kahu  or  s/iowan,  is  also  found  in 
considerable  quantities,  but  the  growth  is  scattered,  and  the 
trees  seldom  attain  a  height  of  more  than  15  feet.  The 
wood  is  hard  and  durable,  and  is  largely  used  for  agricultural 
purposes  and  for  beams,  and  also  makes  good  fuel.  The 
leaves  are  also  used  for  feeding  goats,  and  oil  is  occasional- 
ly extracted  from  the  fruit.  This  is  small  in  size  and  of  an 
acid  flavour,  and,  except  as  mentioned  above,  does  not 
appear  to  be  used  otherwise  lor  either  domestic  or  medicinal 
purposes.  The  wild  olive  is  also  found  in  the  Torkhan  hills 
of  the  Shahrig  t  ihsil  and  the  Babartak,  Jandran  and  Pitao 
hills  in  the  Kohlu  tahsil. 

The  forest  reserves  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  are  Nari   bank    1,226    Mixed 
acres,  Bakhra  1,688  acres,  Lahri  427   acres,  Gulu  Shahr  725   forests  in 
acres,  Dehpdl  599  acres,  Abdul  Kheli  197  acres  and  Talli  6,180  [ahsi'l'  ' 
acres.      The  principal  trees  are  the  j'/iau  (Taviarix   Indica), 
pilii  [Salvadora  Pcnica),  kandi  {Prosopis  spicigera),  karil  {Cap- 
paris aphylla)  and  babul  [Acacia  Arabica).     The j'haii  or  tama- 
risk   predominates     in    the     Nari     bank,   Bakhra   and    Lahri 
reserves,   while   [he  p//u  is  most  common  in  the  remainder. 

In  the  Talli  forest  the  villagers  of  Talli  and  Kaisar  and  cer- 
tain sections  of  the  Marris  possess  the  right  to  graze  cattle 
and  sheep  over  two-thirds  of  the  area  up  to  a  maximum  of 
one  head  of  cattle  for  every  five  acres  open  to  grazing.  They 
are  also  entitled  to  obtain  free  of  charge  wood  for  their  own 
building  and  agricultural  purposes,  provided  no  such  wood 
is  procurable  outside  the  boundaries  of  the  reserve. 

The  babul  or  kikar'xs  indigenous  to  the  plains  of  Sibi  and 
Nasirabad,  and  forms  one  of  the  important  rc^adside  trees  at 
Sibi.  The  wood  is  hard  and  durable  and  is  used  for  fuel 
and  for  agricultural  implements  and  rafters.  The  bark  is 
largely  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  native  liquors,  and 
is  also  used  for  tanning  purposes  and  the  leaves  furnish 
good  grazing  for  camels. 

The  jhau  [Tamarix  Indica)  is  a  moderately  sized  tree 
which  grows  well  on  sandy  and  saline  soils  along  stream 
beds.  The  wood  is  white  and  fairly  hard,  and  is  used  for 
firewood  and  agricultural  implements. 

The  kaiidi,  also  known  as  Jand  or  katida,  is  a  moderate 
sized  deciduous  thorny  tree,  found  in  all  parts  of  the  Sibi  and 


r38 


CHAPTER  11— ECONOMIC. 


Forests* 


Reserved 
trees. 


Minor 
products. 


Nabirabdd  tahsils.  The  wood  is  of  poor  quality,  but  makes 
good  fuel.  The  bark  is  used  in  tanning,  and  the  pods  and 
leaves  furnish  fodder  for  cattle  and  camels.  It  is  also  used 
for  pickles. 

The  karil  {kariUy  kardr,  dela)  is  a  thick  growing  shrub, 
found  on  the  pat  in  the  Sibi  and  Nasirdbad  tahgils.  The 
wood  is  hard  and  close-grained,  and  is  chietly  used  for  small 
beams  and  rafters,  for  which  it  is  in  great  request,  as  owing 
to  its  bitter  taste,  it  is  not  attacked  by  white  ants.  The 
fruit  is  also  eaten,  and  when  unripe  is  made  into  pickles  and 
condiments. 

The  pilu  is  a  moderate  sized  tree  which  grows  readily  in 
poor  and  sandy  soils.  The  wood  is  strong  and  durable,  and 
is  largely  used  for  agricultural  and  domestic  purposes.  The 
leaves  furnish  good  fodder  for  camels,  cattle  and  sheep. 
The  berries  are  largely  eaten  by  the  poorer  classes  and  more 
especially  in  years  of  scarcity  and   drought. 

There  are  no  prote::ted  or  unclassed  forests  in  the  District, 
but  the  following  trees,  growing  naturally  on  waste  lands  at 
the  disposal  of  Government,  are  held  to  be  reserved  trees, 
the  cutting  and  lopping  of  which  are  regulated  by  the  rules 
contained  in  the  A\gent  to  the  Governor-General's  Notification 
No.  2271,  dated  the  27th  of  February  igoi  : — 


Scientific  name. 

English  name. 

Local  name. 

Juniper       

1  Obusht,    Wana  or 
1      Shrawan. 

Juniperus  excelsa 

Pistacia  khanjak     

Pistachio 

Khanjak. 

Do.       mutica     

Do 

Showan. 

Fraxinus  xanthoxyloides... 

Ash.. 

Shang. 

Olea  cuspidata        

Olive           

Kahu,  Showan. 

Dalbergia  sissu 

Shisham     ... 

Zag'ha. 

Acacia  modesta     

Acacia       

Palos,  Phulai. 

Zizyphus  nummularia 

Karkan. 

Do.     oxyphylla 

Gurgula. 

Tecoma  undiiiata 

Tecoma     ... 

Rohrai,  Lahura. 

Prunus  eburnea 

Wild  almond 

Zarga. 

Populus  Eupliratica 

Poplar        

Spina,  Padah,  Bahn 

Tamarix  articulati 

Tamarisk... 

Gaz,  Lai. 

Do.       Indica 

Do 

Jhau,  Farash. 

Periploca  aphylla 

Barrar,  Bdta. 

Prosopis  spicigera... 

Kandi. 

Salvadora  Persioa 

...~. 

Pi'lu. 

Capparis  aphylla     

Karil. 

Among  minor  forest  products  may  be  mentioned  the  pish 
or  dwarf  palm,  cumin  seed  {sira)  and  hyssop  ziifa.  The 
asafoetida  plant   is  also  found  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil,  but  the 


FORESTS.  139 

quantity  is  too  small  to  be  worth  while  collecting  in  a  system-      Forests. 
atic  manner. 

The  dwarf  palm  [A'annorhops  ritchicami)  or  pish,  mazari 
and  dhora  as  it  is  locally  called  in  different  parts  of  the 
District,  is  found  in  large  quantities  in  Kohlu  and  in  the 
Shahrig,  Harnai  and  Babihan  circles  of  the  Shahrig  tahsil, 
and  is  used  for  making  baskets,  ropes,  sandals  and  matting, 
which  are  also  exported  to  Quetta  and  Sibi. 

The  zira  {Ciiniimim.  cytniinitn)  is  found  in  Zarghun  Ghar  in     Cumin  seed, 
the  Kach,  Mdngi  and  Sdngdn  valleys,  and  in  the  Jandr^n  and 
Bhar  hills  in  Kohlu.     The  amount  of  cumin  seed  collected  in 
the  District  in  a  favourable  year  is   estimated   at  about  500 
maunds  and  the  average  selling  price  is  Rs,  10  per  maund. 

Hyssop  [A\'pcta  ciliaris)  is  also  found  in   the  Zarghun    and    Hyssop. 
Khalifat  hills.     The    annual   produce  is  estimated  at  about 
40  maunds  and  the  market  rate  varies  from  2  to  2^   seers  for 
the  rupee. 

Liquorice,    mulaihi    or   khwazhainalgi  [Glycyrrhiza  glabra)    Liquorice, 
grows   in  the    hills    in    the    neighbourhood    of   Shahrig    and 
Sangdn,  and  from  50  to  100  maunds  are  exported  annually  to 
Sind  and  the  Punjab. 

Shooting  is  prohibited  in  the  reserved  forests  except  under  Game  rules, 
licenses  granted  by  the  District  OtTicer,  the  fees  varying 
according  to  the  periods.  The  close  season  for  game  birds 
extends  from  the  ist  of  March  to  the  31st  of  August,  and  the 
shooting  and  snaring  of  the  females  and  young  of  viarkhor- 
gadh  and  deer  are  prohibited. 

The    reserved    forests   are    in    the  charge  of   two   Deputy   Forest  estab- 
Rangers,  who  are  subordinate  to  the  Extra  Assistant  Conser-    I'shment. 
vator  of  Forests,   and   are  assisted  by  24  guards    recruited, 
as  far  as  possible,  from  the  people  of  the  country. 

No  timber  of  reserved  trees  can   be  cut   for  sale    without  a 

permit  from  the  Chief  Forest  Officer  ;  but,   except  in   areas 

where    special   orders    to    the    contrary 

Tamarix  articulata,  •  •,,  1  , 

Do.      Indica.  exist.  Villagers  can  cut  the  trees   named 

Acacia  modesta.  in  the   margin  for  bona  fide  private   use 

Tecoma  undulata.  . 

Periploca  apliylla.  wuhout  any  permit,  and  can  collect  or 

Zizyphiis  nummularia    ^ut  for  fuel  the  dry  fallen  timber  of  any 
Do.         oxypliylla.  ,,. ,,  ... 

tree.       Villagers    wishing    to    cut    any 

other  reserved  trees  for  bona  fide  private  purposes  must  apply 

to  the  Tahsilddr,  who   is  authorised  to  grant  permits  to  cut 


140 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Forests. 


Arboricul- 
ture. 


Mines  and 
Minerals. 


Coal. 


timber  for  these  purposes  in  reasonable  quantities.  This  is 
eventually  reported  to  the  Forest  Officer. 

A  small  establishment  is  maintained  at  Sibi  for  planting 
roadside  trees  within  municipal  limits.  Annual  grants  are 
also  given  to  the  head  quarters  of  each  tahsil,  and  nurseries 
have  been  started  at  various  centres  for  trees  suitable  for 
distribution  to  the  saminddrs. 

Minerals  of  a  commercial  value  and  the  localities  where 
they  are  to  be  found  in  the  District  have  been  described  in 
the  records  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India,  Vol.  XXIII, 
Part  3  of  1890,  and  XXVI,  Part  4  of  1893.  The  principal 
minerals  are  coal,  petroleum,  gypsum  and  earth  salt. 

The  following  account  of  the  working  of  coal  mines 
by  the  North-Western  Railway  at  Khost  has  been  furnished 
by  Mr.  A.  Mort,  the  Mining  Manager: — "At  Khost  is 
worked  a  thin  seam  of  coal  which  crops  out  in  the  hill- 
side to  the  south-west  of  the  Sind-Pishin  loop  of  the  North- 
Western  Railway.  The  seam  lies  in  the  Gdzij  shales  (Middle 
Eocene)  which  are  overlain  by  the  Upper  Eocene  (nummuli- 
tic),  limestone  and  the  Siwalik  s  .nd   stones  and  shales. 

f  Roof  shale,  1 
j        top  coal     ...  9  inches         ! 

I   Black  shale  ...  5  ,,            ' 

r"  Bottom  coal  ...18  ,             )' 

Black  shale,  .9  ,, 

I   sand  stone  j 

1^  or  shale.  J 

The  angle  of  dip  is  45°  to  55°. 

"The  seam  is  considered  workable  along  a  length  oi 
hillside  of  about  2  miles  near  Khost  station,  and  for  a 
separate  short  length  at  a  place  4  miles  to  the  North-West, 
opposite  Zarddlu  station. 

"Analyses  of  the  coal  maybe  found  in  Professor  Wyndham 
Dunston's  report  on  Indian  coals,  published  by  the  Imperial 
Institute,  London.  It  ranks  high  amongst  Indian  coals  in 
heating  power  and  is  low  in  ash  ;  but  though  it  has  to  be 
used  as  a  locomotive  steam  fuel,  its  richness  in  volatiles 
makes  it  more  really  suitable  for  gas-making.  It  is  excellent 
house  coal,  though  very  friable. 

"  The  outcrop  fringe  of  coal,  to  an  average  depth  of  50  ft. , 
has  been  won  by  dips  from   surface  ;  below    this,    access    to 


A  typical  section 
of  the  seam  shows 


Total  2  ft. 
3  inches. 


COAL.  141 

the'seam  (and  drainage)  was  secured  by  level  adits  (tunnels)     Minfs  and 
200  to  500    ft.   long,    driven    from   convenient  nullahs  in  the     Minerals 
hillside.     Still  lower,  points  in  the  seam  have   been    conveni- 
ently  reached  by     slant     tunnels    from   the     surface  ;     and 
beyond  this  winding  dips  in  the   seam  itself  are  being  pushed 
down. 

"  From  the  tunnels  or  winding  dips  levels  are  driven  east 
and  west  in  the  coal-seiim  at  intervals  of  about  300  ft.,  and 
from  each  of  these  the  coal  is  worked  upwards  (on  a  system 
which  may  be  technically  described  as  '  step-longwall  to  the 
rise  ')  until  the  worked  out  level,  300  ft.  above,  is  reached. 
The  coal  is  sent  down  to  the  level  by  shoots  50  ft.  apart. 
Elaborate  timbering  of  the  roads  and  working  faces  is 
necessary.  The  seam  is  a  rather  gassy  one.  Ventilation  is 
effected  by  furnace  or  fan.  Safety  lamps  are  used  exclusively 
in  the  main  workings  ;  regular  inspections  are  made  and 
strict  discipline  maintained.  The  coal-trams  from  the  mines 
are  conveyed  along  a  hillside  tramway  of  18  inches  gauge 
and  across  a  trestle  bridge  over  the  river  to  the  railway 
siding  ;  here  they  are  hoisted  up  an  incline  and  the  coal 
tipped  over  a  fixed  bar  screen  and  picking  shoot  into  vvagons. 

**  Most  of  the  labour  is  employed  through  a  contractor. 
The  miners  are  paid  per  tram  of  coal  and  can  easily  earn 
12  annas  to  i  rupee  per  shift  of  eight  hours.  Night  and  day 
shifts  are  worked.  The  miners  are  mainly  Mekrdnis  and 
Afghans,  the  latter  coming  in  the  winter  only.  Work  other 
than  coal  cutting  is  mostly  done  by  Punjabis.  The  local 
Kdkar  Pathan  w^ill  only  work  under  ground  in  famine  times, 
but  he  benefits  much  indirectly  from  the  colliery's  existence. 
The  average  daily  number  of  men  employed  is  about  650, 
and  the  saleable  output  is  36,000  tons  per  year.  Thus  it 
takes  about  six  employes  to  account  for  each  ton  of  coal  won 
daily.  Since  1887,  when  the  colliery  first  started  in  a  very 
small  way,  to  1905  inclusive,  about  3^  lacs  of  tons  of  coal 
have  been  extracted.  Some  37  per  cent,  of  the  coal  output 
is  dust  (passing  between  bars  spaced  \  inch  apart)  The 
dust  was  formerly  coked,  but  is  now  nearly  all  made  into 
briquettes,  with  the  addition  of  6  per  cent,  of  English  soft 
coal-pitch  as  agglomerant.  Both  coal  and  briquettes  are 
used  almost  exclusively  for  steam-raising  in  locomotives. 
The  book   rates  of  issue  to  the  locomotive  department  are  at 


142 


CHAPTER  II- ECONOMIC. 


Petroleum. 
Khattan. 


Mines  AND  present  Rs.  lo  per  ton  for  coal,  Rs.  6  for  dust,  and  Rs.  12 
Minerals,  p^^.  ^^j^  f^^  briquettes.  Because  of  the  distance  of  other 
sources  of  supply,  these  rates  are  economical  to  the  railway, 
and  the  colliery  a  valuable  property  to  it.  The  capital 
outlay  to  date  has  been  about  3^  lacs  of  rupees,  but  this 
is  more  than  covered  by  the  book  profit." 

The  Editor  is  also  indebted  to  Mr.  A.  Mort  for  the  follow- 
ing note  on  the  Khattan  petroleum  and  the  prospects  of 
working  the  oil  at  Spintangi :  — 

''  Khattan  (a  local  word  meaning  "  asphalt  ")  is  the  name 
of  a  place  in  the  Marri  country,  Baluchistan,  43  miles  by  road 
east  of  Babar  Kach  station,  Sind-Peshin  State  Railway. 
There,  in  a  desolate  valley,  in  bare  eocene  strata,  two  or 
more  springs  of  hot  calcareous  water,  saturated  with  sul- 
phuretted hydrogen,  issue  out  of  a  fault  or  crack  in  the  rock  ; 
and  wich  the  water  come  frequent  globules  of  black,  tarry  oil. 
The  amount  of  oil  so  issuing  is  quite  insignificant,  though  the 
traces  of  asphalt  or  dried  oil  in  the  strata  give  evidence  of 
long  continuance  of  the  flow. 

"  A  few  hundred  feet  away  from  the  springs,  on  a  con- 
venient piece  of  fiat  ground,  boring  was  commenced  on  17th 
September  1884  at  the  expense  of  the  Government,  P.  VV.  D. 
The  Canadian  system  of  boring  was  employed  ;  and  from 
commencement  of  operations  to  stoppage  early  in  1892,  Mr. 
R.  A.  Townsend,  a  Canadian,  was  in  charge.  Some  six 
holes  were  put  down  at  Khattan  itself  within  short  distances 
(about  50  feet)  of  each  other  ;  the  deepest  of  these,  of  which 
1  can  find  record,  was  534  feet ;  diameter  of  hole  8  inches  at 
top,  4^  inches  at  bottom.  It  passed  through  broken  nodular 
limestone  (approximately  200  feet  thick)  and  then  into  shales 
with  thin  limestone  bands.  Oil  was  obtained  at  28  feet,  at 
62  feet,  at  92  feet,  at  115  feet,  at  125  feet,  at  133  and  at  374 
feet,  all  but  the  last  point  being  in  the  nodular  limestone. 
The  oil  along  with  the  water  was  got  by  pumping. 


"  Ovi  -A  large  sample  of  Khattan  oil  sent  to  London,  Dr. 
Boverton  Redwood  reported  that,  it  is  like  the  Californian 
"  Maltha"  or  black  viscid  petroleum,  from  which  asphaltum 
(pitch)  is  got  by  sun  drying.  Its  density  at  60°  F.  is  nearly 
that  of  water  ;  at  higher  temperatures  it  is  lighter  than  water 
and   floats.      The    sample    had    in  it   4    per    cent,    of   floating 


PETROLEUM.  143 

solids  (prasumably  sulphur  and  carbonate  of  lime)   and   6  per      Mines  and 
cent,  of  water.  Minrkals. 

*  »  *  * 

"  The  yield  of  oil  tVoni  the  borings  varied  greatly  :  on 
23rd  February  1888,  Mr.  Townsend  stated  that  he  could  out- 
turn 2,500  barrels  of  oil  |ier  six  days,  this  means  15,000  gal- 
lons or  60  tons  per  day.  Early  in  1890  Mr.  Oldham  noted 
that  four  wells  were  being  pumped,  yielding  a  total  of  ^o 
barrels  per  day  only  ;  at  the  close  of  1891  pumping  ceased, 
as  little  but  water  was  obtained,  and  the  Khojak  works  (on 
which  the  oil  was  used  as  fuel)  were  completed.  The  total 
output  between  18S6  and  1892  was  777,225  gallons.  After- 
wards for  twelve  months  from  March  1893,  Messrs.  MacBean 
&  Company  pumped  the  bore  holes  and  produced  60,000 
gallons  of  oil,  which  was  sold  to  the  railway  at  3  annas  per 
gallon.  Mr.  MacBean  appears  to  entertain  no  doubt  that 
more  could  have  been  got  had  he  been  able  to  employ  more 
staff  aX  Khattan  ;  the  rate  of  3  annas  per  gallon  delivered  at 
BAbar  Kach  seems  to  be  about  the  least  working  expense  at 
which  oil  could  be  put  on  the  railway  at  Babar  Kach  (from 
I  anna  to  i  anna  7  pies,  being  cost  of  camel  carriage  from 
Khattan). 

"  The  total  expenditure  of  Government  on  the  Khattan 
operations  amounted  to  Rs.  6,46,259,  of  this  about  \\  lacs 
was  for  II  miles  of  4-inch  pipes  through  which  the  oil  was 
to  be  forced  from  Khattan  to  Kaura  Duff,  through  the 
Chdkar  gorge  ;  these  were  ordered  but  never  used ;  and 
cost  may  be  deducted  ;  there  was  also  a  three-mile  line  of 
small  pipe  bringing  drinking  water  to  Khattan  ;  for  this  also 
credit  could  be  got  as  likewise  for  the  portable  boiler  and 
engine,    deep  well  pumps,  roofing  materials,    etc.     The  net 

loss  was  probably  about  4  lacs  of  rupees. 

*  »  «  «  « 

Khattan  oil  would  be  more  valuable  to  the  railway  now 
than  it  was  formerly.  As  a  fuel  it  was  worth  not  more  th  m 
i^  times  its  weight  of  Khost  coal,  and  so  could  not  possiblv 
compete  ;  but  it  is  mainly  as  a  possible  substitute  for  pitch, 
the  agglomerant  used  in  fuel-briquette  manufacture,  that  it 
is  to  be  now  considered." 


144  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

MiN  s  AND.  Borings  were  also  commenced  in   i8gi  at  Pir   Koh,  near 

Other'^^Dos-  Spintangi,    but  were    abandoned    after   they   had    reached   a 

sible  oil  sup-  depth  of   560    feet,    as    no    signs     of    petroleum    were     dis- 

plies    near  covered. 
Spintangi. 

Gypsum.  Gypsum  occurs   in   considerable  quantities   near   Khattan, 
and  also  at  Tung  near  Spintangi. 

Limestone  "Limestone*  is  extremely  abundant  throughout  the  area 

and  buildine    „  •    j  1  i-^-  1  1  •     ^1      .-•      'i-i 

stone  occupied  by  nummulitic  rocks,  and  even  in  the  hiwalik    area 

the    pebbles    in    the    stream  beds  are   almost   all   composed 

of  limestone.       It    is    of    great    purity    as   a    rule,    in   fact 

its  only   fault   seems    to    be    that    it    produces    too    fat    a 

lime.         **•*•** 

"Building  stone  is  abundant.  The  sand  stones  of  the 
Ghdzij  group  are  quarried  near  Shahrig,  but  the  best  stone 
is  that  obtained  from  the  lower  bed  of  the  Siwalik  series, 
where  they  have  not  been  too  much  disturbed.  Among  the 
lower  hills  near  Ndsik,  quarries  might  be  established,  where 
an  excellent  free  stone  could  be  obtained  in  blocks  of  large 
size  ;  the  quality,  however,  is  not  good  enough  to  establish 
an  export  trade,  and  for  local  purposes  the  nearest  stone 
available  is  used." 

Building  stone  occurs  in  several  places  in  Wanga,  Jandran 
and  the  hills  to  the  north  of  the  Kohlu  tahsil. 

Mitti,  A  saponine  drab-coloured  earth,  resembling  Fuller's  earth 

and  called  miUi\  is  obtained  from  a  place  called  Zaotak, 
2  miles  from  Lds^zai  in  the  Kohlu  tahsil.  It  is  used  by  the 
indigenous  population  as  a  substitute  for  soap. 

Earth  salt.  The  manufacture  of  salt  was  carried  on  near  the  village  of 

Mamal  in  the  Nasirabad  tahsil  until  stopped  by  the  orders 
of  the  Government  of  India  in  1905.  The  method  of 
manufacture  was  rough  and  primitive.  A  platform  was 
made,  on  the  top  of  which  the  salt-impregnated  earth  was 
piled,  and  round  the  platform  low  retaining  walls  were  built ; 
water  was  poured  on  I  he  top  of  the  platform,  and  after 
oozing  through  the  earth  was  run  into  a  reservoir  and  thence 
into  vats.  Round  the  vats  were  placed  shallow  pans  made 
of  sun-dried  mud,  in  shape  like  ice  pans,  and  into  these  the 
water  was  ladled.  As  the  water  evaporated,  a  crust  of  salt 
was  formed,  and  the  pans  were  filled  and  refilled  till,  at  the 

•  Page  109,  Oloham's  Country  adjoining  the  Sind-Pishin  Railway. 


11^  FA  VI XG. 


M5 


Arts  and 
Manufac- 
tures. 


end  of  some  fifteen  days,  they  were  full  of  salt.  The  salt  Mines  and 
was  then  dried  in  the  sun.  The  manufacture  could  only  be  minsrals, 
carried  out  during  the  hot  months  of  the  summer  and  then 
only  in  fine  weather.  This  kind  of  salt  was  much  appreciated 
by  the  local  inhabitants,  who  much  prefer  it  to  the  imported 
sea  salt  from  Sind  or  rock  salt  from  the  Punjab,  sold  in  the 
bazars.  The  Mamal  salt  is  an  earth  salt  of  an  unusually 
fine  quality.  This  salt  is  known  as  nini  and  the  salt 
manufacturers,  who  are  a  race  apart,  are  called  nufidfs. 
They  originally  came  from  Sind  and  the  DeraGhazi  Khin  Dis- 
trict of  the  Punjab  when  the  salt  works  were  stopped  in  those 
provinces.  For  further  details  regarding  the  manufacture  and 
sale  of  salt,  see  section  on  Salt  in  Chapter  III,  Administrative. 

There  are  no  important  arts  and. manufactures  in  the  Dis- 
trict, and  the  art  of  cotton  weaving,  which    appears  to    have 
been  a  considerable  industry  in  the  plains  of  Nasirabad    and    General 
Sibi  in  former  times,  is  rapidly  giving   way  before  the  inva-   '^°"'^'^o"s« 
sion  of  Indian  piece-goods,  which    can  now    be    obtained    in 
all  parts  of  the  country. 

The  following  interesting  note,  written  by  Mr.  Lockwood  Baloch 
Kipling  on  some  of  the  special  Baloch  industries  of  the  ,^^!°°}?.^„" 
Derajat  hills,  applies  equally  to  the  Marri  and  Bugti  country: — 

"  In  the  border  hills  in  this  District  there  is  an  interesting 
domestic  industry  of  woollen  weaving,  the  products  of  which 
resemble  the  Arab  or  Semitic  type  of  woven  fabrics  more 
than  any  other  work  found  in  India.  The  coarse  and  every- 
day forms  of  this  pastoral  craft  are  rough  goats'  hair  ropes, 
the  rude  cloth  on  which  grain  is  winnowed  and  cleaned, 
corn  sacks,  camel  bags  and  the  like,  which  are  used  through- 
out this  District  and  the  Derajdt  Division  generally. 

"  More  highly  finished  forms  are  camel  trapping  saddle 
bags,  shatnuijia  or  rugs,  and  similar  articles  woven  by 
Baloch  women  in  a  somewhat  harsh,  worsted-like  yarn,  dyed 
in  a  few  sober  colours.  The  patterns  are  as  simple  as  the 
material,  but  they  are  always  good,  and  there  is  a  quahty  of 
tone  and  colour  in  the  stuff  which  more  costly  fabrics  seldom 
possess.  In  addition  to  the  woven  pattern,  saddle  bags  are 
ormnnented  with  tassels  in  which  white  cowries  are  strung, 
and  with  rosettes  skilfully  and  ingeniously  worked  in  floss 
silk  of  diff"erent  colours,  and  ghogis  (small  oblong  shells  like 
seedsj  sewn  to  the  borders.     The  rugs   have  great  wearing 


weaving. 


146 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Arts  and 
Manufac- 

TURKB. 


Embroi- 
deries. 


qualities,  as  warp  and  weft  are  both  in  hard  wool  ;  but  be- 
ing often  crookedly  woven,  they  do  not  always  lie  flat  *  *  *. 

There  are  no  signs  that  the  Baloch  weaving  will  grow 
to  any  thing  more  than  it  is  at  present — a  household  occu- 
pation for  merely  local  use.  The  work  is,  however,  interest* 
ing  as  an  example  of  th.e  instinctive  "rightness"  and  pro- 
priety of  design  and  colour  which  seem  to  be  invariable  at- 
tributes of  pastoral  industries." 

Embroideries  in  silk  are  also  worked  by  the  Baloch  women, 
but  are  for  private  use  and  seldom  find  their  way  into  the 
open  market.  The  following  description  of  specimens  of 
local  work  sent  to  "  Indian  Arts  Exhibition  of  Delhi  "  in  1903 
is  given  by  Sir  George  Watt,  K.C.I.E.  : — "  Baluchistdn — 
Under  the  chapter  devoted  to  darn  and  satin  stitches,  men- 
tion has  been  made  of  certain  forms  of  embroidery  met 
with  in  Baluchistdn,  but  it  is  necessary  to  say  something  of 
the  double  herring  bone  stitch  that  is  abundantly  used  by 
certain  classes  of  people  of  that  country.  The  following 
notes  taken  from  the  collections  on  view  may  exemplify  the 
points  of  greatest  interest.  Quetta — No.  2992-A  cotton  dress 
with  long  front  pocket,  embroidered  in  purple  magenta  silk. 
The  threads  are  carried  from  opposite  sides  diagonally  over 
a  band  and  are  made  to  loop  around  each  other  in  the  middle. 
This  stitch  is  used  to  cover  long  strips  which  start  from  a 
sort  of  cross  on  the  shoulders  and  stretch  down  over  the 
breasts  like  imitation  straps.  No.  2903  illustrates  another 
form  of  Baloch  embroidery  done  by  the  Bugti  women. 
Bands  of  yellow  and  green  cotton  are  sewn  on  to.  the  cotton 
garment  in  a  sort  of  patchwork  ;  they  are  then  embroidered 
over  the  surface,  the  stitch  being  usually  that  above  de- 
scribed, but  often  with  two  threads  simultaneously  looping 
around  each  other  midway.  It  is  customary,  when  appliqud 
is  resorted  to,  for  the  embroidery  to  consist  mainly  of  large 
circular  buttons  or  medallions  in  yellow,  red  and  purple. 
So  also  No.  2904  shows  a  silk  dress  in  opaque  yellow,  em- 
broidered in  orange,  green,  brown,  and  dull  brick-red.  The 
s'Atch  used  is  mainly  herring  boning,  the  threads  looping 
through  each  other.  But  in  this  instance  large  patches  are 
literally  woven  by  the  needle  in  the  manner  in  which  a  stock^^ 
ing  may  be  repaired.  Lines  appear  to  be  run  across  in  one 
direction,  and  the  return    threads    are    subsequently   worked 


FLOUR  MILLS.  147 

through  these  in  regular  meshes    until    the    whole    surface  is     Art-,  and 

J  )i  Manufac- 

covered.  ^^^^^^ 

Coarse  white  felt  coats  known  as  khosas,   made   of  sheep's   Felts, 
wool  which  are  generally  woven  by  the  Pathiins  in    the    high- 
lands   during  the    winter,    are    made    by   the   women  in  the 
villages. 

A  mention  of  the  dwarf  palm  has  already  been  made  in  the    Dwarf  palm, 
section  on  Forests.     Articles  made    from    this    plant,    such 
as  sandals,   ropes,    mats   and  baskets   enter  largely  into  the 
domestic  economy  of  ihe   people,    and   are   also  exported  to 
Quetta  and  Sibi. 

Rough  utensils  for  domestic  use  are  made  by  the  women,  Pottery, 
and  potters  are  found  in  many  of  the  larger  villages  in  the 
plains.  The  work  is  usually  rough  and  primitive,  but  in  the 
Kurk  village  near  Sibi  the  manufacture  of  g-haras  and  surdhis 
is  a  speciality,  and  these  articles  fetch  a  good  price  in  the 
local  markets. 

Leather  work,  consisting  of  saddles  and  horse  gear,  em-  Leather 
broidered  shoes  and  sword  belts,  is  carried  on  at  Muhammad-  ^^^"^  • 
pur  in  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil  and  at  Lahri  in  Kachhi.  The 
sword  belts  made  at  the  latter  place  have  considerable  local 
repute,  and  are  extensively  worn  by  the  Baloch  and  Brdhui 
tribesmen.  The  leather  used  is  of  a  dark-red  colour,  orna- 
mented with  green,  and  then  embroidered  in  minute  circles, 
compacted  between  parallel  lines  ;  the  work  is  in  golden 
yellow  silk  and  in  a  minute  form  of  chain  stitch. 

A  detailed   description   of  the  leather  industry  at  Lahri  is 
given  in  the  Gazetteer  of  Kachhi, 

There  are  two  steam  flour  mills  in  the  Sibi  town  belong-  Steam  flour 
ing  to  Sindi  merchants  from  Shikarpur.  One  of  these,  known 
as  the  '  Kemball  Steam  Flour  Mill,'  was  established  in  1895 
and  the  other  in  1902.  The  mills  employ  22  men  including  2 
mistris,  and  the  outturn  of  each  is  estimated  to  be  about  14 
maunds  of  flour  per  hour.  The  wages  charged  for  grinding 
and  cleaning  are  5  annas  a  maund  and  a  seer  of  corn.  The 
flour  is  largely  used  in  the  town  of  Sibi,  and  is  also  exported 
to  the  surrounding  villages  and  to  the  stations   on   the   Sind- 


148 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Arts  and      Pishi'n  section  of  the  North-Western    Railway.     The    annual 

MANUFAC-  ^  fu     ^u         -IT      •         u        ..  I 

TURES  outturn  of  both  mills  is  about  30,000  maunds. 

Potash.  '^"77^  which  is  a  species  of  carbonate  of  soda,   is   produced 

from  a  bush  called  khdr  [Salsola  Griffithii).  The  khdr  is  cut 
in  December  and  January,  dried  and  then  placed  in  a  hole  in 
the  ground  and  burnt.  A  cross  stick  is  inserted  into  the 
ashes,  which  are  then  covered  over  with  earth  for  eight 
days,  at  the  expiration  of  which  the  sajji  is  drawn  out  in  a 
hard  miss  by  means  of  the  stick.  The  best  quality  sells  at 
Sibi  at  the  rate  of  Rs.  1-4  per  maund.  Inferior  qualities  are 
also  made  from  the  plants  known  as  Idnra  {Salsola  fcptidd) 
■And  h'oiri  [Siia'da  fruticosa).  All  these  are  found  in  the  dry 
crop  areas  of  the  Sibi  tahsil,  in  the  Muhammadpur  and  Sirwah 
circles  of  Nasirabdd  and  in  the  Kohlu  tahsil.  The  monopoly 
of  manufacturing  saj'ji  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  is  sold  annually  by 
auction,  and  the  income  thus  derived  shows  an  average  of 
Rs.  1,018  for  the  last  six  years  (1905).  The  exact  quantity 
produced  during  the  year  is  not  known,  but  the  railway 
traffic  returns  show  that  4,910  maunds  were  exported  by  rail 
from  Sibi  in  1904  and  8,933  maunds  in  1905. 
Commerce         The  local  exports  and  imports  of  the    ancient    province    of 

AND  Trade,  gewistdn  were  at  all  times  insignificant,  and  this  part  of  the 
country  in  relation  to  trade  was  important  only  on  account  of 
the  numerous  trade  routes  which  traversed  it.  Formerly 
there  appears  to  have  been  a  considerable  transit  trade  be- 
tween the  Punjab  and  Khurdsan  and  Kandahdr  which  passed 
through  the  routes  in  the  District,  but  since  the  opening  of 
the  railways,  the  caravan  traffic,  except  as  far  as  local  centres 
are  concerned,  has  greatly  diminished. 

In  former  times  the  greater  part  of  the  trade  from  Sind 
and  Sibi  to  Quetta  and  Kandahdr  passed  through  the  Bolan 
Pass,  but  in  the  early  days  of  British  occupation  the  mer- 
chants, who  were  subjected  to  heavy  tolls  and  to  vexatious 
exactions  on  the  part  of  the  Khrin's  officials,  turned  their 
attention  to  the  Harnai  route  which  had  now  been  rendered 
safe  and  practicable.  A  greater  pait  of  the  trade  in  1S81  was 
thus  diverted  fr.  m  the  Boldn,  and  the  returns  kept  at  the 
Gandakindaff  post  showed  the  following  results  of  the  traffic 


COMMERCE  AND  TRADE. 


149 


by  tl.e  Harnal  route  for  ihe  first  twelve    monlhs  ending-   with     Commerce 

.'  r   A  .      r>o  "  AND    TRADE 

the  31st  of  x\ugust  1S82  :— 


CamcK. 

Donkeys. 

Bullocks. 

Ponies. 

Carts. 

Sibi  to  Kandahar        

9.974 

2,720 

467 

38 

Kandah.'ir  to  Sibi 

6,546 

2,235 

28 

44 

... 

Sibi  to  Ouetta. 

2,458 

327 

254 

2 

Ouetta  to  Sibi 

112 

25 

... 

Local  Traffic. 

Between  Sibi  and  Kach 

859 

274 

268 

12 

... 

,,      „    Thai 

1,047 

561 

555 

9 

29 

Total     ... 

20,996 

6,142 

1,572 

105 

29 

The  growing'  popularity  of  the  Harnai  route  seriousl}'  affected 
the  Khdn's  revenues,  and  eventually  an  agreement,  dated  the 
8th  of  June  1883,  was  made  with  Mir  Khudadad  Khdn  by 
which  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Bolan  Pass  was  transferred 
to  the  British  Government  on  the  payment  of  an  annual 
subsidy.  The  Government  at  the  saine  time  sanctioned  the 
levy  of  tolls  on  both  routes  as  a  tentative  measure  with  effect 
from  the  1st  of  September  1883.  During  the  latter  half  of 
the  year  1883-84  the  dues  thus  collected  on  the  Harnai  route 
amounted  to  Rs.  2,411-4-0,  the  value  of  the  merchandise 
passing  by  this  route  during  the  same  period  being  computed 
at  Rs.  1,71,047-8-0.  These  tolls  were  permanently  abolished 
by  the  orders  of  the  Governtnent  of  India  on  the  15th  of 
May  1884,  and  since  the  construction  of  the  railways  and 
the  opening  out  of  the  Boh'in,  the  caravan  traffic  on  the 
Harnai  route  has  practically  ceased. 

The  trade  betw-een  Sibi  and  Thai  was  also  subject  to  tolls 
levied  by  the  Marri  Chief  at  Gamboli  at  the  following  rates  : — 
Camel  Rs.    1-8-0,  pony  Re.  i-o-o,  bullock  12  annas,  donkey 


I50  CHAPTER  II -ECONOMIC. 

CoMMERce     6  annas  ;    and    the    revenue    thus    realised    during    the    year 
AND   Trade,    ending-  with  31st  of  August  1882  amounted  to  Rs.  2,206. 

^.         ^       c       The  bulk  of  the  trade  of  Nasirdbad  is    almost  entirely    with 
Character  of       _  ^ 

trade.  Sind,  and  the  chief  imports  are  piece-g'oods,  molasses,   sugar, 

tobacco  and  oil,  while  the  principal  exports  zx^  jiidr  and  bdjri 
grains,  oilseeds,  gram,  wheat,  rice  and  cotton.  No  reliable 
figures  are  available  as  regards  either  the  imports  or  ex- 
ports, but  the  latter  are  far  in  excess  of  the  former;  and 
the  tahsilddr  who  has  made  rough  local  enquiries  estimates 
the  value  of  the  imports  at  Rs.  76,000  and  of  the  exports 
at  over  23  lakhs.  These  figures,  however,  should  be  re- 
ceived with  caution. 
Kohlu.  ■^^  ^^  ^^^  cdLSQ  with  Nasirabad  no  figures  are    available    for 

the    Kohlu    trade.     The    chief   article   of  export   is   grain,  of 
which  it   is  reported    some    10,000    maunds    are  sold    to    the 
Marris  and    other    neighbouring  tribes    in    favourable   years. 
The  principal  imports  are  cloth,  sugar  and  molasses. 
Sibi.  Sibi  is  the  chief  centre  of  trade  in  the  District,  and  imports 

considerable  quantities  of  articles  for  consumption  in  the 
town  and  outlying  villages  and  for  the  Marri  hills.  The 
export  trade  consists  chiefly  oijiidr,  wheat,  sarshafs-nd.  bhiisa, 
the  latter  being  sent  to  Quetta  and  the  rem.ainder  to  both 
Quetta  and  Sind.  The  principal  minor  trading  centres  are 
Spintangi,  which  is  the  market  for  Thai,  Duki  and  the 
northern  end  of  the  Marri  country ;  Harnai  which  is  the 
forwarding  station  for  Loralai  and  Fort  Sandeman  ;  and 
Khost  from  which  some  1 1  lakhs  of  maunds  of  coal  are 
annually  exported  for  use  on  the  North-Western  Railway. 

The  subjoined  statements  give  the  maundage  of  the  chief 
articles  of  imports  and  exports  at  Sibi,  Babar  Kach,  Spintangi, 
Harnai,  Shihrig,  Khost  and  Kach, 


COMMERCE  AXD  TRADE. 


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Commerce 
AND  Trade. 


CHAPTER  IT—ECONOMTC. 


Co.MirERCE 

AND  Trade. 


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MEANS  OF  COMMUXICATIOX. 


Tlie  followingf  table  shows  the  imports  and  export;?   of  Sibi    Commerce 
for  a  certain  number  of  selected  years  : —  ^'^^  Trade. 


Year. 

Exports. 
Maunds. 

Iiiiljorts. 

Total. 

Maunds. 

Maunds. 

1^93         

118,524 

1,110,536 

I,2?9,r6o 

1898         

181,496 

147,764 

329,280 

1903        

227,696 

155-540 

383.236 

1904        

158.023 

75.531 

233-554 

1905         

110,177 

162,315 

272,492 

The  year  1893  ^^'^^  exceptional,  as  the  Mushkdf  Boljin  line 
was  then  under  construction,  and  the  general  av^erage  for 
ordinary  jears  in  round  numbers  is  about  130,000  maunds 
for  imports  and  165,000  maunds  for  exports. 

Trade  is  generally  in  the  hands  of  either  local  or  Sindi 
banias,  who  maintain  shops  in  all  the  towns  and  in  the  larger 
villages.  The  carrying  trade  is  chiefly  in  the  hands  of  Ghilzai 
and  Brdhui  nomads  and  of  the  Jats.  At  Sibi  there  is  a 
panchdit  of  the  Hindu  trading  community,  and  fees  at  the  rate 
of  2  annas  6  pies  for  every  rupee  paid  as  octroi  are  collected 
from  each  Hindu  shopkeeper.  Half  of  this  collection  is 
spent  on  the  various  Hindu  religious  institutions  in  the  town, 
and  the  remaining  half  is  distributed  as  alms. 

The  Sind-Pishin  section  of  the  North-Western  State  Rail- 
way, a  State  line  of  the  standard  gauge,  enters  the  Sibi 
District  near  Jhatpat,  45  miles  from  Ruk  junction  and  361 
miles  from  Karachi.  It  traverses  the  District  for  199  miles 
and  then  enters  the  Quetta-Pishin  District  at  Kach  Kotal 
(Brdhimjin  Kotal)  and  terminates  at  Chaman  on  the  border 
of  Southern  Afghanistan.  From  Kach  Kotal  the  distance  to 
Quetta  is  42^  miles  and  to  Chaman  89^  ;  the  total  length 
the  line  in  Baluchistan  being  312  miles.  For  administra- 
rfve  purposes  the  first  portion  from  Jhatpat  to  Pirak  Takri 
(82  miles)  is  included  in  the  Nasirabad  sub-division  ;  the 
next  15  miles  as  far  as  Ndri  Gorge  lie  in  the  Sibi  tahsil ; 
while  from  Nari  Gorge  to  Spintangi  (34.  miles)  the  line  runs 
through  the  Marri  country,  the  tract  being  technically  known 


Classes 
engaged  in 
trade. 


Means  of 
Communi- 
cation. 
Sind-Pishfn 
Railway. 
Description 
and  early 
history. 


154  CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 

Means  of     as  the   Kohlu    Railway  tahsil  and  being  under  the  control  of 
COMMUNi-      ^j^g   Extra  Assistant   Commissioner,  Sibi.     The  remainder  of 

CATION. 

the  line  is  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil. 

The  necessity  of  the  Frontier  Railway  system  was  recog- 
nised when  Lord  Lytton's  policy  was  initiated  in  1876.  A 
large  survey  party  was  organised  during  the  winter  of  that 
year  under  Major  (the  late  Sir  James)  Browne,  who  made  a 
reconnaissance  far  into  the  hills,  but  little  else  was  accom- 
plished and  the  survey  party  scattered  in  1877.  The  project 
was  then  put  aside  till  September  1879,  when  the  Govern- 
ment of  India  sanctioned  the  construction  of  a  surface  line 
across  the  '  paf  or  Kachhi  plains.  This  was  pushed  on 
with  great  rapidity  under  the  inspiring  energy  of  Sir  Richard 
Temple,  then  Governor  of  Bombay,  and  was  completed  as 
far  as  Sibi  in  January  1880.  The  scare  following  the  battle 
of  Maiwand,  however,  brought  the  operations  to  a  stand- 
still, and  the  changes  in  ministry  caused  the  work  to  be 
abandoned  till  1883.  It  was  then  continued  intermittently 
as  the  "  Harnai  military  road"  till  July  1884,  when  the  work 
was  recommenced  in  earnest.  Notwithstanding  great 
difficulties  and  epidemics  of  cholera  which  broke  out 
in  1S85,  the  construction  was  steadily  pressed  on,  and  was 
completed  under  the  supervision  of  General  Sir  James 
Browne  as  far  as  Quetta  and  Kila  AbduUa  in  1887,  the 
railway  being  opened  for  traffic  on  the  28ih  of  August  of  the 
same  year.  The  line  suffered  severely  from  heavy  floods 
in  1888,  1889  and  1890,  which  necessitated  heavy  expenditure 
in  repairs  and  improvements  ;  and  during  the  exceptionally 
wet  winter  of  1890-1  the  hillsides  near  Mud  Gorge  began 
to  move,  and  numerous  and  gigantic  slips  occurred  in  Feb- 
ruary and  March  1891.  This  made  it  clear  that  another 
line  of  communication  was  absolutely  necessar)',  and  orders 
were  issued  for  the  construction  of  the  Mushkdf  Boldn 
railway. 

From  Jhatpat  to  Sibi  the  country  consists  of  pat  or  desert 
plain  practically  void  of  all  vegetation.  From  Sibi  to  Ndri 
the  country  remains  open,  and  the  line  then  enters  the  Nari 
Gorge  and  follows  the  river  as  far  as  Bdbar  Kach,  crossing 
and  recrossing  it  by  six  bridges.  After  leaving  Babar  Kach, 
the  line  crosses  a  shingly  plain  to  Gandakindaff,  and  traverses 
the  tortuous  Kuchili  defile  in  which  are  situated  three  bridges 


S/XD-  PI  SHIN  RA IL  J  VA  V.  1 5  5 

and  three  tunnels.     The  gradients  now  become   steeper,   and     Muans  of 

from  Babar   Kach  to   Kuchdli  station  the  rise   is  4.25   feet  in      ^rM!!-!©!^'' 

about    7    miles,    and    thence    through    Dalujal    to    Spintangi 

station  about  560  feet  in  13  miles.     The  country  now  becomes 

more  open,  though  the  line  still  rises  rapidly  from   1,800  feet 

at  Spintangi  station    to    2,475   ^^^^  ^^  Sunari,   2,950  feet  at 

Harnai,  and  3,362  feet  at  Nakas.*     At  Ndkas  the  line  enters 

the    valley  of  the   Syddha   river  over   which   there  are  four 

bridges,  and  rises  616  feet  in  6  miles  to  the  top  of  the  Punga 

Ghat,  from   which   point   to  Shdhrig  station  there  is  a  slight 

descent  through  open   country.     The   railway  now  descends 

about  170  feet  in  the   next  3^  miles,   and  then   follows   the 

Akhtamar  river  through  Khost  station  to  Dirgi  (4,765   feet), 

passing  over  four  bridges.     After  Dirgi,  it  passes  through  the 

famous  Chappar  Rift,   of  which  the  following  description   is 

taken  from  the  life  of  Sir  James  Brownef  : — 

"The  Nari  Gorge  traversed,  the  line  ascends  along  a 
mountain  valley  presenting  no  difficulties  greater  than  are 
ordinarily  met  with  in  mountain  lines  until  the  Chappar  Rift 
is  reached,  a  curious  freak  of  nature  which  will  certainly 
before  long  become  a  favourite  place  of  interest  for  Indian 
tourists.  Here  the  great  spurs  of  a  rocky  mountain,  many 
hundred  feet  in  height,  cross  the  drainage  of  the  country  and 
present  apparently  a  perfectly  insuperable  barrier.  On  close 
approach  there  appears,  however,  a  great  rift  transverse  to 
the  line  of  mountain,  several  hundred  feet  high,  and  with 
just  width  enough  for  laden  camels  to  pass  along  the  stony 
bed,  through  which  the  waters,  from  what  might  have  been 
an  extensive  lake,  now  find  their  way.  In  dry  seasons  the 
bottom  of  the  rift  presents  merely  the  appearance  of  a  very 
narrow  rocky  stream,  difficult  but  not  impracticable  for  a 
horseman  ;  but  in  Hoods  a  grand  volume  of  water  rushes 
through  with  a  depth  of  from  30  to  40  feet.  The  character 
of  the  rock  forbids  the  idea  of  traversins,"^  it  by  means  of  a 
ledge,  and  the  plan  adopted  was  that  of  two  lines  of  con- 
tinuous tunnels,  one  on  each  side  of  the  rift,  ending  at  points 
opposite  and  on  a  level  with  each  other,  where  they  are 
connected,  and  the  rift  is  spanned  by  an  iron  girder  bridge. 
To  have  constructed  these  tunnels  in  the   ordinary  way  from 

•  The  place  is  locally  known  as  Nasaka. 

t  Li/e  and  Times  of  Sir  James  "  Buster"  Bror.'ne,  by  Lt. -General 
McLeod  Innes,  pp.  256  and  257. 


156  CHAPTER  TI-EC0\0MIC, 

Means  of  either  end  would  have  involved  a  great  expenditure  of  time 
cATioV'  o^^''"&  to  t'^s  extreme  hardness  of  the  rock,  and  it  was 
determined  to  effect  the  task  by  means  of  the  combination  of 
a  number  of  adits  or  approaches  or  short  tunnels  from  the 
precipitous  sides  of  the  rift,  with  the  interior  passages,  and  it 
is  in  the  construction  of  these  that  the  engineers  and  work- 
men were  called  on  to  display  a  degree  of  physical  courage 
as  great  as  is  ever  needed  m  any  operation  of  life.  The  only 
way  of  making  these  adits  or  subsidiary  tunnels  was  by 
letting  down  workmen  with  ropes  from  the  top  of  the  cliflf 
several  hundred  feet  above  the  point  of  operation.  The  first 
man  down  had  to  gain  a  footing  by  driving  a  crowbar  into 
the  perpendicular  wall ;  after  the  first  crowbar  others  were 
driven  in,  and  then  a  platform  was  erected  from  which  blasting 
operations  could  begin.  So  singular  and  difficult  a  piece  of 
engineering  has  probably  seldom  or  never  been  accomplished 
before,  and  the  name  of  the  gallant  officer,  Captain  Buchanan 
Scott,  who  led  the  way  in  this  perilous  task,  deserves  per- 
petual record  in  connection  with  the  work.  Six  openings 
were  made  on  one  side  of  the  cliff  for  one  tunnel  and  six  on 
the  other,  and  galleries  driven  into  them  till  points  were 
reached  from  w^here  the  main  tunnel  could  be  constructed 
right  and  left,  so  that  the  work  could  be  carried  on  by  four- 
teen separate  gangs  ;  and  in  this  way  the  whole  tunnel  was 
blasted  out  in  a  few  months. 

*'  The  tunnel  completed,  there  remained  the  erection  of 
the  girder,  and  this  is  about  220  feet  above  the  bed  of  the 
gorge.  The  erection  of  it  was  not  the  least  of  the  difficulties 
overcome  by  the  ingenuity  and  energy  of  General  Browne 
and  Captain  Scott.  This  is  the  bridge  which  was  opened  by 
H.  R.  H.  the  Duchess  of  Connaught,  the  first  lady,  we 
believe,  who  ever  visited  the  spot,  and  was  named  '  Louise 
Margaret '  in  her  honour.  The  elevation  of  the  Chapper 
Rift  is  about  5,300  feet  or  i  mile  above  the  sea  ;  from 
thence  the  line  rises  with  a  ruling  gradient  of  i  in  45  till  the 
summit  level  of  6,800  feet  is  reache'd,  first,  however,  passing 
through  another  very  difficult  point  known  as  Mud  Gorge. 
Here  the  difficulty  is  not  rock,  but  a  mountain  mass,  which 
is  little  better  than  hard  mud,  which  had  already  made 
several  bad  slips,  carrying  away  the  whole  of  the  line,  and 
threatening  more   slips   in  the  future.      It   will  be  some  time 


ROADS.  157 

before  the  regime    of  Mud   Gorge   will   be   thoroughly  esia-     Means  of 
blished,  and  the  line  attain  a  tone  of  durabilit}-."  ^cIt^qT' 

After  passing  the  MuJ  Gorg^  arching  (i,o?o  feet  long) 
and  three  bridges,  Kach  station  is  reached  at  mile  561 1  from 
Kardchi,  and  2  miles  further  on  is  the  summit  o'i  the 
Br-ahiman  or  Kach  Kotal  (6,534.  feet)  which  divides  the 
District  from  Quetta-Pishin, 

The    details   of  the    principal    routes   m    the    District    are    Roads, 
shown  in  table  XI,   Volume    B,   and   table    XII,    Volume    B, 
contains  a  list  of  the  Dak  Bungalow^s  and  Rest  House?. 

The  principal  route  is  that  which  leads  from  Sibi  to  Quetta    sibi-Quetta 

via  Harnai  and  Kach.      In  former  times  it  was  largely  used    road. 

by  kdfilas,  and  in  the  early  days  of  British  occupation  became 

a  formidable  rival  to  the  Bolan  route,  but  since   the    opening 

of  the  railways  and  the  abolition  of  the    transit  dues   in    the 

Boldn,  it  has  lost  its   importance,   and  at  the  present  time 

there  is  little  or  no  regular  caravan  traffic.     The  road  passes 

for    many  miles    through    the    beds    of   hill    torrents,    more 

especially  between  Sibi  and  Sunari  and  is  liable  to  damage 

by  floods.       It   is   not   kept   in    repair,    and    in    its    present 

condition  is  unfit  for    wheeled   traffic  and  in   many   parts   is 

difficult  for  laden  camels   (1905).      The   chief  branches   that 

take  off  from  this  line  are  {a)   the  Sibi   Kahan   road,  (b)  the 

route    from    Babar    Kach    to    Quetta  via    Sangan,    (c)    the 

important    artery    connecting    Babar    Kach    with    Khattan, 

Kahdn  and   Kohlu  via    Mamand,  [d)   the   route  from   Bdbar 

Kach  to  Giiti  bridge  (73^  miles),  of  which  57I  miles   are   in 

this  District,  and  [c]  from  Spintangi  to  Thai  and  Duki   (55^ 

miles),  of  which  33^  miles  lie  in  the  District. 

The  first  22  miles  (Harnai  to  the  Ushghara  Kotal)  of  the  Harnai 
Harnai-Loralai  and  Fort  Sandeman  road,  which  runs  through  road. 
the  Mehrdb  Tangi,  the  Dilkuna  defile  and  across  the  Smallan 
valley,  lie  in  the  Sibi  District.  The  first  portion,  as  far  as 
Loralai,  was  constructed  immediately  after  the  occupation  of 
the  Bori  valley  in  1887,  and  has  subsequently  been  metalled 
and  rendered  fit  for  wheeled  traffic.  Its  cost  is  computed  at 
Rs.  10,600  per  mile,  and  the  maintenance  charge  in  1905 
amounted  to  Rs.  505  per  mile. 

The  tonga  road   from    Kach    to    Zidrat,    32 J    miles,    was    Kach-Zidrat 
constructed    in    April     1899.        It    is    bridged     and    partially   road, 
metalled    and    is    suitable    for   lieht    wheeled    traffic.       The 


1^8 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Means  of 
Communi- 
cation. 

Marri  and 
Bugti  routes. 


Other 
routes. 


Transport. 


average  cost  of  construction  was  Rs.  2,152   per  mile,  and  its 
maintenance     charges    per    mile    amounted    in     1904-5     to 

Rs.    1X2. 

The  routes  connecting  the  District  with  the  Marri-Bugti 
country  and  the  Lahri  nidhat  of  the  Kalat  State  are  described 
in  table  XI,  Volume  B,  and  in  the  Miniature  Gazetteer  of 
the  iNIarri-Bugti  hills. 

The  other  important  routes  are  : — (a)  The  Smallan-Zidrat 
road  (40^  miles),  of  which  8  miles  on  the  Zidrat  side  lie  in 
the  District,  (i)  The  Duki-Gumbaz-Kohlu-Barkhan  road  and 
(c)  the  first  8  miles  of  the  Sibi-Rindli  road. 

The  annexed  table  shows  the  road  mileage  on  the  31st  of 
March  1905  :  — 


Description. 

Total. 

Maintained 

from  Military 

Funds. 

Maintained 
from  Provin- 
cial Revenues. 

Cart  roads,  partially  brid- 
ged and  metalled. 

Tracks  and  paths 

110-25 

453*25 

39'5 
8 

70-75 
445'25 

Total     ... 

563-50 

47-5 

5i6'oo 

These  figures  do  not  include  6^  miles  of  roads  in  and  about 
Sibi,  which  are  maintained  from  Local  Funds. 

Camels  are  the  principal  means  of  transport  throughout 
the  greater  part  of  the  District.  The  number  of  these  animals 
possessed  by  the  permanent  inhabitants  is  estimated  at  about 
4,000,  while  about  5,000  are  computed  as  belonging  to  the 
various  nomad  tribes  who,  with  the  Jats,  monopolize  the 
great  bulk  of  the  carrying  trade.  The  Br^hui  nomads  are 
found  in  the  District  during  the  greater  part  of  the  year,  and 
in  the  winter  the  country  is  visited  by  considerable  numbers 
of  Ghilzais.  The  rates  vary  according  to  the  supply  and 
demand  and  are  usually  fixed  by  private  arrangement  between 
the  traders  and  the  carriers,  but  the  following  may  be  taken 
as  fairly  representative  : — From  Harnai  to  Loralai  and  Duki 
from  7  to  12  annas  per  maund  ;  from  Harnai  to  Fort  Sande- 
man  from  Re.  1-2  to  Rs.  2  ;  and  from  Spintangi  to  Thai  and 
Duki  from  6  to  8  annas  and  from  8  to    10    annas   per   maund 


CAMEL  CONTRACTS.  159 

respectively.  The  usual  rate  of  hire  for  a  camel  from  Sibi  to  Means  op 
Kahan  is  Rs.  3,  and  from  Dera  Bugti  to  Jacobabad  and  Roj-  Communi- 
hdn  from  Rs.  3  to  Rs.  4,  and  from  Rs.  2  to  Rs.  2-8  respectively. 

Country  carts  are  found  in  the  Nasi'rdbdd  and  Sibi  tahsils 
only,  their  numbers  being  200  in  the  former  and  120  in  the 
latter.  The  usual  rates  of  hire  vary  from  8  annas  to  Re.  1-4 
per  diem.  Donkeys  and  bullocks  are  also  largely  used  for 
local  transport,  the  numbers  of  the  former  being  2,741,  belong- 
ing to  the  permanent  inhabitants  and  about  900  to  nomads. 
The  bullocks  are  chiefly  owned  by  the  zamindcirs  and  have 
already  been  referred  to  in  the  section  on  Agriculture.  Single 
horse  tcngas  or  himUims  ply  regularly  on  the  Harnai-Loralai 
road,  and  are  subject  to  rules  issued  by  the  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General  in  October  1902  under  section  20-A  of  the 
Stage  Carriages  Act  (X\T  of  1861).  The  fare  from  Harnai 
to  Loralai  is  Rs.  12,  and  from  Loralai  to  Fort  Sandeman 
Rs.  36  for  a  single  and  Rs.  50  for  the  return  journey.  There 
is  also  a  regular  tonga  service  beween  Kach  and  Ziarat  in  the 
summer  months,  the  fare  being  Rs.    13  for  the  single  journey. 

The  question  of  camel  transport  has  always  presented  Camel 
much  difficulty,  and  conferences  and  committees  were  held  in 
1884,  1887,  1890  and  1891  to  consider  the  subject.  The  con- 
ference which  assembled  in  September  1891  under  the  pre- 
sidency of  Mr.  (now  Sir  Hugh)  Barnes,  the  then  Revenue 
Commissioner  in  Baluchistdn,  drew  up  an  elaborate  set  of  rules 
and  a  draft  agreement,  the  terms  of  which  were  approved  by 
the  Government  of  India.  This  conference  recommended  the 
division  of  the  whole  Baluchistan  Agency  into  two  independ- 
ent circles,  the  contract  in  each  circle  being  held  by  a  separate 
contractor.  The  second  circle  included  the  Sibi,  Lcralai 
and  Zhob  Districts,  for  which  a  contract  was  concluded  for  a 
period  of  three  years  ending  with  the  30th  of  September  1894. 
On  the  termination  of  this  contract  a  committee  was  again 
assembled  under  the  presidency  of  Major  Mclvor  in  Novem- 
ber 1894,  when  it  was  decided  that  it  was  impracticable  to 
maintain  a  uniform  schedule  of  rates  for  the  whole  Agency, 
and  that  as  regards  the  Kalat  and  Quetta-Pishin  Dis- 
tricts, the  supply  of  camel  carriage  and  the  rates  to  be  paid 
might  be  left  to  the  ordinary  laws  of  supply  and  demand.  It 
was,  however,  considered  desirable  to  retain  the  existing 
arrangements   in    Zhob,    Sibi   and  Loralai  ;  and  the  contract 


3  00 


CHAPTER  II— ECONOMIC. 


Means  of 
Communi- 
cation. 


Telegraph 
offices. 


Post  offices. 


system    with    certain    modifications    still    remains    in    force 

(1905)- 

The  Military  Works  Services  and  the  Supply  and  Trans- 
port Department  have  separate  contracts.  A  new  factor  has 
recently  been  introduced  by  the  recruitment  of  two  Camel 
Corps  by  Government,  the  58th  Silladar  Camel  Corps 
raised  in  1901  and  the  8i3t  Ghilzai  Camel  Corps  raised  in 
1905  with  its  head-quarters  at  Quetta.  Both  these  corps 
are  employed  in  carrying  trade  in  peace  time. 

The  District  is  well  provided  with  telegraphs,  all  head 
quarter  stations  being  connected  by  wire.  There  are  also 
offices  at  all  stations  on  the  railway,  and  several  of  the  Post 
Offices  are  combined  with  Telegraph  Offices.  The  latter  are 
denoted  by  the  letter  C  in  the  statement  below,  which  also 
shows  the  names  of  the  Post  Offices  and  their  functions  : — 


M 

^ 

D 

•a  >^ 

Cfl    "^ 

__ 

=  u 

0  c 

Xame   of 

Headi    Sub    or 

«  = 

l'^    . 

^  tc 

"t 

Post  Office. 

Branch  Office. 

'5^  s 

t/".        u.* 

i  S)^ 

i   '->    •. 

E 

C    «    u 

c  n  3 

■i'2= 

—   ii 

-C.O 

nwx 

-   ^  0 

I'o 

0 

U 

'-< 

Yateabad 

Branch     ... 

M 

... 

Bellpat      

>i 

M 

S 

Lindsay    

)> 

M 

S 

... 

... 

Nuttal       

)  ) 

M 

S 

... 

... 

Mithri 

M 

s 

... 

Sibi            

Hekd        

M 

S 

... 

D 

S  i  b  i        Railway 

Railway   Mail 

... 

... 

D 

Station. 

Service. 

B;'ibar  Kach 

Branch      

M 

s 

... 

... 

Spi'ntangi 

1 » 

M 

s 

... 

... 

Harnai      

Sub 

M 

s 

c 

D 

Shahrig 

M 

s 

c 

D 

Khost        

Branch     

M 

s 

... 

D 

Mdngi       

'   t> 

M 

s 

... 

... 

Kach         

)» 

M 

s 

... 

Ziarat"     

Sub            

M 

s 

c 

D 

Kohlu        

Branch     

M 

1 

s 

c 

° 

The  mails  from  Harnai  t.i  Loralai  are  carried  daily  by  a 
tonga  service,  the  contract  for  which  is  renewed  annually 
under  the  orders  of  the  Political  Agent;  Loralai.  The  up 
journey  takes  about  11  hours,  and  the  down  journey  about  9 
hours.     The  mails  from  Kach  to  Zidrat  during   the   summer 

•  The  Zidrat  combined  office  remains  open  from  about  the  middle 
of  April  to  middle  of  October. 


FAMINE.  i6i 


season  are  also  carried  by  a  tongfa  service,    the   contract   for     Means  of 

Communi- 
cation. 


which  is  likewise  renewed  annually.     The  mails  to  Kohlu  via     Communi- 


Duki  and  Gumbaz  are  carried  twice  a  week  by  Postal  levies. 

There  is  no  regular  service  to  the'  Marri   and  Bug'ti   tracts, 

Government  letters  being  carried  when  required  by  the  tribal 

levies. 

The  conditions  of  the   different   parts   of   the    District   are       Famine. 

very  dissimilar  ;  and  while  Nasirdbiid   is    fully   protected    by   Scarcity  and 

^  .  .  ,  ^         .  its  causes, 

its  canals,  and  part  of  theSibi  tahsil  and  the  upper  highlands 

have  a  large  proportion  of  irrigated  land  with  a  good   supply 

of  permanent   water,     Kohlu,   the    tracts    occupied    by    the 

M arris  and   Bugtis,   and   the    large   khushkdba   areas   in   the 

south    of   the    Sibi  tahsil   are  almost  entirely  dependent  for 

their  crops  and    fodder  on   a   favourable  rainfall.      In   these 

parts  periods  of  scarcity  are  constant  and  frequent,  although 

acute  famine  is  unknown  owing   to   the   migratory   habits  of 

the  people  and  the  proximity  of  fully  protected  areas  in  Nasir- 

abdd  and  Sind,  where  ample  means  of  subsistence  exist  for 

all  who  are  willing  to  work.      Except  in  the   Marri  and  Bu.gti 

tracts,  where  the  majority  if  the  inhabitants  are  pastoral,  a  fair 

harvest  of  either  wheat  or  Judr  is  ordinarily  sufficient  to  carry 

the    local    indigenous    population    through     the    year.     The 

primary  cause  of  scarcity  is   the  failure   of  the   autumn  and 

winter   rains,    and    recent   experience    has    shown   that  the 

people  can  tide  over  one  or  two  years  of  drought,  but    that  a 

combined  failure  of  both  crops  and   grazing  for  consecutive 

seasons   causes    a   crisis   and  reduces  them  to  considerable 

straits.     The    other     causes    of    agricultural  loss  which,   if 

combined  with  other  influences,' may  cause  scarcity  are  the 

visitations  of  locusts,   the  appearance  of  surkhi  or  rust  in  the 

crops,  and  the  ravages  of  the  tiddi  ox  grasshoppers.     Failure 

of  the  harvest  in  Sind  and  the  Punjab  also  affects  the  prices 

of  staple  grains. 

Local   tradition    speaks   of  constant  scarcity,  and  Masson    „    •  jc  of 

notices  a  ten  years'  drought  from    1830   to   1840.     In   recent   scarcity. 

times    there    was     a    succession    of    unfavourable    seasons 

between  1897  and  1902,  during  which  period  there  was  much 

distress    in    most    parts    of    the    District.      Produce-revenue 

adjusts  itself  automatically,  and  during    the    first    two   years 

some  remissions  and  suspensions  in  assessed  areas,  combined 

with  assistance   for  the    purchase   of  seed   and  stock,    were 

1 1 


1 62  CHAPTER  II—ECOXOMIC. 

Famine.  found  to  be  all  that  was  required.  But  on  the  culmin- 
ation of  the  drought  in  1900-01,  relief  works,  consisting 
chiefly  of  the  construction  and  repair  of  roads,  had  to  be 
opened  and  doles  of  grain  were  distributed.  The  details  of  the 
relief  afforded  to  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  are  given  in  Chapter 
V.  As  regards  the  remainder  of  the  District,  a  sum  of 
Rs.  3,542,  allotted  by  the  Indian  Famine  Relief  Fund,  was 
distributed  among  the  destitute  zaminddrs  of  the  dry  crop 
areas  of  the  Sibi  tahsil,  revenue  and  grazing  tax  to  the 
amount  of  Rs,  1,744  were  remitted,  whilst  Rs.  94  were 
suspended.  Advances  to  the  amount  of  Rs.  30,223  were 
also  given  to  agriculturists  for  the  purchase  of  seed  grain 
and  plough  bullocks,  and  relief  works  costing  about 
Rs.   23,198  were  opened. 

The  years  1904-5  and  1905-6  were  also  periods  of  drought 
and  scarcity  in  tiie  tribal  areas  and  the  khushkdba  lands  in 
the  Sibi  Tahsil,  and  in  1905-6  doles,  amounting  to  Rs.  14,000, 
were  given  in  equal  shares  to  such  Marri  and  Bugti 
cribesmen  who  had  greatly  suffered  from  past  years'  scarcity 
and  were  in  great  need  of  help.  Relief  works,  costing 
Rs.  9,725-9-10,  were  opened  near  Sibi  for  the  aaminddrs  of 
Mai  and  Talli  and  the  Marris  of  Quat-Mandai,  Kohlu,  etc. 

The  majority  of  the  permanent  inhabitants  of  the  upper 
parts  of  the  District  and  of  the  irrigated  villages  in  Sibi  do 
not  usually  move  in  times  of  scarcity,  but  those  who,  like 
tlie  Marris  and  Bugtis  and  the  zaminddrs  of  Mai  and  Talli, 
possess  only  a  small  quantity  of  irrigated  land,  and  are  de- 
pendent on  dry  crop  cultivation  and  on  flocks,  migrate  in 
large  numbers  to  Sind.  Thus  for  instance,  the  greater  part 
of  the  Bugti  tribe  left  their  country  in  the  autumn  of  1903 
and  m.igrated  with  their  families  and  flocks  and  herds  to 
Nasirdbad  and  Sind. 
\'isitations  The  District  has  been  visited  by  locusts  o\\  several  occa- 
of  locusts.  sions.  During  1891-2  swarms  of  locusts  devastated  the 
country  and  caused  great  damage  to  the  autumn  crops.  A 
second  visitation  occurred  in  1897  when  the  locusts  destroyed 
a  considerable  portion  of  the  crops  and  grazing.  In  190 1, 
the  upper  part  of  the  District  was  again  attacked  by  innumer- 
able swarms  of  flying  locusts  which  first  appeared  in  March, 
and  laid  eggs  in  almost  every  circle,  producing  multitudes  of 
crawling  locusts  early  in  May.     Writing  about  their  destruc- 


FAMINE.  163 

tlon  the  Political  Agent  said  :  "  Energetic  measures  were  Famine. 
taken  to  destioy  the  eggs  and  young  locusts,  but,  owing 
to  the  Vast  expanse  of  tiie  country  and  the  comparative 
paucity  of  inhabitants,  any  concentrated  aciion  was  most 
diilicult.  Later  in  the  season  the  locusts  were  attacked  by 
maggots  which  were  hatched  from  eggs  laid  in  the  thorax  ot 
the  insects  by  a  species  of  fly.  Large  numbers  of  locui^ts 
perished    from    this   disease  *         *         *         "*.     It    was 

noticed  that  the  fruit  trees    attacked   by  locusts   did  not  bear 
any  fruit  during  the  following  season." 

As  already  referred  to  above  the  greatest  safeguard  Protection, 
against  famine  lies  in  the  migratory  habits  of  the  people,  and 
the  proximity  of  protected  areas.  The  extension  of  the 
railway  has  also  led  to  a  levelling  eff"ect  on  the  retail  prices 
of  food  at  places  near  the  line,  and  it  maybe  assumed  that 
the  effect  of  adverse  local  conditions  in  such  places  on  the 
price  of  staple  grains  will  be  reduced  to  a  minimum  in  all 
years  in  which  a  good  harvest  is  assured  in  Sind  and  the 
Punjab.  It  is  doubtful  whether  there  is  much  scope  in  the 
District  for  large  irrigation  schemes,  and  the  widest  source 
of  protection  probably  lies  in  the  extension  of  embankments 
for  catching  flood  water,  though,  as  such  schemes  are  de- 
pendent on  rainfall,  they  cannot  be  regarded  as  entirely  pro- 
tective. 


CHAPTER  III. 


ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Administra-    Oibi    District    is     composed  of    two     Districts     which     are 

TivE      Divi-    >-J     technically  distinct :  the  Sibi  District  which  contains  the 

sioNs    AND  •; 

Staff.  Sibi  and  Sh^hrig  tahsils   and  forms  part  cf  British    Baluchis- 

tan, and  the  Kohlu,  Nasirabad  and  Railway  District  which 
comprises  the  tahsi'l  of  Kohlu,  ths  Kohlu  Railway  tahsil  that 
is  the  raihvay  line  between  Ndri  Gorge  and  Spintangi 
stations,  the  Nasirdbad  tahsil  and  Nasirdbad  Railway  tahsil, 
which  includes  the  railway  from  Jhatpat  to  Pirak  Pir  Takri 
in  the  Sibi  tahsil.  This  District  forms  part  of  the  Agency 
territories.  For  purposes  of  administration,  tlie  District,  as 
a  whole,  is  divided  into  three  sub-divisions  :  Nasirjibad 
including- the  Nasirabad  tahsil  proper  and  the  Nasirabdd 
Railway  tahsil  ;  Sibi  including  Sibi,  Kohlu  and  the  Kohlu 
Railway  tahsil  ;  and  Sh^hrig. 

The  ordinary  head  quarters  staff  consists  of  a  Political 
Agent  for  areas  included  in  Agency  territories,  who  is  also 
styled  Deputy  Commissioner  for  areas  in  British  Baluchistdn  ; 
an  Assistant  Political  Agent  and  Assistant  Commissioner, 
who  is  in  charge  of  the  Shahrig  Sub-division  ;  and  an  Extra 
Assistant  Commissioner,  who  holds  charge  of  the  Sibi  Sub- 
division. A  Munsif  is  located  at  Sibi,  who  exercises  judicial 
powers  in  the  Sibi  tahsil.  An  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner 
is  in  charge  of  the  Nasirdbdd  Sub-division.  The  Police  force 
is  under  the  control  of  the  District  Superintendent  of  Police, 
Quetta-Pishin  District,  there  being  an  Honorary  Assistant 
District  Superintendent  of  Police  in  immediate  charge.  In 
each  of  the  tahsils  of  Nasirabdd,  Sibi  and  Shahrig,  Tahsilddr 
and  Ndib  Tahsilddr  are  stationed.  The  Kohlu  tahsil  has 
a   Naib   Tahsildar   only,    who    exercises    the    powers    of    a 


MARRIS  AND  BUGTIS. 


165 


TION    AND 

Staff. 


Tahsilddr,      Their  principal  duty  is  collection  of  Government   Administra 
revenue,  but  they  also  exercise  judicial  powers. 

The  officers  in  charge  of  the  sub-divisions  supervise  the 
collection  of  the  revenue,  occasionally  personally  attend  to 
batai  and  /ashkhis,  and,  in  subordination  to  the  Political 
Agent,  control  the  tribes  within  their  limits.  The  village 
revenue  staff  consists  of  Palwaris  or  Tapadars,  and  Kanungos 
or  Supervising  Tapaddrs,  who  are  paid  servants  of 
Government,  and  the  village  headmen,  known  locally  as 
waderas,  maliks  cr  lambarddrs,  who  help  in  the  col- 
lection of  revenue  and  are  ordinarily  remunerated  in  all 
tahsils,  excepting  Nasirdbdd  where  no  payment  is  made,  by 
payme  "it  of  5  per  cent,  on  the  gross  collections  [haq-i- 
malikdna).  The  strength  of  the  staflf  (1905)  is  shown 
below  : — 


Tahsil. 

No.  of 
Circles. 

Kanungos 
or  Super- 
vising 
Tapaddrs, 
and  Muhd- 
sibs. 

Patvvdris 

or 
Tapaddrs. 

Headmen. 

NasfrAbAd 

Sibi 

Kohlu            

Sh/ihrig-         

9 
7 

5 

3 
4 

I 

3 

9 
8 
2 

5 

48 
101 

II 
170 

Total     ... 

23 

11 

24               330 

The  Political  Agent  exercises    control    through    the    Extra   Control  in 
Assistant    Commissioner,    Sibi,    over    the    Marri   and    Bugti 
tribes,    and    also  over   the  Dombki  and  Kaheri  tribes  in  the 
Lahri  nidbat  in  Kaldt  territory. 

So  far  as  the    Marri    and  Bugti    tribes    are    concerned,    as   Harris  and 
little    interference    as    possible    is    exercised  in  their  internal    ^"gt's. 
affairs,  which  are  managed  by   their   own    chiefs    and    head- 
men.    But   all    murders,   disputes    in    which  resort  is  had  to 
fighting,  other  quarrels  which  are  likely  to  lead  to  a   serious 
breach  of  the  peace,  and  cases  in  which  the    infliction   of  the 


1 66 


CHA P.  Ill— A DMINISTRA TI IE. 


Administra- 
tion AND 
Staff. 


Dombkis. 


punishment  of  imprisonment  is  considered  necessary  by  the 
chief,  are  reported  to  the  Political  Agent,  and  are  eventually 
referred  to  the  tribal y/>^a  for  decision,  provided  both  parties 
in  the  case  belong  to  the  same  tribe.  Cases  in  which  the 
parties  belong  to  different  tribes  are  also  reported  to  the 
Political  Agent,  and  are  referred  to  a  joint  j'irga  composed  of 
the  chiefs  and  headmen  of  both  the  tribes  concerned.  The 
awards  in  all  cases  are  submitted  for  confirmation  to  the 
Political  Agent  through  the  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner, 
Sibi.  Similarly,  if  one  party  in  the  case  is  a  Mam,  Bugti, 
Dombki  or  Kah^ri  and  the  other  parly  a  tribesman  of  the 
Loralai  District,  the  case  is  referred  to  a  joint  jirga.,  which 
usually  assembles  at  Gumbaz  or  B^rkhan,  and  the  awards 
of  these  joint y/V^a^  are  subject  to  confirmation  both  by  the 
Political  Agent,  Sibi,  and  the  Political  Agent,  Loralai. 
Cases  between  the  Sibi  and  Dera  Ghdzi  Khdn  tribes  are 
referred  to  the  Fort  Munro  Jirga,  and  the jirga  awards  are 
subject  to  the  approval  both  of  the  Political  Agent,  -Sibi, 
and  of  the  Deputy  Commissioner,  Dera  Ghdzi  Khan. 

As  in  the  case  of  the  Marris  and  Bugtis,  the  Dombki  chief 
settles  all  petty  cases  occurring  among  his  tribesmen  ;  more 
important  disputes  are  reported  to  the  Political  Agent,  who 
generally  refers  them  to  a  Dombki  tr'thal  j'irga  for  award,  on 
receiving  which  he  passes  final  orders.  As  the  Dombki 
country  is  more  easily  accessible  than  the  Marri  and  Bugti 
country  and  the  people  are  more  advanced,  the  references  are 
somewhat  more  frequent  than  is  the  case  with  Marris  and 
Bugtis,  but  care  is  taken  by  the  Political  Agent  not  to  inter- 
fere more  than  is  absolutely  necessary  in  purely  Dombki  cases. 
The  cases  between  the  Dombkis  and  His  Highness  the  Khdn's 
subjects  are  dealt  with  in  accordance  with  the  award  given 
by  the  Sibi  shdhi  jirga,  dated  the  8th  of  February  1898. 
The  main  provisions  of  this  award  are  :  that  the  cases  in 
which  one  party  is  a  Dombki  and  the  other  a  subject  of  the 
Khan  should  ordinarily  be  referred  to  the  shdhi  jirga  at  Sibi 
or  Quetta,  and  that  if  it  should  be  necessary  for  the  Dombki 
chief  to  arrest  an  offender  who  is  a  subject  of  the  Kiidn,  the 
man  should  be  immediately  handed  over  to  the  Levy  Risdlddr 


JUDICIAL.  167 

at    Lahrl    for   transmission  to  the   Extra   Assistant    Commis-    Administra- 
sioner  at    Sibi ;  cases    in    which    both    the    parties    are    the       ^staff^^ 
Khdn's  subjects   are  to  be  disposed  of  by  the  Khdn's  ndib  at 
Lahri  in  consultation  with  the  Dombki  chief. 

The  present  Kalieri  headman,  Muhammad  Baka  Khdn  Kah(5ris. 
(1905),  has  very  little  influence  in  the  tribe,  and  almost 
all  cases  occurring  in  Chhattar  and  Phuleji  are  referred 
to  local  or  shdhi  Jirgas,  according  to  the  nature  of  the 
cases,  the  awards  being  subject  to  the  approval  of  the 
Political  Agent.  The  Kaheris  are  gradually  losing  their 
cohesion  as  a  tribe,  a  natural  effect  of  peace  and  advancing 
civilisation,  and  there  is  an  increasing  tendency  for  their 
cases  to  be  reported  to  and  dealt  with  in  the  first  instance  by 
the  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner,  Sibi. 

Between  1878-1889  certain  Indian  Laws  were  made    appli-    Judicial. 
cable  to  the  District,  as  then  constituted,  under  the  authority    l^ws 
of  the  Government  of  India.      In  1890  the  Baluchistan    Laws 
Law  and  Regulation,  the  Forest  Law  and  Regulation,  and  the 
Civil  Justice  and  Criminal  Justice  Law  and    Regulation    were 
enacted  for  the  Agency  Territories  and    British    Baluchistan 
and  applied  to  the  District.      The  last  two    were    modified   in 
1893  and  re-enacted  in  1896.     The  circumstances  of  the  Dis- 
trict   have    not    so    far    necessitated    the    enactment   of   any 
special  laws  for  it.     The   Stage    Carriages  Act  has   been  ap- 
plied    to    carriages    plying    on    the     Kach-Ziarat    and    the 
Harnai-Loralai  roads  ;  and  the  whole  of  the   Public   Gamb- 
ling Act,  III  of  1867,  has  been  extended  to  all  the  villages  in 
the  Harnai    revenue  circle  of  the  Shdhrig  tahsil,  to   the   Civil 
station  of  Zidrat,  to  all  railway  stations  and  bazars  at  those 
stations,    and   to   the   military   station,    railway  station   and 
town  of  Sibi.     Sections  13,  14  and  the  last  26   words  of  sec- 
tion 15  of  the  Indian  Arms  Act   have   been   extended   to   the 
Municipality  of  Sibi,  to  all  railway  lands  in   British   Baluchis- 
tdn,    to  the  civil    station    of   Kohlu,    to    Zidrat   and   to    the 
bazars  at  all  the  railway  stations  in  the  District, 

Legal    practitioners   are    not    allowed    to    practise    in    the 
courts  generally,  but  a  pleader  may  appear  in  a   court  in  any 


1 68  CHAP,  in— ADMINISTRATIVE, 

Judicial.  particular  case,  whether  civil  or  criminal,  with  the  permis- 
sion of  the  Agent  to  the  Governor-General  and  Chief  Com- 
missioner. Petition  writers  are  of  two  grades  and  their  ap- 
pointment is  regulated  by  rules  issued  by  the  Judicial  Com- 
missioner in  1898.  On  the  31st  of  March  1905  there  were 
four  first  grade  and  seven  second  grade  petition  writers  in  the 
District. 

Administra-  The  Political  Agent  and  Deputy  Commissioner  combines 
and  Criml-  ^^®  offices  of  Magistrate  of  the  first  class,  District  Magistrate 
nal  Justice,  and  Sessions  Judge,  and  is  a  Justice  of  the  Peace.  In 
respect  of  civil  justice  he  possesses  jurisdiction  to  try 
original  suits  without  limit  as  regards  value.  A  decree  or 
order  made  by  him  in  an  original  suit  of  value  not  exceeding 
five  hundred  rupees  and  in  appellate  suits  the  value  in 
which  does  not  exceed  one  thousand  rupees,  is  final  and 
subject  only  to  revision.  In  criminal  trials  no  appeal  lies  in 
cases  in  which  he  passes  a  sentence  of  imprisonment  not 
exceeding  one  year,  or  of  fine  not  exceeding  one  thousand 
rupees,  or  of  whipping,  or  of  all  or  any  of  these  punishments 
combined.  The  Political  Agent  is  also  a  Registrar  for 
Births,  Deaths  and  Marriages.  The  following  table  shows 
the  subordinate  courts,  their  ordinary  powers  and  the  courts 
to  which  appeals  lie  : — 


CIVIL  AXD  CRIMINAL  JUSTICE. 


169 


1  origi- 
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Munsif, 
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170  CHAP.  Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Judicial.  Table  XIII,    Volume    B,   gives    details    of   the    civil    suits 

disposed  of  by  various  courts  in  the  old  Thai  Chotiali  Dis- 
Civil  Justice.  ^''^'^*-  ^"  the  quinquennial  period,  1893-4  to  1897-8,  the 
average  annual  number  disposed  of  was  1,804,  of  which 
1,237  ^vere  original,  36  appellate  and  531  cases  for  execution 
of  decree  ;  during  the  quinquennial  period  ending  with  the 
31st  of  March  1903,  the  annual  average  fell  to  1.753,  ^'""^  '" 
1904-5  to  1,318,  of  which  822  were  original,  13  appellate  and 
483  cases  for  execution  of  decree.  During  the  year  1904 
the  total  number  of  original  suits  instituted  in  the  courts 
was  744,*  and  their  aggregate  value  was  Rs.  81,653,  or  an 
average  of  about  Rs  no  per  case.  The  number  of  cases, 
the  value  in  which  exceeded  Rs.  500,  was  4  only  ;  whilst  the 
number  of  those,  of  which  the  value  was  under  Rs.  100,  was 
648  or  about  87  per  cent,  of  the  total.  The  majority  of 
these  civil  suits  occur  in  the  town  of  Sibi  and  the  Railway 
bazars,  most  of  the  parties  being  people  from  India  engaged 
in  trade  and  labour.  The  Hindus  residing  and  trading  in 
important  villages  also  generally  resort  to  the  civil  courts. 
Oi  the  744  cases  decided  in  1904,  705  or  about  95  per  cent, 
were  suits  for  money  or  moveable  property  ;  the  remainder 
consisted  of  suits  relating  to  immoveable  property  (17);  the 
right  of  pre-emption  (5)  ;  miscellaneous  (15)  and  matrimonial 
claims.     The  number  of  the  last  named  cases  was  2. 

In  18  cases  only  appeals  were  preferred,  and  this  small 
number  is  due  to  the  restrictions  on  this  class  of  cases 
contained  in  the  Civil  Justice  Law  and  Regulation,  to  which 
reference  has  already  been  made. 

The  majority  of  civil  suits  instituted  are  for  money  and 
moveable  property.  The  gradual  fall  in  the  number  of 
suits  inay  be  ascribed  to  the  decrease  of  population  in  the 
railway  bazars,  consequent  on  the  cessation  of  large  works 
on  the  railway  and  elsewhere  which  attracted  a  large  alien 
population  and  gave  rise  to  petty  suits  for  debt,  wages  and 
advances  for  works. 

Appeals  and  applications  for  revision  in  civil  cases  are 
generally  filed  in  complicated  cases  or  where  the  subject 
matter  in  dispute  is  not  of  a  trifling  nature.  The  results  of 
appeals  to  the  Deputy  Commissioner,  the    Assistant  Political 

*  These  figures  are  for  the  calendar  j'ear,  while  those  given  in  the 
table  are  for  the  financial  year. 


CRIMIXAL  JUSTICE. 


171 


Agent  and  the  Extra  Assistant  Commissioners  and  of  appli- 
cations for  revision  to  the  Deputy  Commissioner  between 
1901  and  1904  are  given  below  : — 


jLDICtAI- 


\       \  14     Remand-    „    •      »   j 

appeals     Amended.  ,  I  Rejected. 

upheld.  ^'^• 


{a)  2  pendingf  at  the  entl  of  the  year. 

(*)   7  M 

ic)  1  ,,  ,,  ,, 

(^)  I 

The  Political  Agent  remarks  in  respect  of  execution  of 
decree  cases  **  that  the  judgment  debtors  generally  pay  money 
by  instalments,  as  the  suits  are  of  the  nature  of  simple 
money  matters,  and  there  are  very  few  cases  in  which  appli- 
cations are  infructuous." 

Details  of  the  criminal  cases  disposed  of  in  the  old  Thai  Criminal 
Chotiali  District  during  the  decennial  period  ending  with  Justice, 
the  31st  of  March  1903  are  given  in  table  XIV,  Volume  B. 
The  annual  average  during  the  quinquennial  period,  1893-4 
to  1897-8,  was  578,  of  which  557  were  original  and  21  appel- 
late. In  the  second  quinquennial  period  the  annual  average 
fell  to  442,  of  which  429  were  original  and  13  appellate.  In 
1904-5  the  total  number  of  criminal  cases  disposed  of  was 
332,  of  which  316  were  original  and  16  appellate.  The  petty 
nature  of  the  crime  thus  dealt  with  is  indicated  by  the  fact 
that  98  per  cent,  of  the  average  number  of  original  cases 
disposed  of  during  the  second  quinquennial  period  were 
decided  by  courts  subordinate  to  the  District  Court,  and  in 
1904-5  out  of  316  original  cases  315  were  disposed  of  by 
these  courts.  During  the  calendar  year  1904  the  number  of 
cases  brought  to  trial  was  269,  of  which  35  or  13  per  cent, 
were  petty  cases,  punishable  under  Local  and  Special  Laws. 
The  decrease  was  due  to  the   restriction   from   the  year    1902 


172  CHAP.  Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

JiDiciAL.  of  the  police  powers  to  the  crime  committed  in  towns, 
railway  stations  and  bazars,  the  crime  occurring  among  the 
indigenous  population  being  dealt  with  by  the  levies. 
Jirga  cases.  The  system  of  the  disposal  of  disputes  of  all  sorts  by  the 
elders  of  villages  or  tribes  is  indigenous  to  the  country  ;  the 
procedure  is  simple  and  has  many  advantages.  It  has  been 
regularised  from  time  to  time  by  certain  special  regulations, 
the  latest  being  the  Frontier  Crimes  Regulation  (III)  ot 
1901,  which  has  been  applied  and  extended  to  the  Agency 
Territories  and  British  Baluchistan  with  certain  modifica- 
tions. The  system  possesses  special  advantages  when 
worked  in  conjunction  with  the  Levy  system,  under  which 
crime  in  certain  areas  outside  the  towns  is  investigated  by 
the  headmen  and  levies.  At  the  same  time  it  requires  con- 
tinuous supervision  by  the  District  Officers  to  prevent  abuses 
such  as  spring  from  ignorance  and  partiality.  Ordinary 
cases  are  referred  to  a  Council  of  Elders  of  not  less  than 
three  members,  selected  from  among  the  headmen  of  villages 
and  leading  men  of  tribes,  while  those  which  involve  any 
question  of  principle  or  affect  two  or  more  tribes  or  two 
districts  are  referred  to  th;  shdhi  jirgas,  which  assemble  in 
Sibi  in  the  winter  and  in  Quetta  in  the  autumn,  or  to  the 
inter-provincial  jirga,  which  is  held  at  Fort  Munro  once  a 
year  in  September.  It  is  the  function  of  the  jirga  to  come 
to  a  finding  of  fact  on  the  issues  placed  before  them,  and  its 
award  is  then  submitted  to  the  Deputy  Commissioner,  with 
whom  alone  lies  the  power  of  passing  final  orders  in  the  case 
of  determining  and  awarding  punishment  under  the  Regu- 
lation. Ordinarily  the  Political  Agent  may  sentence  an 
offender  to  seven  years'  rigorous  imprisonment  ;  a  sentence 
exceeding  this  term  up  to  a  maximum  of  14  years  must  be 
cor.firmed  by  the  Agent  to  the  Governor-General  and  Chief 
Commissioner.  No  appeal  lies  from  awards  passed  by  the 
Political  Agent  and  Deputy  Commissioner,  but  his  orders 
are  subject  to  revision  by  the  Agent  to  the  Governor-General 
and  Chief  Commissioner. 

The  annual  average  number  of  cases    decided  in    the   quin- 
quennial periods  from  1893   to    1898   and   from    1898  to   1903 


/IRGAS. 


173 


was    369    and     855     respectively,    the     numbers     referred    to 
local,  shdhi  and  other  jirgas  being-  as  under  : — 


Judicial. 


Quinquennial 

period  from 

1893-4  to 

1897-8. 

Quinquennial 

[)eriod  from 

1898-9  to 

1902-3. 

•904-5- 

Sh,ihi  jirgas      

107 

122 

35 

Loc^l  jirgas     

137 

278 

524 

Fort  Munro  jirgas     ... 

'25 

203 

61 

Marri-Bugti  jirgas 



252 

4 

Of  the  624  cases  disposed  of  during  1904-5,  9  were  cases  of 
murder,  46  of  robbery,  38  of  adultery,  21  of  adultery 
with  murder,  149  of  cattle-lifting-,  29  of  land  revenue,  42 
of  betrothal  and  marriage,  whilst  238  cases  concerned 
miscellaneous  matters  ;  48  were  inter-provincial  and  4  were 
cases  between  the  Marri  and  the  Bugti  tribes.  Details  will 
be  found  in  District  table  XV,  Volume  B. 

Almost  all  cases  occurring   among    the    tribesmen    of   the    Local,  join;, 

District  are  referred  to  local   jirpas,  and  they  include  murder,    ■  ,     ''  ^"• 

J     ^      ^  J  '     inter-provin- 

adultery,  matrimonial  suits,  theft,  cattle-lifting  and  land,  etc.  cial  jirgas. 
It  is  the  policy  to  restrict  investigations  by  the  police,  so  far 
as  possible,  to  cases  occurring  among  the  non-indigenous 
inhabitants  of  the  towns  and  bazars.  Ordinary  cases  bt- 
tween  the  tribesmen  of  the  Sibi  and  the  Loralai  Districts  are 
referred  to  joint  jirgas.  Cases  in  which  no  satisfactory 
settlements  have  been  arrived  at  in  local  or  joint  jirgas, 
important  and  serious  cases  of  adultery,  murder,  matrimony 
and  immoveable  property  and  those  affecting  tribal  custom  or 
two  districts  or  tribes  are  referred  to  Shahi  Jirgas.  All 
cases  between  the  tribesmen  of  Sibi  and  the  D^ra  Ghjizi 
Khan  Districts,  serious  cases  among  the  tribesmen  of  the 
District  which  require  an  early  settlement  and  cannot  be 
postponed  till  the  Quetta  and  Sibi  Shahi  Jirgas,  and  cases  in 
which  the  parties  belong  to  places  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Fort  Munro  are  referred  to  the  inter-provincial  jirga  held 
there  in  September  every  year.     As  cases   occurring   between 


174  CHAP.  Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Jldicial.       tribes  in  Baluchistan  on  the  i:>v\.t,  hand  and   in  the    Punjab  on 
the    other    frequently    assume    serious     proportions,     if    not 
nipped    in    the    bud,    certain    rules,    under  which   reports    of 
inter-provincial  cases  are  made   to   the    Political   officers  con- 
cerned, were  framed  in  September  1882  by   Mr.  R.  I.    Bruce, 
C.I.E.,    First     Assistant     to    the    Agent    to    the    Governor- 
General  in    Baluchistan   and   Mr.  (now  Sir  Frederick)    Fryer, 
Deputy  Commissioner,  Dera  Ghazi   Khan,  and   were   notified 
in  durbar  to  the  assembled  chiefs.     They  run  as  follows  :  — 
Rule  L — In    all    cases    of  theft    or    other  crime    occur- 
ring   under    such    circumstances    that    the  members  of  one 
tribe  suspect  that  the  offenders    belong    to  another  tribe,  an 
immediate    report  must    be   made  to   the  Political  officer  in 
charge  of  the  tribe  which  has  suffered,  and,  if  no   report  is 
made    within    one   month   of   the    occurrence    of   the    case, 
no   redress  shall    afterwards   be    given    unless   good  cause 
be  shown  for  the  failure  to  report. 

Rule  II. — In  cases  in  which  cattle  or  other  live-stock 
are  missing,  and  it  has  not  been  ascertained  whether  the 
cattle  or  other  live-stock  have  been  stolen  or  have  strayed 
a  report  must  be  made  that  the  property  is  missing  ;  and 
should  the  property  be  afterwards  ascertained  to  have  been 
stolen  or  misappropriated,  a  subsequent  report  will  be 
required  setting  forth  what  tribe  or  what  persons  are 
suspected.  Notice  that  the  property  is  missing  must  be 
sent  in  within  a  month  of  its  being  missed. 

Rule  III. — In  cases  Nos.  i  and  2  it  is  not  necessary  that 
the  thieves  or  the  tribe  to  which  they  are  supposed  to 
belong,  should  be  named  in  the  first  instance  ;  but  inform- 
ation on  these  points  must  be  given  as  soon  as  it  is  obtained. 
Rule  IV, — In  all  cases  in  which  members  of  one  tribe 
seek  refuge  with  any  other  tribe  on  account  of  any  crime 
they  may  have  committed,  or  on  account  of  alleged  griev- 
ances, the  chiefs  of  the  tribe  to  which  such  refugees  belong 
must  send  an  immediate  report  stating  with  what  tribe 
the  refugees  have  taken  shelter. 

Rule  V. — The  chief  of  any  tribe  in  which  a  refugee  may 
seek  shelter  shall  inform  rhe  Political  officer  in  charge 
of  his  tribe  as  soon  as  the  act  comes  to  his  notice. 

Rule  VI. — Whenever  a  case  which  has  been  duly  report- 
ed is  settled  without  the  intervention  of  a  Political  officer 


PREVALENT  CRIME.  175 

a   report  must    be    submitted    by    the    chief  of  the  tribe    or       Jldicial. 

tribes  shouingf   the   manner  in    which    it  has   been   settled, 

and  such  settlement  shall  be  subject  to  the  approval  of  the 

Political  officers  concerned. 

Rule   VII. — All    reports    made    under    these    rules    to    a 

Political  officer  shall  be  at  once  communicated   by   him   to 

the  Political  officer    who  may   be  in  charge  of  any  tribe   or 

tribes  implicated  in  the  report. 

Local    safddrs,    niolabars,    and  maliks^   who  are  conv-ersant   System  of 

with  the  customs  of  the  people  and  who  are  men   of  influence    ^^^^kTJ!  ° 
^       "^  members. 

are  selected  to  sit  on  the  local  Jirgas ;  whilst  chiefs  and 
headmen  of  standing-  among  the  tribes,  especially  those 
whose  tribesmen  are  concerned,  are  chosen  as  members  of 
the  Shdhi  Jirgas.  In  the  case  of  the  Fort  Munro  Jirgas, 
invitations  to  attend  are  generally  confined  to  chiefs  of 
important  tribes. 

Of  the  cases  which  go  before  the  jirgas,  cattle-lifting  is  Prevalent 
most  prevalent  among  the  Mams  and  Brahuis,  adultery  in  *^''""'^' 
the  Sibi  and  Shahrig  tahsils  and  the  Marri  country,  and 
adultery  with  murder  in  the  Marri  country  and  in  some  parts 
of  the  Sibi  sub-division.  Among  the  Marris  and  pure  Baloch 
tribes  it  has  long  been  the  custom  for  both  adulterer  and 
adulteress  to  be  killed,  and  if  the  former  escapes  the  latter 
is  generally  killed.  For  the  last  few  years,  however,  such 
murderers  have  been  imprisoned,  and  this  has  had  a  deterrent 
effect  in  following  the  above  custom.  The  Marris  and 
Bugtis  were  given  a  sanad  by  Sir  Robert  Sandeman  in  which 
they  were  assured,  among  other  things,  that  the  British 
Government  would  not  interfere  in  their  matrimonial  affairs, 
and  consequently  there  are  many  cases  among  the  Marris  of 
the  deliberate  murder  of  their  wives.  In  comparison  with 
the  Marris  the  Bugtis  do  not  seem  to  take  so  much  advan- 
tage of  this  state  of  affairs.  Perhaps  this  is  because  they  are 
so  much  better  managed  by  their  chief  and  his  family.  Acceptance 

In    the    majoritv    of   cases    the    awards    of  the    jirms   are    ^^  findings 
'         .  "^    -^  by  parties 

acceptable  to  the  parties  concerned.  and  appeals. 

Fanatical  attacks  on  Europeans  especially  and  non-Muham-    Fanatical 

madans  were  unfortunately  of  somewhat  frequent  occurrence    outrages. 

in    the    old    Thai    Chotiali  District,  and    during   the    decade 

ending  with  the  31st  ot  March  1903  there  were   12  such  cases, 

the    most    conspicuous    being    the    outrage    committed,     in 


176  CHAP.  Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Kdicial.  October  1896,  by  six  Thingidni  Marris  at  the  Railway  stations 
of  Sunari  and  Dalujdl  in  which  eleven  men,  including  a 
European  platelayer,  were  murdered  ;  that  perpetrated  on  the 
14th  of  March  1898,  at  the  Smallan  D.'tk  Bungalow  by  one 
Arsala,  an  Utmdnkhdl  of  the  Bori  tahsll,  on  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Gaisford,  the  Political  Agent  of  the  District,  and  an 
attempted  attack  on  Captain  and  Mrs.  Spence  by  Niaz 
Muhammad  Brahui  of  Sariab  in  the  Quetta-Pishin  District  on 
the  nth  of  February  1899  at  Sibi.  The  majority  of  these 
cases  may  be  ascribed  directly  to  religious  fanaticism,  but 
other  causes,  such  as  family  or  tribal  quarrels  and  physical 
incapacity,  frequently  contribute  to  induce  the  murderers  to 
turn  fanatic  and  court  death  as  the  penalty  of  their  act. 
Closer  acquaintance  with  British  methods,  however,  the  gene- 
ral pacification  of  the  country,  the  enforcement  of  village  and 
tribal  responsibility  and  the  presence  of  strong  bodies  of  troops 
and  police  are  resulting  in  a  gradual  diminution  of  the  crime. 
Fanatical  cases  are  dealt  with  under  the  Murderous  Out- 
rages Regulation,  IV  of  1901.  Among  its  more  important 
provisions  may  be  mentioned  the  power  which  it  gives  to  the 
Sessions  Judge  or  Deputy  Commissioner  of  the  District  or  to 
any  Magistrate  of  the  first  class  specially  empowered  b\  the 
Local  Government  or  the  Sessions  Judge  or  the  Deputy 
Commissioner,  after  the  commission  of  an  offence,  to  try  a 
fanatic,  to  pass  orders  as  to  the  disposal  of  the  offender's 
body  if  he  is  convicted,  and  to  forfeit  all  his  property  to 
Government.  No  appeal  lies  from  any  order  made  or  sen- 
tence passed  under  the  Regulation,  and  the  court  may,  on  the 
recommendation  of  a  Council  of  Elders  or  after  such  inquiry 
as  it  may  deem  necessary,  take  measures  against  any  commu- 
nity or  individual  with  whom  a  fanatic  is  or  has  been 
associated  in  circumstances  which  satisfy  it  that,  by  reason- 
able prudence  or  diligence  on  the  part  of  the  community  or 
individual,  the  commission  or  attempted  commission  of  the 
offence  might  have  been  prevented.  They  include  fine  and 
forfeiture  of  revenue-free  grants,  remissions  and  allowances. 
Registration.  ^''^  provisions  of  the  Indian  Registration  Act,  III  of  1877, 
were  adopted  for  guidance  from  1881  and  the  Act  was  form- 
ally extended  to  the  District  in  1890.  The  Political  Agent 
and  Deputy  Commissioner  is  the  Registrar  and  the  Tahsi'l- 
diirs  of  Nasirabad,  Sibi    and  Shdhrig  and  the  Naib  Tahsildar 


REGISTRA  TION. 


II 


of  Kohlu  are  Sub  Registrars  within  their  respective  Sub- 
districts.  The  Munsif  of  Sibi  is  Joint  Sub-Registrar  of 
the  Sibi  Sub-district.  The  people  of  Sibi  are  beginning  to 
realize  the  advantages  afforded  by  registration,  whilst  those 
of  Kohlu  and  Shahrig  are  still  ignorant  of  them.  A  Registra- 
tion office  has  been  opened  in  Nasirab^d  since  1904.  Prior 
to  that  docun-ients  covering  large  transactions  between  the 
people  of  that  place  and  Sind  were  registered  in  the  Sind 
offices,  chiefly  at  Jacobab^id.  In  Kohlu,  transactions  are 
made  by  verbal  agreements,  whilst  in  Nasirabad  and  Shdhrig 
they  are  drawn  up  by  the  petition-writers  or  rmillds.  Muta- 
tion Registers  have  not  yet  been  opened  in  Nasirabad.  They 
exist  in  Kohlu,  but  the  people  do  not  take  advantage  of  them. 
Mutation  Registers  have  been  started  in  Sibi  and  Shahrig 
from  the  year  1903-4.  Table  XVI,  Volume  B,  shows  in  detail 
the  number  of  documents  registered,  the  revenue  realized  and 
the  expenditure  incurred  in  connection  with  registration 
during  each  of  the  twelve  years  1893-4  to  1904-5,  and  the 
following  abstract  indicates  the  general  nature  of  the  small 
amount  of  work  which  is  done  : — 


JlDICIAL. 


Annual  average  of  lo  yearsj  189J-4.  to  \'joz-y,. 


1904-5. 


1 

y^L 

1 

ha 

Documents  regis- 

c 

Documents  regis- 

_c 

tered. 

0. 

0 

c 

tered. 

a 

Optional. 

Optional. 

^ 

3 

•5 

\> 

j> 

c 

5 

> 
0 

< 

s^ 

r 

0 

.} 

e 

2 

«J 

05 

1  ^ 

« 

'•^ 

_5 

3 
"5 

S 
{£ 

0  u 

_N 

0  <U 

c 

0 

■"  a 

0 

L. 

•^  cx 

0 

0 

"S 

a 

0 

0 

0 

"rt 

a 

0 

^fe. 

J 

X 

i» 

•| 

^a 

V 

X 

lU 

u 

c. 

*^  y 

u 

^« 

J 

0. 

—  Ji 

u 

, 

.0 

0 

-fa 

5  t 

0 

§ 

E 

0 

J= 

|J 

5 
0 

E 

3 

u 

06 

0 

^ 

C-l 

y. 

0 

Oi 

0 

H 

H 

Z. 

Rs.  a.  p. 

Rs.  a.  p. 

Rs.  a.  p. 

Rs.  a.  p. 

44 

I 

SO 

237  12  10 

115     I     2 

4 

6+ 

S 

16 

272    4    0 

142     I    9 

5 

Details  of  the  documents  relating  to  morti,age  and  sale  of 
immoveable  property,  which  were  registered  in  the  Sibi, 
Nasirabad  and  Shahrig  Sub-districts  in  the  year  1904-5,  show 


178  CHAP.  IIL—ADMIXISTRATIVE. 

Jldicial.  that,  excluding  transactions  between  non-agriculturists,  4 
mortgages  out  of  a  total  of  17  mortgages  and  27  sales  out  of 
an  aggregate  of  37  sales  took  place  between  cultivators  them- 
selves. The  number  of  sales  and  mortgages  by  agriculturists 
numbered  5  and  13  respectively,  the  transactions  generally 
taking  place  with  Hindus,  who  have  been  settled  in  Sibi  and 
the  surrounding  villages  for  several  generations.  The  total 
number  of  documents  affecting  immoveable  property  regis- 
tered in  the  district  during  the  calendar  year  1904  was  69, 
of  which  the  registration  of  67,  valued  at  Rs.  40,739,  was 
compulsory,  whilst  that  of  2,  valued  at  Rs.  145,  was  optional. 
Those  affecting  moveable  property  numbered  21  and  were 
valued  at  Rs.  4,687,  whilst  11  miscellaneous  documents  were 
registered. 

Finance.  Qn   the   first   formation    of  the  Tnal  Chotiali   District,  the 

Historical. 

revenue  and  expenditure  were  classed  as  Imperial  and  in- 
cluded in  the  general  accounts.  In  1890  the  Police  and 
Lew  services  were  provincialised,  and  in  the  following  year 
the  revenue  and  expenditure  of  Kohlu  were  also  included 
under  the  Special  Revenues.  From  the  ist  of  April,  1897,  a 
fresh  quasi-provincial  settlement  was  sanctioned  for  a  period 
of  five  years  for  the  whole  of  the  Baluchistdn  Agency,  includ- 
ing the  Kohlu,  Sibi  and  Shahrig  tahsils.  The  settlement  was 
again  renewed  from  April  i,  1902,  and  now  includes  the 
Nasirabatl  tahsil  (1905). 

Table  XVII,  Volume    B,    shows   the  provincial  revenue  re- 
ceipts of  the  Sibi,  Shdhrig  and  Kohlu   tahsils    for    the   period 
from  1897-8  to  1902-3,  and  for  the  whole  District    for    1903-4 
and  1904-5.     The  principal  sources  of  income  are  Land  Reve- 
nue, Excise  and  Stamps,    to  which   are   addad    minor  items 
under  Salt,  Law  and   Justice,  Jails,   Registration,    Assessed 
Taxes,    Public    Works   and  Miscellaneous;.     The   annual  re- 
ceipts   during    the  quinquennial    period    of  1897-8    to  1901-2 
averaged  Rs.  1,71,680,  to  which   Land   Revenue  contributed 
Rs.    1.38,204,    Excise    12,194,  Stamps  8,820  and  other  items 
Rs.  12,462.  In  1902-3,  the  receipts  amounted  to  Rs.  1,62,841, 
.vhile  in  1904-5  they  rose  to  Rs.  2,98,623,  the  increase  being 
chiefly  due  to   the  inclusion  of  the  revenues  of  the  Nasirdbdd 


EARLY  RE  VENUE  HISTOR  Y.  1 79 

tahsil.     Out  of  the  total  amount,    Land  Revenue  contributed      Finance. 
Rs.  2,37,957  or  about  80  per  cent.  Excise  Rs.  25,288,  Stamps 
Rs.    11,542,    Law  and   Justice  Rs.  12,281  and  the  balance  of 
Rs.  11,555  ^'^'^  made  up  of  Salt,  Registration,  Jails,  Medical, 
Miscellaneous  and  Public  Works. 

The  Ai7i-i-Akbari  '\\\{oxir\'i  us  that  in  the  time  of  the  Emper-        Land 

Revenu&u 
or  Akbar,  at  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,   the  districts    Early 

or  mahcUs  of  the  Chalgfari  or  the  Harnai  valley  formed  part  of   revenue 

,  .  .  history, 

the  province  of  Kandahar,  while  Sibi  belonged   to   Multdn. 

The  former  District  was  required  to  furnish  a  force  ol  200 
horse  and  300  footmen,  12  ttitnans  in  money  and  415  khar- 
wars  of  grain,  and  the  latter  paid  1,381,930  dams*  equivalent 
to  about  Rs.  13,000,  and  furnished  a  force  of  500  cavalry  and 
1,500  foot.  The  revenue  paid  by  Kohlu  and  Nasirabad  can- 
not be  ascertained,  as  they  did  not  constitute  separate  dis- 
tricts. 

Under  the  Afghan  rule,  Kach,  Kowas  and  Ahmadun  were    Shahrig- 

associated  with  the  viahcil  of  Fishin  for  administrative  pur-   ^hsii. 

^  Jiarly     reve- 

poses.     They   originally  paid    no  land  revenue,  but  were  re-   nue  history 

quired  to  furnish  a  number  of  men-at-arms  or  naukars  for  the 

service  of  Government.      Subsequently  the  liability  to  military 

service  was    commuted  to  a  money  payment.      In    1833   A.D, 

Pishin    was  assigned  to   one  Khushdil  Khan,  a  deputy  of  the 

governors  of  Kandahar,  as  aijagir,  and  the  revenue  on  Ahma- 

kun  and    Khawas  was  fixed  at  120  and  480  Kandahdri  rupees 

respectively.     The  tax  fell  entirely  on  the  Tarins  and  Raisanis, 

the  Pdn6zais  and  Sdrangzais  being  exempt  from  all  payments. 

Referring  to  the  revenue  paid  by  the  inhabitants  of   Zawar 
(Harnai)  valley,  Dr.  Duke  f    wrote  as  follows  in  1882  : — 

"  The  Mekhicinis  state  that  Nadir  Shah  was  the  first  prince 

•  Note. —  I  lutnciii  is  equal  to  800  ddms, 

40  ddms  equal  to  i  tahn'si  rupee. 

8  tahrdzi  rupees  equal  to  3  Indian  rupees. 

Vide  Ain-i-Akbari,  Vol.  I,  page  31,  and  Vol.  II,  page  303.  Mr.  Duke's 
report  on  Harnai  and  Thai  Chotiali,  page  4,  may  also  be  consulted. 
1  Kandahari  rupee  =  ^  Indian  rupee. 

t  Dr.   Duke's  report  on  Harnai  and  Thai  Chotiali,  pages  96  and  97. 


i8o  CHAP.  III.—ADMIMSTRATIVE. 

Land         who  taxed  them.     Ahmad  Shah  Durrdni  imposed  a  house  tax, 
an  1  doubtless    he  took  a   capitation  and  cattle  tax.     So  long 
as  the    Durranis  ruled  at  Kandahar,  these  taxes  were  paid  in 
an  irregular  manner,  but,   since    the  transfer  of  the   seat    of 
power  to    Kabul,   no    definite  system   of  taxation    has   been 
followed    until  quite    lately.     Occasional    revenue  raids  were 
carried  out    sometimes  by    the  Batdzais  of    Pishin,  who  took 
Zawar   on    their    way    to  Thai   or    Sibi   and   sometimes     by 
the  Durranis  of  Shalkot,     The  Baruzais  of  Sibi  endeavour  to 
prove  that  Zawar  was  included    in  their  districts  by  Ahmad 
Shah    Durrani,  but    this  fact    is  not   mentioned    in  the    sanad 
given  to  them  by  him.     The  Zawar  people  entirely  deny  their 
assertion,  and,  as  has    already  been  shown  in  the    chapter  on 
Sewistan,  there  is  no  doubt  that  Zawar  has  always  been  held 
as   a  separate    district  or    mdhal.     The    revenue   raids  above 
alluded    to  were    most    oppressive.      It    is  probable    that  the 
Amir  granted   the  Zawar  revenues  in  payment  of  claims,  and 
that  the  claimants  had  to  get  all  they  could  without  any  assist- 
ance from  the  Amir.     On  some  occasions  they  took  as  much 
as  Rs.  6,000  Knlddr  *  at  one  visit  and  they  always  drove  off  a 
number  of  sheep.     The  Babihan  people  at  one  time  assumed 
a  permanent    attitude  of  rebellion  ;  they   left  their  homes  and 
lived   in  the   hills   to  the  north  of  Babihan  for  five   years.     At 
length  the  Zawar  people  appointed  a  deputation  in  1874  or 
1875  to  visit    the  Amir  Sher    Ali  Khan  at  Kdbul.      The    Amir 
received  the  Maliks  and  arranged  a  tax  of  Rs.  624  Kalddr  on 
the    Mekhi^nis  and   Rs,  300   on  the    Wanechis  ;  further    one 
lamb    in  40    and  one    sheep  in    100  were    to  be    given.     The 
Harnai    people   have    no  documents  to  produce  in  support  of 
this  statement,  and  I  put  down  the  amounts  exactly  as  given 
by    themselves.     On   the  return  of  the  deputation,  the  Zawar 
people   heldajirga   and  arranged  for  the  proper   distribution 
of  the  tax  amongst  themselves.     Zawar  from  Khost   to  Babi- 
h;in    inclusive  was    divided  into    2f\o  pakhas   or   shares;    this 
division  was  made  on  an  estimate  of  the  value    of  the  soil,  of 


*  A'o/^.  —  British  Indian  rupees. 


MODERN  REVENUE  HISTORY. 


i8i 


the  availability  of  the  water-supply,  etc.,  oi  Qa.c\\  pdkha.     The         Land 
shares  fell  as  follows  :—  Revenue. 


Number  of  viDages. 


Total 
pakha  of 
each  vil- 
lage. 


Miinji. 


Balance. 


Siinari 

I 

Loara  Tiika          

lO 

... 

lO 

Bell              

a 

••• 

h 

Zabarwal 

li 

... 

>i 

Harnai       

'25i 

5t 

120 

Ghurmi 

68 

1 

67 

Gachi'na 

21 

21 

Ndkas  and  Raghni         

'7 

I 

i6 

Chhajju  and  Wargi        

16 

... 

i6 

Dom  Kach             

2 

2 

Punga         

6 

... 

6 

Shdhrig      

6o 

... 

60 

Khost          

12 

12 

Total     ... 

34oi 

7i 

333 

**  This  arrangement  has  to  a  certain  extent  been  since  modi- 
fied by  the  interchange  of  lands  by  purchase  and  sale,  but  its 
general  lines  are  perfectly  understood  by  the  people,  who 
have  no  difficulty  whatever  in  arranging  for  the  alteration  in 
incidence  of  taxation  which  these  transfers  of  land  revenue 
have  involved." 

During  1879  and  1880,  Kach  Ahmadun  and  Kowds  formed 
part  of  Pishin  tahsil.  The  details  of  the  revenue  recovered 
during  the  former  year  are  not  available,  but  in  July  1880 
Captain  H.  Wylie,  the  Political  Officer  then  in  charge, 
collected  65  \  maunds  of  grain  and  a  small  sum  of  Rs.  486  on 


Modern 
revenue 
history. 


1 82  CHAP.  Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land         account  of  a  poll-tax  on  sheep  and  cattle,  the    total   collection 

Revenue.  ^-        ^     o  i       oo     .1  .  c      j 

amounting  to  Rs.  3,914.     In  1881   tlie  assessment   was   fixed 

at  1,000  maunds  of  grain,  divided  into  20  shares  to  be  paid  as 

shown  below  : — 


Tan'ns,   10  shares 


!Kach        Ama- 
dun,  Kazzha 
and       Kahdn   100 


r 

Kowas 

454 

maunds 

1 

Ahmadun 

46 

,, 

Dirgi 

100 

)  > 

I 

China 

100 

>i 

800 


Sarangzais,  3  shares 
Isakh61s,  i  share 


This  assessment,  which  was  assumed  to  represent  approxi- 
mately one-sixth  of  the  gross  produce,  cont  nued  up  to  the 
end  of  1888-9.  ^'^  1889-90  the  assessment  was  fixed  at  3,300 
maunds  of  grain,  and  subsequently  up  to  1895,  wlien  cash 
assessments  were  introduced,  the  revenue  was  collected  by 
appraisement  or  kankiit^  the  rate  being  one-sixth  of  the  total 
produce.  In  the  Harnat  valley,  revenue  was  first  levied  in 
1880  at  the  rate  of  one-sixth  of  the  gross  produce  of  the 
villages  of  Harnai  and  Sunari,  the  collections  amounting  to 
Rs.  7,502-  In  the  following  year,  1881-2,  revenue  was  col- 
lected from  the  whole  valley  and  amounted  to  Rs.  14,121. 

From  1882  to  1895  the  revenue  of  the  whole  of  the  Shdhrig 
tahsil  was  assessed  by  kankiit  or  appraisement  at  the  rate  of 
one-sixth  of  the  produce.  In  1895  ^  cash  assessment  was 
introduced  by  Major  Mclvor,  which  amounted  to  Rs.  21,948 
and  was  levied  on  all  villages  having  a  permanent  source  of 
irrigation  on  the  basis  of  the  revenue  taken  by  kankiit  during 
five  preceding  years.  This  assessment  was  first  sanctioned  for 
three  years,  but  was  subsequently  extended  up  to  the  31st  of 


Ks. 

a. 

P- 

21,912 

0 

0 

...  20,569 

12 

6 

...   20,645 

13 

10 

21,968 

3 

6 

22,004 

13 

9 

...  21,948 

4 

9 

.9//^/  TAHSIL.  183 

March  1901,  and  the  annual  income  up   to  the  year     1900-01  Land 

was  as  under: —  Revenue. 

Years. 

1895-6  

1896-7  

1897-8  

1898-9  

1899-1900 
1900-01 
The  tahsi'l    was  brought    under  Settlement  in    1901-2,  and 
the  revenue  obtained  during  that  year  under  the  new    system 
amounted  to  Rs.  30,581  including  grazing  tax. 

In  1904-5  the  total  land  revenue  was  Rs.  27,332  as  shown 
below  : — 

Land  Revenue.  Rs. 

(a)  By  fixed  assessment    ...  ...         ...       19,647 

{b)  By  temporary  cash  assessment         ...  6 

(c)   "Qy  batai  ox  tashkis\\\\i\\\^     ...  ...  i»7io 

Grazing   lax. 
(a)   Settled  inhabitants — 

(  i)     By  enumeration  ...  ...  ...       4,719 

(ii)     By  ij'dra     ... 
{b)  Nomads — 

(  i)      By  enumeration  ...  ...  ...  650 

(ii)     By  zjdm 
Miscellaneous,  including  water  mills,  etc.  600 


Total     ...     27,332 


The  revenue  ol  Sibi  under  the  Afghan    Government   varied    Sibi  tahsi'l. 

Early 
considerably  from  time  to  time,  both    in    amount   and    in    the    Revenue 

method  of  its  collection.  In  1839  A.D.  the  sum  of  Rs.  11,000  history, 
appears  to  have  been  realized,  but  it  is  not  known  whether 
it  was  levied  in  kind  or  cash.  The  next  collection,  of  which 
accounts  are  available,  was  in  1842,  the  last  year  of  the 
temporary  occupation  of  the  District  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment This  collection  was  made  in  kind  at  the  rate  of  one- 
third  of  the  produce  of  the  rabi  harvest  and  one-fifth  of  the 
khan/,  and  the  total  revenue  thus  realized  amounted  to 
Rs.  36,845  {mbi  Rs.  33,957,  k/ian/  Rs.  2,888)  For  the 
next  few  years,  after  the  British  evacuation,  the  same   system 


1 84  CHAP.   Ill- ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land  of  revenue  was  maintained  by    the    Bdruzai    sardcirs   and    the 

Eevenue.      annual  collections   averaged    about    Rs.  30,000.      In    1846    a 

return  was  made  to  the  former  system    of  a  permanent    cash 

assessment,  and  the  revenue  in    kind    was    commuted    for    a 

fixed  payment  of    Rs.    10,000  a    year,    which   was    collected 

throug-h  the  sarddr  of  the  Bdriizai  tribe,  in  whose    family   the 

office  of  ndib  or  local  governor    was    hereditary.     The    whole 

of  this  amount  with  the  exception  of    Rs.   400    was   assessed 

on  lands  irrigated  from  the  Ndri    river,  and    was    distributed 

according  to  the  shares  (pdos)  of  water,    which    were    divided 

among  the  different  tribes.     No  revenue  was  taken  from  the 

Kurks,  as  their  lands  formed  the  j'dg-Ir  of  the  Bdruzai    chief. 

The  lands  now  known  as  the  "  Municipal  lands,"   which    had 

been  granted  by  the  Afghiln  Government  to  the  Bdruzai  chiefs 

and  were  called  the  bdghdt   or   garden   lands,    also   paid    no 

revenue.    The  details  of  the  Sibi  assessment  were  as  under  : — 

Rs.   a.  p. 

f    Marghzanis  8  />f?o5  at  220-4-0  each    =    1,762-00    ") 

r.      •       '     Safis  8       ,,  ,,  ,,       =    1,762-0-0 

Panis  •s     „   ,     ,,  ^  „  ^-Sj/Zt  8  o 

I     Dehpdls  6       ,,         220-2-8       ,,       =    1,321-0-0     I  ^ 

1^   Mizris  4       ,,         220-2-0       ,,       =       880-8-0  J 

Khajaks  8  pdos  at  337-0-0  each,  one  share    being 

held  by  each  section  ...         ...         ...         2,696  o  o 

1       Nodhdnis  of  Gulu    Shahr  2  pnos  at  ^ 

j  337-0-0  each =     674-0-0  1-     774  o  o 

Tax  on  Hindus  ^nA  kamlns  of  Gulu  Shahr.    loo-o-oj 

r   Ghuldm  Bolaks  i  pno  at  337-0-0  =     337-0  o"| 

J    Shakar    Khan    Marghzdni    for   land    at    Ghuldm  ' 

I  Bolak  purchased    from    the    Raisdnis   about  \\     ^ 

L         pakha  pay         167-S-0J 

Mai  100  0  o 

Sing ,00  o  o 

Sulphur  Mine     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...        ico  o  o 


10,000  o  o 


This  system  continued  up  to  the  year  1878,  when  Sibi    was 
ceded  to  the  British  Government. 
Modern  In    1878-9,      which     was     the     first     year    of  British     re- 

histo^ry.'^  occupation,  the  revenue  was  collected  in  accordance  with  the 

existing  Afghdn  practice,  and  the  total  income  thus  obtained 
amounted  to  Rs.  9,683.  In  the  following  year  the  system  of 
collection  in  kind  was  reverted  to,  and  under  the  orders  of 
Sir  Robert  Sandeman  the  Government  share    of   the    produce 


SIIU  TAHSIL.  185 

was  fixed  at  one-sixth  of  the  total  produce  of  both  the  spring        Land 

and  the  autumn  harvests.     In  addition  to  the  above,  4^  kdsas      Revenue. 

ot  grain  per  kharwdr  were  tal<en  on  account  of  certain  cesses. 

The  change  was  followed  by  a  large  and  immediate    increase 

of  revenue  which  amounted  to  Rs.  33,930  in   1879-80   and  to 

Rs.  58,674  in    i88o-i.     In    1891    the   cesses    were  abolished 

and  the  revenue  rate  was  raised  from  one-sixth  to  two-ninths 

of  the  produce.     This  rate  is  still  in  force  (1905).     In  Siingdn 

the  rate  is  one-fourth,  half  of  which   is    paid   to  the    Bjiruzai 

Jcigirddrs  ;  in    Ldkhi    it    is    one-sixth;   and  in    Quat-Mandai 

one-twelfth,  the  Marri  chief  receiving  an  equal  amount      The 

assessment  of  the  Sibi  Municipal  lands  varies  from  Rs.    2-8-0 

to  Rs.   4  per    acre.     Up    to    1899   the    whole  of  the    income 

derived  from  these  lands  was  credited  to  the    Sibi    Municipal 

Funds,  but  in  April    1900    it    was    decided  that   these  funds 

should  contribute  a  sum    of   Rs.  746-1  i-o    to    the  Provincal 

Revenues  per  annum  on  account  of  revenue,  the  assessment*, 

which  was  fixed  for  a  period   of  ten    years,    being    based    on 

one-fourth  of  the   Municipal    receipts    from    the   lands    under 

cultivation. 

The  total  revenue  of   the    tahsi'l    in    1904-5    amounted    to 
Rs    42,808  as  detailed  below  : — 

Land  Revenue. 

Rs. 

{(i)    By  fixed  assessment...  ...         

{h)  By  temporary  cash  assessment        ...  2,018 
(c)  ^y  h2i\.?i\  o'C  tashkhism    kind  ...35,666 

Grasing  Tax. 
[a)  Settled  inhabitants — 

(i  )    By  enumeration      ...         ..  ...     1,046 

(ii)   By  ijdra         ...  1.451 

{b)  Nomads — 

[\)  By  enumeration        ...  ...         ...      1,437 

(ii)   By  ijdra         ...         ...  ...  

.Miscellaneous,  including  water  mills,  etc....     1,190 
The  revenue  is  levied  mostly  by  batai,  tashkhis  or  appraise- 
ment  being   only   resorted    to  in  cases  of  small  isolated  plots 
of  land. 

Writing  in  1885  on  the  subject  of  the    introduction  of  cash 

•   Papers    relating    to    Settlement   of  Sibi    Municipal    lands,  1899, 
op.  24  to  26. 


1 86 


CHA  P.  III.  —A  DM  IN  IS  TRA  TI VE . 


Land 

Revenue. 


assessment  into  the  Agency,  Mr.  R.  I.  Bruce,  C.I.E.,  at 
that  time  Political  Agent  of  the  then  district  of  Thai  Chotiali, 
said  :  *'  It  would  in^my  opinion  be  very  premature  to  think 
of  introducing  cash  collections  into  Sibi.  It  is  to  the  lands 
watered  from  hill  torrents  that  we  must  look  mainly  for  our 
future  increase  in  the  Sibi  revenues,  and  in  all  probability  it 
will  take  about  ten  years  before  the  revenues  of  the  countr)- 
in  that  direction  are  fully  developed.  Moreover,  it  seems 
very  questionable  whether  cash  collections  are  suitable  for 
lands  watered  by  hill  torrents  where  the  fluctuations  of 
produce  are  so  incalculable  and  where  the  people  are  poor 
and  cash  is  scarce.  The  floods  on  this  frontier  are  so  uncer- 
tain and  variable  that  often  successive  dry  seasons  occur, 
followed  by  a  season  of  copious  floods  and  a  bumper  harvest. 
In  the  dry  seasons,  the  people  seek  other  means  of  livelihood, 
and  they  do  not  feel  the  small  quantity  of  Government  grain 
taken  from  them  as  a  hardship,  while  they  would  be  sorely 
tried  to  pay  any  average  cash  assessment;  whereas  a  good 
flood  season  pays  the  Government  for  many  years  of  failure, 
leaving  the  people  abundance  and  to  spare.  Besides  in  a 
small  compact  and  very  fertile  tract  like  that  of  Sibi,  where 
supervision  is,  comparatively  speaking,  easy,  some  of  the 
chief  objections  to  collections  in  kind  do  not  apply." 

The  revenue  survey  of  the  Sibi  tahsi'l  was  completed  in 
May  1901, "but  it  was  not  considered  advisable  to  impose  a 
cash  assessment,  and  the  revenue  at  the  present  time  (1905), 
with  the  exception  of  that  on  certain  miscellaneous  crops,  is 
still  levied  in  kind. 

The  following  table  shows  the  rates  of  cash  assessment  on 
miscellaneous  crops  in  the  tahsil  : — 


Name  of  place. 


I. 

,_ 

u    u 

0. 

a 

j=  a 

■£ 

rt 

0 

c 
0 

0 

n 

u 

ll 

u 

e 

u 
0. 

a 

n-e 

u  u 

c 
0 

?i 

0  !Ml£ 

u  J-  a 

5  rt 

c 

rt  =■ « 

W 

0 

J 

0 

Sibi,  at  two-ninths 
S.lng-an,      at    one- 

fourtfi 
Quat-Mandai       at 

one-sixth 


Rs. 
II 

a.  p. 
I    10 

Rs. 

4 

Rs. 

4 

Rs. 

4 

Rs. 
6 

Rs. 

4 

12 

8     0 

6 

6 

6 

.,- 

6 

8 

5     4 

6 

6 

6 

6 

Rs.    a.  p. 
6  10     8 

780 

500 


KOHLU  TAHSiL.  187 

Government  takes  no  share  of  the  straw  of  the  hiijri,  shall,  Land 

c/mia,  kangni  and  sarshaf  crops,  but  as  regards  all  other  Revenle. 
crops  the  share  of  the  straw  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  grain 
(1905).  Up  to  the  year  1880  no  share  ot  bhusa  was  taken 
in  the  Sibi  tahsil.  In  1881,  it  was  taken  at  one  netful  (about 
2  maunds)  per  piio  of  water  and  the  rate  was  doubled  in  i882' 
In  1884,  a  fixed  amount  of  8,000  maunds  was  taken  from  the 
irrigated  lands.  In  1896-7  the  share  was  fixed  at  one-sixth, 
and  this  rate  was  continued  up  to  March  1898,  when  it  was 
raised  to  two-ninths,  the  rate  at  which  the  grain  was  assessed. 
Up  to  the  end  of  the  year  1895-6  the  Government  share  of 
the  karbi  was  fixed  each  year,  and  was  paid  for  by  the 
saminddrs  in  cash  at  the  rate  of  4  annas  per  load.  During 
1896-7  it  was  assessed  at  20  bullock-loads  per  pdo  of 
water  and  was  paid  for  in  cash  at  6  annas  a  load.  In  1898 
an  agreement  was  made  for  a  term  of  five  years  with  the 
saminddrs,  by  which  i  maund  oi  karbi  was  assessed  for  every 
maund  oi  judr  and  was  paid  for  in  cash  at  the  rate  of  9 
pies  per  maund.  This  assessment  was  renewed  in  1902 
for  a  further  period  of  five  years  and  is  now  in  force 
(1905)- 

Before  the  British  occupation,  this  valley  was   independent    Kohlu 

and  paid  no   revenue.     The    Zarkun    and    the    Marri   chiefs,    g^^^j  ' 

however,  recovered  the  following  taxes  from  their    respective   revenue 
,    .,  history, 

tribes: — 

Taxes  levied  by  the  Zarkiin  Chiefs. 
(i)  One  sheep  for  every  flock  of  fifty  or  above  {dan). 

(2)  I  seer  of  grain  for  every    milch   cow   above    three 

years  of  age. 

(3)  50 /"^^^  (2^    Government    maunds)    of   wheat  from 

each  zammddr  at  the  rabi  harvest. 

(4)  An  equal  share  of  the  loot  obtained   by    a    raiding 

party   consisting    of   ten    men    or   under,    and   a 
panjuk  or  one-fifth  in  other  cases. 

Taxes  recovered  by  the  Marri  Chief. 
(i)  /'fl»;M/t  or  one-fifth  of  the  loot. 
(2)  A  sheep  or  a  goat  from  each  flock  as  meh-ndni. 


i88  CHAP.  III—ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land  In  addition  to  the  above,  import  and  export  duties    known 

Reven'ue.  as  ^M/i^  were  levied  on  all  merchandise  passing  through  the 
valley  at  the  rate  of  4  annas  per  camel  load.  The  duties 
levied  from  the  villages  of  Oriydni,  Malikzai  and  Shirini  were 
taken  by  the  Z  irkiins,  and  those  collected  from  other  villages 
by  the  Marris.  The  annual  income  of  the  Zarkiin  chief 
from  this  source  is  said  to  have  amounted  to  about  Rs.  50. 
Modern  Excluding  revenue  free-holdings,  there    are    three    descrip- 

revenue  tions  of  revenue  paying  land  in  the  Kt^hlu  valky  :  (i)  the  land 

belonging  to  the  Zarkun  tribesmen,  (^)  the  w//-«.9  or  lanJs 
assigned  to  the  Marris  by  the  Zarkuns  when  the  former  were 
called  in  to  assist  the  Zarkuns  against  the  Bugtis,  and  (3)  the 
snrkharid  or  lands  purchased  by  the  Marris  from  the  Zarkuns 
before  the  Muranj  Settlement  of  1892.  The  Zarkun  lands 
pay  one-sixth  of  the  produce  to  Government  ;  the  mirds  lands 
one-twelfth  to  Government  and  one-twelfth  to  the  Marri  chief, 
and  the  owners  of  the  sarkhnrid  land  pay  one-twelfth  to 
Government  and  30  ginds  or  about  120  m.aunds  of  grain  per 
annum  to  the  Marri  chief.  The  revenue  is  taken  partly  by 
batai  and  partly  by  tashkhis.  In  1892-3,  the  first  year  of 
British  occupation,  when  one-half  was  remitted,  it  amounted 
to  Rs.  6,269,  ^"<^  i"  the  present  year  (1904-5)  to  Rs.  I2,t22 
as  detailed  below  : — 


Land   Revenue. 


Rs. 


[ii]     By  fixed  assessment         ... 

{b)     By  batai  or  tashkhis  in  kind         ...  8,767 

Grazing  Tax, 

{a)     Settled  inhabitants — 

(i)     By  enumeration  ...  ...  181 

(ii)     By  ijdra  2,675 

{b)     Nomads  — 

(i)     By  enumeration  ...  ...  284 

(ii)     By  ijdra 
Miscellaneous,  including  water  mills,  etc.  215 


NASIRAbAD  TAHSIL.  189 

The  rates  of  cash  assessment   on    miscellaneous    crops    per  Land 

acre  are  Rs.  8-5-4  for    spring    crops  cut  for  fodder,  Rs.  8  and      Revenue. 
Rs.  5  for    melons,   Rs.    12    for    onions  and  Rs.  5  for  lucerne, 
vegetables  and  autumn  crops  cut  for  fodder. 

Nasirabad  formed  part  of  the  District  of  Kachhi,  which  was   NdsIrAbad 
granted  in  1740  by  Nadir  Shah  to  the  Brahuis    in    compensa-    g/5'  ' 
tion    for   the  death  of  Mir  AbduUa,  the  Ahmadzai   Khan  of  revenue 
Kalat,    who    was    killed    by    the    Kalhoras    in     the    battle  of  '^"^^o'^y- 
Jandrihar  near  Sanni.     From  that  time  and  until  the  construc- 
tion of  the  Sind  canals,  the  revenue  was  levied  by  the  division 
of   produce   (batai),    the  rates  of  which  varied  from  one-sixth 
to   one-fourth.     In  addition    to    batai,    the    State    levied  the 
cesses  known  as  they/fo/Zand  lawdsima,  varying  from  2  to  3 
kdsas  of  grain  per   kharwdr. 

The  State  also  levied  transit  duties  on  merchandise,  etc.,  at 
the  rate  of  annas  4,  2  and  i  per  camel,  bullock  and  donkey 
load,  respectively. 

When  the  question  of  the   extension  of  the  canals  into  the    Modern 

Kaldt   territory    was    first    mooted,    it    was    agreed  between    [^^^""6 
•'  .  history. 

General  John  Jacob,  on  behalf  of  the  British  Government,  and 

Mir  Nasir  Khan  II,  Khan  of  Kalat,  that  the  revenue  derived 
from  the  lands  irrigated  by  the  Sind  canals  should  be  equally 
divided  between  His  Highness  and  the  British  Government. 
This  agreement  came  into  force  in  1843,  and  was  subsequently 
reaffirmed  by  Sir  Robert  Sandeman  and  Mir  Khudadad  Khan 
in  1877.  It  appears  to  have  been  the  custom  in  earlier  days 
to  lease  a  given  quantity  of  land  for  a  term  of  seven  years  on 
the  condition  tliat  the  lessee  should  pay  revenue  on  one- 
third  of  the  whole  at  a  uniform  rate  of  Rs.  2  per  acre.  The 
system  was  abandoned  in  1S85,  and  the  land  actually 
brought  under  cultivation  was  measured  at  each  harvest  and 
revenue  was  taken  at  the  rate  of  Rs.  2  per  acre,  half  of  which 
was  paid  to  the  Khdn  of  Kalat  as  land  revenue,  and  the  other 
half  credited  to  the  Bombay  Government  as  the  water  rate. 
Alter  the  construction  of  the  Frontier  Rajbha,  Uch  and 
Manji'ithi  branches  of  the  Desert  Canal,  the  water  rate  on 
the  lands  irrigated  by  the  two  former  branches  was  raised  in 
1900-1  to  Rs.  1-8-0  per  acre,  and  in  1902-3  the  higher  rate  was 
imposed  on  the  lands  watered  by  the  Uch  and  Manji'ithi 
branches.  A  smnll  cess  at  the  rate  of  6  pies  per  acre  has 
been  levied  since  1888  to    meet    the  moiety  of  the  cost  of  pay 


J  go  CHAP.  IlI^ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land  of  the  Tahsildar  and  the  additional  estabHshment,  the  other 
REVENUE,  half  being  paid  by  the  Bombay  Government.  Since  August 
1904  the  cultivation  of  rice,  which  requires  more  water  than 
other  crops,  has  been  restricted,  the  special  rates  being  Rs.  3 
per  acre  on  authorised  cultivation  and  Rs.  6  per  acre  on 
unauthorised  cultivation.  The  question  of  revising  the 
assessment  on  lands  irrigated  by  the  canals  is  under  con- 
sideration (1905).* 

As  is  the  case  in  other  parts  of  the  Agency,  the  dry  crop 
lands  are  assessed  at  one-sixth  of  the  produce.  The  land  reve- 
nue in  1904-5  amounted  to  Rs.  1,23,451,  of  which  Rs.  1,22,822 
were  realized  by  cash  rates  from  irrigated  lands,  and  Rs,  629 
by  batai  or  tashkhis  from  the  dry  crop  area.  The  water  rate 
during  this  year  amounted  to  Rs.  1,38,780,  which  was  credited 
to  the  Bombay  Irrigation   Department. 

Sale  of  In  tahsils,  where  the  revenue  is  levied  in  kind,  the  Govern- 

ment share  of  the  grain  is  sold  by  public  auction,  the 
final  bids  being  subject  to  the  sanction  of  the  Revenue  Com- 
missioner. The  sales  take  place  at  the  time  of  the  batai, 
the  usual  condition  for  purchasers  other  than  saminddrs  being 
that  the  delivery  must  be  taken  over  at  the  threshing  floors  or 
at  certain  centres  fixed  with  the  approval  of  the  Revenue 
C'^mmissioner,  to  which  the  saminddrs  are  required  to  carry 
the  grain  free  of  charge. 


revenue 
grain. 


*  The  rates  temporarily  sanctioned  for  the  Desert  Canal  are  : — 

Rs.  a.    p. 
r     A'/V^  (authorised)  ... 
I         ,,     (unauthorised) 


Kharif 

S 

Other  crops — 

I 

Flow       ... 

L 

Lift 

Rabi 

f 
\ 
I 

Bori 
Flow       ... 

Lift 

Dubari 

1 

Watered 
Unwatered 

For  the  Beg 

<iri 

Canal  rates  are — 

Rice 

, 

,, 

...         ... 

Other 

crops 



Dubari 


•      3     0 

6     0 

.       2     8 

.       2     4 

.. 

.       2     8 

.. 

•       3     0 

2   12 

I     0 

•• 

.       0     8 

As  for  Desert. 

Rs.  2 

per  acre 

Asfo 

r  Desert 

THE  BATAI  S YSTEM.  191 

The  rough-and-ready  methods  adopted  for  the  collection  Land 
of  the  revenue  in  kind  are  indicated  by  the  following  account  Revenue. 
by  Captain  G.  Gaisford  of  the  proceedings  in  Duki,  which  system'^' 
may  be  taken  as  typical  of  all  parts  of  the  Agency  :— On  his 
arrival  in  the  district,  in  May  1883,  he  found  the  rabi  harvest 
in  progress.  The  tahsilddr  was  engaged  in  realizing  one- 
sixth  of  the  grain  as  the  Government  share.  He  had  guards 
{kardivas)  posted  at  the  villages  to  see  that  no  grain  was 
surreptitiously  removed  from  the  threshing  floor  before  the 
batai  or  division  was  made.  The  men  employed  consisted 
of  one  or  two  servants  of  the  Tahsild^lr  and  some  local  men 
and  Pimjabis.  Captain  Gaisford  soon  saw  that  the  system 
was  bad  and  that  the  kardivns  were  not  to  be  depended  upon. 
As  they  were  merely  employed  temporarily  and  had  nothing 
to  look  forward  to,  their  one  object  was  to  make  as  much  and 
to  do  as  little  as  possible.  As  a  rule,  the  villai.'ers  made 
them  comfortable,  killing  a  sheep  for  them  occasionally  and 
providing  them  with  the  best  of  everything  In  consequence 
Captain  Gaisford  advocated  the  employment  of  native  cavalry 
sowars,  and  the  following  system  was  adopted:  The  villages 
were  divided  into  groups,  and  each  group  was  put  in  charge 
of  a  duffadar,  who  was  responsible  for  it.  Each  village  had 
two  sowars  told  off  to  it  ;  one  of  these  had  to  remain  at 
home,  while  the  other  patrolled  round  the  crops  and  threshing 
floors.  The  sowars  were  sent  out  before  the  grain  was  ripe, 
and  then  their  chief  duty  was  to  see  that  the  cattle  were  not 
allowed  to  trespass  in  the  standing  crop.  As  the  wheat  and 
barley  was  cut,  it  was  collected  and  taken  to  the  threshin"- 
floors,  which  were  located  as  centrally  as  possible.  Gleaners 
were  permitted  on  ground  from  which  the  sheaves  had  not 
been  removed.  Energetic  women  were  watched,  and  it  was 
found  that  none  could  collect  and  beat  out  more  than  ^ 
seers  of  corn  daily.  This  was,  therefore,  the  maximum 
amount  that  any  woman  or  boy  was  allowed  to  take  into 
the  village  ;  and  for  this  the  sowar  at  the  door  was 
responsible. 

When  the  grain  had  been  cut,  collected,  trodden  out, 
winnowed  and  cleaned,  each  man  made  his  portion  into  a 
larg-e  heap.  Under  the  supervision  of  the  duffadar  these 
heaps  were  divided  into  six  equal  lots.  One  was  taken  for 
Government  jind  then  put  into  bags,  loaded  up  and    taken    to 


192  CHAP.  III-ADMINISTRATIl'E. 

Land  ^^^  granaries  by  the  saminddrs.     The  wheat  was  measured  by 

Revenie.  the  country  measure,  or  path,  as  it  was  put  into  the  bags,  and 
at  the  granary  it  was  weighed  before  being  stored.  The 
wheat  was  sent  off  usually  under  charge  of  a  levy  sowar,  who 
was  given  a  chcildn  by  the  duftadar,  who  took  the  batai. 
Each  sowar  was  given  a  thappa  or  stamp,  and  as  soon  as  the 
wheat  had  been  trodden  out  or  was  in  a  more  advanced  stage, 
it  was  the  sowar's  duty  to  affix  a  mud  seal  on  every  heap  at 
nightfall.  At  daybreak  each  seal  was  again  inspected,  and, 
if  found  intact,  the  zaminddr  was  permitted  to  continue  his 
work.  If  broken,  the  heap  was  investigated.  Sometimes 
dogs  and  jackals  were  the  cause,  sometimes  the  grain  had 
been  stolen.  Each  case  was  investigated  by  the  duffaddr 
and  a  report  sent  to  the  tahsildar.  if  the  tahsild.-ir  and  his 
subordinates  were  fairly  active  and  actually  on  the  move,  the 
system  was  found  to  work  fairly  well,  and  the  zmniiiddrs 
were  not  dissatisfied. 

This  system  is,  with  slight  modifications,  still  followed 
where  revenue  is  taken  by  batai.  Troops  are,  however,  no 
longer  employed,  their  place  being  taken  by  the  sub-divisional 
and  tahsil  officials,  assisted  by  local  levies  and  occasionally  by 
^?i\di  imishrifs  or  kard'voas. 
Recapitula-  ^^  '904"5  ^^^  \'^i\\<^  revenue  of  the  district,  including  grazing 

tion.  tax,  amounted    to    Rs.    2,37,957,    to    which    Sibi  contributed 

Rs.  42,808,  Kohlu  Rs.  12,122,  Shcihrig  Rs.  27.332  and 
Nasirdbiid  Rs.  1,55,695.  The  total  revenue  for  the  same 
year  from  all  sources  amounted  to  Rs.  2,98,623. 

„  ,,,  ,  In  i8qq  proposals  were  submitted  by  Mr.  E.  G.  Colvin,  then 

bettlement  "'  r      r  j 

and  their         Revenue  Commissioner,   to  extend  the  settlement  operations 

periods.  ^      ^j^^    Shahrig    tahsil.     The    principles    laid   down    for    the 

bnanng'  °  '  ' 

settlement.      settlement  were  that  it  should  be  summary,   but    still   such  as 

to  be  much  in  advance  of  the  arrangements  already  in  force, 
and  to  supply  an  authoritative  record  of  rights  ;  that  the 
assessment  was  to  be  lit  ht,  and  that  little  increase  of  revenue 
was  to  be  expected  ;  that  unirrigated  land  of  any  consider- 
able value  should  be  excluded  from  the  fixed  assessment; 
that  the  value  of  one-sixth  of  the  gross  produce  might  be 
expected  as  the  basis  of  the  assessment  ;  that  it  would  be 
inexpedient  to  impose  any  considerable  enh'incement  upon 
the  revenue  collections  of  the  last  few  years  ;  that  the 
Government   share    of    the  produce    from    division  of  crops 


SJBI  SETTLEMENT.  193 

should  be  valued  at  such  average  prices  as  might   be   fairly       Land 
expected  to  be  maintained  for  the  next  ten  years  ;  and,  finally,    Revenue, 
that  the  result  should   be  used  as  a  maximum  standard   for 
purposes  of  check  rather  than  as  one  to  be  necessarily  worked 
up  to.     The  survey  was  to  be  field  to  field. 

The  settlement  operations  were  begun  in  1899  and  complet- 
ed in  1900.  In  the  Shahrig,  Harnai,  Babihdn  and  Ghurmi 
circles,  where  the  division  of  fields  was  minute,  tlie  survey 
was  made  on  a  scale  of  32  inches  to  the  mile,  and  in  the 
Kach-Kowds  circle  on  that  of  16  inches  to  the  mile.  The 
assessment  worked  out  to  Rs.  20,745,  excluding  the  pri- 
vileged tenures  in  the  irrigated  areas,  and  the  period  of 
settlement  was  fixed  at  ten  years  from  ist  of  April  190 1,  on 
the  understanding  that  the  cultivation  from  all  new  sources 
of  irrigation  in  estates  subject  to  assessment  would  not  be 
liable  to  additional  revenue  during  the  period  of  the  settle- 
ment. The  assessment  was  confined  to  irrigated  areas, 
including  small  dry-crop  tracts  up  to  20  acres  forming  parts 
of  the  irrigated  7nahdls,  while  in  other  unirrigated  tracts  the 
revenue  was  and  is  still  (1905)  levied  by  batai  at  the  rate  of 
one-sixth  of  the  produce.  The  final  sanction  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  India  to  the  settlement  was  accorded  in  July  igoi, 
and  it  was  laid  down  that  "the  effect  of  the  new  rates 
(which  are  high)  should,  however,  be  carefully  watched 
during  the  term  of  the  settlement." 

The  first  proposal  to  carry  out  settlement  operations  in  Sibi  setile- 
the  Sibi  lahsil  was  made  by  Mr.  (now  Sir)  Hugh  Barnes  in  "i^"^- 
February  1899,  when  he  reported  that  the  people  were  ready 
for  a  cash  assessment  in  lieu  of  the  existing  collection  of 
revenue  by  batai,  and  pointed  out  that  it  was  necessary  to 
ascertain  and  define,  while  there  was  yet  time,  the  rights  of 
Government  in  the  many  acres  of  waste  lands  still  existing  in 
the  Sibi  tahsil.  The  proposal  to  undertake  settlement  oper- 
ations was  approved  by  the  Government  of  India  in  March 
1899.  ^"  October  of  the  same  year,  it  was  decided  that  it 
would  be  desirable  to  postpone  the  revenue  survey,  as  there 
had  been  two  bad  years  which  rendered  it  unlikely  that  the 
people  would  be  willing  to  accept  a  reasonable  cash  assess- 
ment. 

The  traverse  survey  of  the  tahsil   was  completed  during  the 
winter  of    1899-1900  and   the  revenue    survey   in   Mav   iqoj. 
13 


194 


CHAP.  Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 


Land 

Revenue. 


Review  of 
existing 
assessments 
(:905)- 


In  the  meantime  Mr.  Colvin,  the  Revenue  Commissioner,  had 
officially  represented  his  opinion  as  follows  : — 

"  I  do  not  at  present  recommend  attempting  to  impose  a 
settlement  for  a  period  of  years.  The  people  are  strongly 
opposed  to  this,  and  a  settlement  by  consent  would  involve  a 
considerable  loss  of  revenue,  while  a  settlement  on  any  other 
terms  would  probably  be  politically  unwise  in  this  part  of  the 
country.  Moreover  there  are  large  tracts  of  khiishkdba  or  dry 
crop  cultivation,  which  do  not  lend  themselves  to  cash  assess- 
ment." These  views  were  supported  by  the  Agent  to  the 
Governor-General,  and  approved  of  by  the  Government  of 
India  in  March  igoi. 

The  settlement  operations  in  Sibi  have,  therefore,  been 
confined  to  the  preparation  of  revenue  survey  and  record  of 
rights. 

The  survey  was  made  on  a  scale  of  i6  inches  to  the  mile. 
The  Sdngdn,  Talli  and  Mai  circles,  as  well  as  the  cultivated 
saildba  lands  in  the  Sibi,  Kurk  and  Khajak  circles,  were 
subjected  to  a  field  to  field  survey,  while  a  thdkbast  survey 
was  carried  out  in  the  irrigated  lands  belonging  to  the 
villages  of  the  last  three  circles.  The  Badra,  Quat-Mandai 
and  Tokhi  valleys,  Government  forests  and  Sibi  Municipal 
lands  were  not  included  in  -the  settlement  survey,  the  last 
mentioned  having  already  been  surveyed  in  1899. 

As  uniformity  does  not  exist,  it  will  be  useful  to  summarise 
briefly,  in  the  form  of  a  statement,  the  various  systems  of 
revenue  prevailing  in  different  parts  of  the  District. 


Area. 

Description. 

Revenue  sjstem. 

Period  of  settle- 
ment, if  any. 

Shihrig... 

Irrigated 

Cash  assessment    ... 

10    years,     from 

land. 

1st  April   1901. 

Unirriga- 

Tracts  of  20  acres  and  un- 

ted. 

der,  lying  within  the  lim- 
its      of     the      irrigated 
mdhals  are  not  assessed. 
All    other      tracts      pay 
revenue    at   one-sixth    of 
the  produce. 

STATISTICS  OF  LAND  REVENUE. 


195 


Area. 


Sibi 


Kohlu 


NasirA- 
bdd. 


Description. 


Revenue  system. 


Land 

Period  of  settle-    Revenue. 
ment,  if  any. 


Irrigated 
and  unirri- 
gated 
lands. 


Irrigated 
and  unirri- 
gated. 


Irrigated 


Unirriga- 
ted. 


The  Sibi,  Kurk,  Khajak, 
Talli  and  Mai  circles  pay 
revenue  in  kind  at  two- 
ninlhs  of  the  total  pro- 
duce ;  the  Sdngdn  circle 
pays  one-fourth  of  the 
produce,  half  of  which 
is  made  over  to  the 
Bdruzai  jdgirddrs  ;  Ld- 
khi  (  in  Sdngdn  )  pays 
one-sixth  ;  and  Quat- 
Mandai,  one-twelfth  of 
the  produce,  an  equal 
share  being  levied  by  the 
Marri  chief. 

On  tnirds  lands,  and  on 
such  lands  as  were  ac- 
quired by  the  Marris 
previous  to  1892,  reve- 
nue is  taken  at  one- 
twelfth,  an  equal  share 
being  paid  by  the  culti- 
vator to  the  Marri  chief. 
0:\  all  other  lands  the 
rate  is  one-sixth. 

Cash  assessment  at  the 
rate  of  Re.  i  per  acre 
under  cultivation.  The 
water  rate  is  Re.  i  per 
cultivated  acre,  except 
on  the  Frontier  Rajbha, 
Uch  and  Manjuthi  bran- 
ches of  the  Desert  canal 
where  it  is  Rs.  1-8.  A 
cess  of  6  pies  is  also 
levied  on  each  acre 
under  cultivation. 

Revenue  in  kind  at  one- 
sixth  of  the  produce. 


Sibi  Municipal 
mdhal.  Cash 
assess nent  of 
Rs.  741-H-0 
for  10  years 
from  ist  April 
1900. 


In  those  parts  of  the  District  in  which  revenue  is  still  levied 
in  kind,  the  aggregate  amount  collected  fluctuates  with  the 
character  of  the  agricultural  seasons  and  the  prevailing 
prices.  Table  XVIII,  Vol.  B,  shows  the  revenue  in  kind  of 
Sibi,  Shdhrig  and  Kohlu  tahsils  for  each  of  the  eight  years 
from  1897-8  to  1904-5  and  the  average  price  at  which  each 
article  was  sold.  The  principal  items  are  wheat  and  j'udr. 
The  largest  amount  of  wheat  collected  was  29,749  maunds  in 
1897-8  a-.i  1    the    smal'est    16,00^    maunds    in    1902-3.       The 


Statistics  of 
land   reve- 
nue. 


196  CHAP.   Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land  largest  amount  oi  jiidr  was  26,027  maunds  in  1902-3  and  the 
Revenue,  lowest  6,876  maunds  in  1904-5.  Table  XIX,  besides 
embodying  the  figures  obtained  from  table  XVll I,  also  shows 
the  land  revenue  realised  in  cash,  such  as  fixed  assessments, 
temporary  contracts,  tax  on  water  mills  and  grazing  tax 
during  the  period  1897-8  to  1904-5.  The  annual  average 
receipt  of  the  above  three  tahsils  for  the  quinquennial  period 
ending  with  the  year  1901-2  was  Rs  1,38,204,  the  highest 
amount,  Rs.  99,002,  being  contributed  by  the  Sibi  tahsil  and 
the  lowest  Rs.  8,908  by  the  Kohlu  tahsil, 

Land   tenu-  The    land    tenures    of   the    District    are  of  a  simple  nature. 

Government  is  the  sole  collector  of  revenue  except  in  Kurk, 
Sangdn  and  Quat-Mandai  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  and  on  the  lands 
acquired  by  the  Marris  in  the  Kohlu  valley  prior  to  the 
Marunj  Settlement  of  1892.  The  tenures  in  Quat-Mandai 
and  Kohlu  have  already  been  mentioned. 

Bdruzai  The  assignments    which    comprise    the  j'dgirs  of  Kurk  and 

""  Sangdn    originated    in    the    influential   position    held    by  the 

Belruzai  sardarsin  the  Sibi  District  during  the  Afghan  occupa- 

Kur^  jdgir.  tion  of  the  country.  TheyV/o'//' of  Kurk,  the  estimated  value 
of  which  is  Rs.  10,000  a  year,  is  held  under  the  authority  of  a 
sanad,  dated  the  8th  Moharrdm  1201  A.H.,  bearing  the  seal  of 
Timiir  Shdh,  and  was  confirmed  by  the  Government  of  India  in 
January  1899  to  the  heirs  of  the  Bdruzai  Sardars  of  Sibi  in 
perpetuity,  subject  to  the  conditions  of  loyalty  and  good 
behaviour.  Thej'dgzr  consists  of  9  pdos  of  water,  of  which  the 
Kurks  and  Nodhdnis  own  8  and  i  respectively  and  which  are 
further  sub-divided  into  22  and  3  dahdnas.  These  tribes  pay 
revenue  to  the  Bdruzais  at  the  rate  of  one-fourth  of  the 
produce  of  wheat,  cotton,  and  bhiisa  and  one-fifth  oi Judr  and 
barley.  Rebates,  which  arj  locally  known  as  zndm,  are 
granted  to  the  Kurks  at  the  rate  of  one-sixth  of  the  judr  and 
barley  and  21  khcirwdrs  of  wheat,  in  addition  to  one-tenth  of 
all  grain  produced  on  5  out  of  the  22  dahdnas,  and  to  the 
Nodhdi  is  at  the  rate  of  9  kharwdrs  of  wheat  and  one-sixth  of 
the  produce  of  the  /t/i«?'//"  harvest.  These  rebates  are  granted 
on  the  condition  that  the  tribes  in  question  maintain  the 
water  channels  and  the  embankments  on   the    N;iri    river.      In 


sANGAN  JA  GIR.  1 97 

addition  to    the   revenue,  the  Bfiri'izais  also  collect  the  follow-  Land 

Revenue. 
ing  cesses  : — 

(i)   Ndibi •.  ••  3     kiisas  per  kharwdr. 

(2)  Kdrdiri         5         >-      X^^rdahdiw. 

(3)  Footman       ...         ...         ...  2i      ,,  ,, 

(4")  Khidmatgir  ...  i         ,.  .. 

(5)  Fakir  (in  charge  of  the  tomb 

ofDadaKhan) i 

At    the    present    time    (1905)    the  Jdgir   is  divided  into  six 
shares  as  under  : — 

(i)  Wali  Muhammad,  son  of  Sher  Zami.n  Khin, 
Sarddr  Muhammad  Khan,  son  of  Sardir 
Shakar  Khin  and  Adam  Khdn,  son  of 
Rahim  Khdn,  in  equal  shares         ...  1%  shares. 

(2)  Akbar    Khin,    Sarbuland  Khdn   and  Ismail 

Khdn,    sons    of     Misri    Khdn,     in     equal 

shares     ...  ...         ...         ...         ...  1%       ,, 

(3)  Bakhtiyir  Khin,  son  of  Isa  Khin     ...         ...  1%       ,, 

(4)  Musi  Khin  and  Fateh  Khdn,  sons  of  Hazdr 

Khan,  in  equal  shares  ...         ...         ...  i     share. 

The  Siingan  Jdgir  is  held  on  the  authority  of  sanads  or  Sdngdn 
warrants  issued  by  Ahmad  Sh^h,  Durrani  (about  1x76  H.)  in  ^  ^  ^' 
favour  of  the  Bdruzais  of  Sangan,  and  is  valued  at  about 
Rs.  4,:;62  per  annum.  The  revenue  is  levied  by  batai  at  the 
rate  of  one-fourth,  one-half  of  which,  or  one-eighth  of  the 
total  produce,  is  assigned  to  the  Btiruzais.  The  jdgir  is 
divided  into  the  following  three  main  shares  : — 

(i)  Tdj  Muhammad  Khdn,  son  of  Sh6rdil  Khin, 
Niir  Muhammad  Khdn  and  Sahib  Khin, 
sons  of  Zulfiqdr  Khin,  in  equal  sharei      ...     i     share. 

(2)  Shdhbdz  Khdn  and  Umar  Khin,  the  minor 

sons  of  Bahrim  Khin,  in  equal  shares  ...  I'jth  ,, 
Murtaza  Khdn    and  Surda   Khdn,    sons    of 

.\rsala  Khin,  in  equal  shares        r\lh     ,, 

Ydr  Muhammad    Khan,    the   minor   son    of 

Salho  Khin ith     „ 

Mir  Alam  Khin,  Rahdil  Khan  and  Mehrdil 

Khin,    sons    of  Hazir    Khin,    in    equal 

shares      ...         ...         ...         ...     |th      ,, 

(3)  Mehrib  Khin  and  Samandar  Khin,  sons  of 

Ghafiir  Khin,  in  equal  shares        i  ,, 

The  jdgir  has  been  enjoyed    by   the    Bdriizais  of   Sdngdn 
since  the  occupation  of  Sibi  by  the  British,   but   the    question 


1 98  CHAP.  IIL— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land  of  its  future  conditions  and  of  the    period    of  its   continuance 

EVENUE.       ^j.g  uj^jgj.  consideration  (1905). 

Quat-Man-  The  Quat-Mandai  valley  was  taken  over  in   1880   after    the 

ai  va  ey.  Kuch^li  raid,  and  the  revenue  is  now  (1905)  assessed  at  the 
rate  of  Tjth  of  the  total  produce,  the  Marri  chief  taking  an 
equal  share.  The  circumstances  which  led  to  the  occupation 
of  the  valley  are  detailed  in  Chapter  IV,  Miniature  Gazetteer 
of  Sibi. 

The  orig-in  Most   of  the   cultivators   are  peasant  proprietors,    the  only 

character  of  ^^^^"^  classes  represented  in  the  District  are  tenants,  the 
the  tenants,  majority  of  whom  are  only  temporary.  In  earlier  times  the 
greater  part  of  the  land  remained  uncultivated  and  was  gradu- 
ally occupied  by  the  different  tribes,  first  for  grazing  and  then 
for  cultivation,  being  divided  among  the  sections  either  in 
proportion  to  the  number  of  families  or  among  individual 
males.  In  other  cases  land  was  obtained  by  conquest  and 
divided  on  the  same  system.  Land  was  also  acquired  as 
compensation  for  the  loss  of  men  killed  in  the  course  of  blood 
feuds  ;  and  hamsdyas,  who  had  sought  protection  with 
tribes,  were  sometimes  admitted  into  the  tribe  and  given  a 
share  in  the  tribal  lands.  Thus  the  Khajaks,  Nodhdnis  and 
Gohrdmzais.  who  had  first  settled  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  as 
harnsdyas ,  were  given  their  lands  by  the  Bjiriizai  chiefs  of  Sibi. 
Cases  of  acquisition  by  purchase  are  also  met  with,  and  the 
Wan^chis  are  said  to  have  purchased  the  greater  portion  of 
the  lands  at  Bdbihdn  from  the  Makhidnis,  the  price  being  a 
colt  or  behdn  which,  according  to  local  tradition,  accounts  for 
the  name  of  Bibihin.  The  lands  purchased  by  the  Marris 
from  the  Zarkiins  in  Kohlu,  before  the  occupation  of  that 
valley  by  the  British  Government,  are  known  as  zarkharid. 
Kachhi,  which  includes  Nasirdbdd,  was  given  to  the  Brdhuis 
as  compensation  for  the  death  of  Mir  Abdulla  Khin  of  Kaldt, 
who  was  killed  by  the  Kalhoras  of  Sind.  Among  the  Sdfis 
and  Kurks  of  Sibi  and  the  Zarkuns  of  Kohlu,  land  and  water 
has  also  been  acquired  in  lieu  of  bride  price  (watwar)  and 
blood  money  {khun  baha). 

In  these  various  ways  a   body    of  peasant   proprietors    has 
arisen,   owning  their  own    lands    and    cultivating  their  own 


I 


TENANTS  AND  TENANCIES.  199 

fields,    the   irrigated   land   being  for  the  most  part  owned  by  Land 

individuals,  though,  in  some  cases  in  the  Sibi  tahsi'l,  periodi-      Reveni-e.- 
cal  division  takes   place. 

In  the  Shiihrig,  Kohlu  and  Nasirjibdd  tahsils,  both  irrigated  Custom  of 
and  unirrigated  lands  are  permanently  divided  [pukh/a  taqsim).  distribution 
In  Sibi  the  khushkdba  and  saildba  lands  are  divided  ;  but  the 
irrigated  lands,  with  the  exception  of  those  in  the  Sdngdn 
circle  and  in  the  Sibi  municipal  limits,  are  held  jointly  and 
are  undivided.  For  purpose  of  cultivation  these  lands  are 
divided  into  blocks,  which  are  termed  awdras  and  which  bear 
distinctive  names  and  are  cultivated  in  turn.  Thus,  if  a 
mmiza  consists  of  four  awdras,  one  awdra  only  is  cultivated  in 
the  year  and  the  others  are  allowed  to  lie  fallow.  Generally 
speaking,  the  boundaries  of  these  awdras  dixo.  not  permanently 
defined,  but  are  liable  to  change  according  to  the  require- 
ments of  the  cultivators.  At  the  time  of  sowing  the 
zaininddrs  make  a  temporary  [khdfu)  partition  of  the  awdras 
into  dahdnas,  and  the  land  within  each  dahdna  is  held  in 
common  and  jointly  cultivated.  If  a  dahdna  has  several 
proprietors,  the  produce  is  divided  among  them  in  accordance 
with  their  shares  of  water. 

In  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  the  land  is  cultivated  mostly  by  the  Tenants  and 
owners  themselves,  but  tenants  (bazgars)  are  also  sometimes 
employed.  No  occupancy  rights  are  recognised,  except  in 
the  dry  crop  areas  of  Warikha,  where  a  tenant  cannot  be 
evicted  so  long  as  he  maintains  the  embankments,  does 
not  intentionally  allow  the  land  to  lie  waste  and  pays  the 
landlord's  rent.  In  the  Sibi  tahsil  there  are  three  kinds  of 
tenants,  i.e.,  cccupancy  tenants,  lathband  tenants  and 
tenants-at-will.  The  occupancy  tenants  are  found  in  the 
villages  of  Sdfi,  Pirak,  Boston,  Marghazdni,  Mizri,  Kurk,  and 
Sifi  Abdulwahdb  of  the  Sibi  and  Kurk  circles,  and  number  35 
in  all  (1905).  Their  rights,  which  are  hereditary  {inaiirilsi), 
were  conferred  by  Navvdb  Bakhtiydr  Khdn,  Bdriizai,  in  re- 
cognition of  their  services  in  the  field.  They  cannot  be  ejected 
and  their  rents  are  fixed  at  various  rites  in  the  different 
villages.  "Wxo.  lathband  \.Q.x\2,r\X.%  are  met  with  in  dry  crop  areas 
jrrigated  by  flood  water,  and  are  considered  to  hold  the  same 


tenancies. 


2  00  CHAP.   III. —ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land  status  as  occupancy  tenants,   but  are  subject  to  certain  condi- 

Revenue.  tions.  Tenancy  right  is  acquired  when,  with  the  permission  of 
the  landlord,  the  tenant  brings  waste  land  under  cultivation  by 
constructing /«//(5  or  embankments  to  hold  up  the  flood  water, 
and  he  retains  an  alienable  right  so  long  as  he  keeps  the 
embankments  in  good  order,  cultivates  the  land  and  pays  the 
landlord's  rent.  If  he  fails  to  fulfil  the  conditions,  he  can  be 
ejected  on  compensation  being  paid  for  the  labour  expended 
on  construction,  such  compensation  being  generally  deter- 
mined by  arbitration.  The  rents  paid  by  these  tenants  vary 
from  one-twelfth  to  one-twenty-fourth  of  the  produce,  and 
are  further  dealt  with  in  the  section  on  Rents.  The 
tenants-at-will  are  locally  known  as  rdhaks  or  bdzgars.  They 
have  no  vested  rights  in  the  land  they  cultivate,  and  are 
usually  appointed  for  three  harvests,  i.e.,  Chetri^  Sdivnri  and 
Ahdri,  and  they  cannot  leave  their  tenancy  or  be  ejected  until 
the  three  harvests  are  over. 

In  Kohlu  and  Nasirdbdd  the  land  is   cultivated  by  the  pro- 
prietors themselves  or  by  tenants-at-will. 
Size  of  The  information  available  with  regard  to  the  size    of   hold- 

holdings,  ings  is  incomplete,  no  distinction  having  been  made  in  the 
iterature  on  the  subject  between  the  number  of  holdings  in 
irrigated  and  in  dry  crop  areas.  The  following  remarks, 
therefore,  must  be  received  with  caution  : — 

In  Shdhrig  the  total  number  of  holdings  recorded  at  the 
settlement  was  6,934,  and  the  area  of  irrigated  land,  including 
gardens,  was  9,229  acres,  which  would  give  about  i^  acres 
as  the  size  ofa  holding.  Besides  this,  there  were  9,225  acres 
of  cultivable  land  which  would  add  about  another  li  acres  to 
a  holding.  In  this  tahsil  the  area  of  culturable  ground  is 
limited,  and  the  greater  portion  is  brought  under  cultivation 
every  year  and  sometimes  bears  two  crops  in  the  same  year. 
In  Sibi  the  total  number  of  holdings  was  2,808,  and  the 
area  of  abt,  saildba  and  khushkdba  lands  125,231  acres,  which 
allows  about  44^  acres  as  the  area  of  a  holding.  I  he 
amount  of  the  annual  area  from  which  good  crops  may  be 
raised  in  this  tahsil  with  certainty  by  each  cultivator  cannot 
be   ascertained,  as  no    distinction    has  been  made     between 


HEADMEN.  201 

the    number    of  holdings    in    the    irrigated    and    dry    crop  Land 

Revenle. 
areas. 

In  the  Nasirjibjid  tahsil  the  record  of  rights  has  not  yet 
been  prepared  (1905),  and  the  total  area  belonging  \.o  each 
zaminddr  is  not  known. 

The  headman,  malik  or  imidera  as  he  is  locally  called,  has  Headman, 
always  been  a  prominent  figure  in  the  village  and  tribal  Wad^ra. 
organization,  and  his  duties  have  consisted  in  arbitrating 
between  disputants,  in  keeping  order  and  peace,  and  in 
collecting  the  State  demand  where  revenue  was  imposed.  In 
the  tribal  areas,  where  little  interference  has  taken  place  with 
the  ancient  system  of  tribal  Government,  he  still  plays  a  part 
of  no  little  importance.  Elsewhere  the  powers  of  the  head- 
men have  been  somewhat  curtailed  since  the  introduction  of 
the  British  administration  and  of  the  settlement,  and  rules 
have  been  framed  for  their  appointment  and  removal.  They 
are  generally  men  who  are  proprietors  of  large  areas  in  a 
mahdl,  and  who  command  respect  from  their  tribesmen. 
Their  duties  are  primarily  to  assist  in  the  collection  of  the 
Government  revenue,  to  keep  order  and  to  inform  the  tahsil 
officials  of  the  occurrence  of  any  serious  crime  and  of  other 
important  matters.  A  certain  number  are  employed  in  the 
levy  service. 

The  maliks  in  the  Shahrig  and  Kohlu  tahsils  are  paid  Remunera- 
lambarddri  allowance  [liaq-i-malikdnd)  on  the  gross  land  [,'°admen. 
revenue,  including  grazing  tax  and  tax  on  mills,  at  a  uniform 
rate  of  5  per  cent.  In  the  Nasirdbad  tahsil  no  payment  is 
made.  In  the  Sangan  circle  of  Sibi  tahsil  haq-i-malikdna  is 
also  paid  at  the  rate  of  5  per  cent.  In  the  irrigated  villages 
in  the  other  circles  of  Sibi,  the  allowance  under  the  Afghan 
rule  was  2h  to  3^  khariadr  of  grain  for  every  pdo  of 
water.  In  1898  this  rate  was  changed  to  5  per  cent., 
but  the  amount  is  divided  among  all  the  saminddrs  according 
to  their  shares  in  the  water,  and  each  headman  receives  a 
lungi  worth  Rs.  20  or  Rs.  25  in  addition  to  his  own  share. 

In  Shahrig,  the  minimum  incidence  on  the  irrigable  area  is    Incidence. 
Rs.  1-15-5  per  acre  in  the  Babihdn  circle,   and    the   maximum 
Rs.  3-5-4  in  the  Ghurmi  circle,  the  average    of  the  five  circles 


20  2  CHAP.   IlI.-ADMIMSTRATIVE. 

Land         oI  the  tahsil  being  Rs.  2-4-10.     The  maximum  incidence   per 
ivEVENUE.      2iQ_xQ.  On  the  area  irrigated  annually  is  Rs.  2-14-11,  the  average 
being  Rs.  2-8-1 1.     The  following  table    shows    the    incidence 
of  eacli  circle  in  the  tahsil  : — 


Circle. 


Incid 

ence 

on 

Incidence 

on 

irri 

stable 

area  annually 

area 

irnga 

ted 

Rs 

a. 

P 

Rs. 

a. 

P- 

I 

'5 

1 1 

2 

7 

I 

3 

3 

3 

2 

7 

3 

I 

15 

5 

2 

4 

10 

3 

5 

4 

2 

2 

6 

2 

4 

I 

2 

14 

1 1 

Shihrig 
Harnai    ... 
Bibihdn 
Ghurmi  ... 
Kach-Kowas 


As  already  stated,  the  revenue  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  is  still 
realized  in  kind,  but  the  calculations  made  in  the  course  of  the 
revenue  survey  with  regard  to  the  average  annual  revenue 
recovered  from  the  abi  and  the  saildba  and  khushkdha  cultiva- 
tions gave  the  following  results  : —  • 


Circle. 


Annual  receipt 

per  cultivated 

(irrigated)  acre. 


Annual  receipt 

per  cultivated 

{saildba  and 

lihushkdba') 

acre. 


Singdn  ... 
Sibi 

Kurk       ... 
Khajak  ... 
Talli 
Mai 


Rs.  a  p. 
5  3  8 
3  6  6 
112  I 
300 


Rs.  a.  p. 
I  I  9 
o  2  I 
096 
023 
o  II  8 
079 


The  incidence  on  irrigated  and  khtishMba  lands  in  the 
S^ngdn  circle  is  higher  than  in  other  circles,  as  the  revenue 
is    taken    at    one-fourth,    and    also    because    the    rainfall    is 


SYSTEM  OF  REMISSIONS.  ^03 

somewhat  greater  than  in  the  rest  ot  the  tahsil.  The  low  Land 
incidence  on  irrigated  lands  in  the  Kurk  circle  is  due  to  the  Revenue. 
fact  that  the  Baruzais  possess  a  large  tmidfi  in  tliis  village 
amounting  to  13,970  acres.  The  saihiba  lands  of  Talli,  Kurk 
and  Mai  are  all  irriu;ated  by  floods  from  the  Talli  torrent  and 
possess  the  right  of  taking  water  [sarewarkh]  in  the  order 
named  ;  hence  tlie  low  figures  shown  for  Mai,  which  in 
unfavourable  seasons  receives  little  or  no  flood  water. 

In  Shdhrig  the  internal  distribution  of  the  assessment  at  Distribution, 
the  time  of  the  settlement  was  n  ade  in  accordance  with  the 
wishes  of  the  proprietors  either  by  land  or  by  water  only. 
The  distribution  by  land  was  made  in  two  ways,  namely,  by 
the  proportionate  rate  of  incidence  [parta  fiishat),  or  by  a 
summary  incidence  on  the  total  irrigable  area  [parta  sarsari). 
The  distribution  by  the  proportionate  rate  was  determined  on 
the  basis  of  a  standard  fixed  with  reference  to  the  qualities 
of  the  land,  while  the  method  of  distribution  by  summary 
incidence  was  only  resorted  to  in  those  circles  which  possess- 
ed one  quality  of  land  throughout.  The  distribution  by 
water  followed  the  recognised  shares  in  the  water.  The 
following  table  shows  the  nature  of  the  assessment  made  in 
the  various  circles  : — 

Mauzas. 
By  proportionate  rate  of  incidence  on  land  ...       63 
By  summary  incidence  on  the  entire  irrigable 
area  of  the  village      ...         ...         ...         ...       14 

By  water     ..         ...         ...         ...  ...       21 

In  the  Shahrig  tahsil  the  fixed  cash  assessment  is  payable  Date  of 
on  the  ist  of  February  in  one  instalment,  while  in  Nasir^bdd  "^^ 
the  assessments  on  the  rabi  and  kharij  crops  on  canal  irri- 
gated lands  are  payable  in  two  equal  instalments,  those  for  rabi 
falling  due  on  the  15th  of  June  and  15th  of  July,  and  those 
for  kharif  on  the  15th  of  February  and  15th  of  March 
respectively. 

In  areas  in   which   revenue  is  levied  in   kind,  the   results  of  System  of 

indifferent  seasons  or  calamities   adjust  themselves  automati-  remissions 

Z  and  suspen- 

cally,  and  the  necessity  for  suspension  or  remission  of  revenue    sions. 

seldom    arises.     Where    the    revenue    is    paid    in    cash,    the 

Political  Agent  may  direct  that  the  whole  or  part  of  the  land 

revenue    falling  due    in  an    estate    be  suspended  in   cases  of 

severe  and  continued  calamity.     All  orders  thus  issued   must 


204  CHAP,   ril.— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land  be  at  once  reported  for  the  sanction  of  the  Revenue  Commis- 

';  sioner,  who  may  cancel  or  modify  them.      Similarly  proposals 

for  the  remission  of  land  revenue  have  to  be  reported  to  the 
Revenue  Commissioner,  who  may  sanction  remissions  up  to  a 
maximum  of  Rs     250.      Cases   involving   larger  sums  require 
the    sanction    of    the    Local    Government.      Remissions     for 
grazing   tax  and    of   the    tax    on    water   mills   are    sometimes 
granted  when  there  is  unusual  mortality,  due  to  a  drought  and 
scarcity  of  fodder,  or  when  a  mill  has,  owing   to  no  fault  on 
the  part  of    the  proprietor,  not  been  in    working   order.      Re- 
missions of  revenue,  water  rate  and   cess   on    canal   irrigated 
lands  in  the  Nasirabdd  tahsil  are  governed  by  rules  contained 
in   Circular  No.  54  of  1883  of  the   Commissioner   in  Sind   as 
revised  on  the  12th  of  March  1892.      Under  these  rules  applica- 
tions for  remissions  have   to  reach    the  tahsildar    by    certain 
fixed   dates.*     This   officer  conducts   his  enquiries  in  the  pre- 
sence of  the  applicants,  and  the  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner 
personally  checks  a  certain   percentage  of  the   entries.     The 
remissions  are  sanctioned  by  the    Revenue   Commissioner   on 
the    recommendation    of    the     Political    Agent,    and    all  such 
recommendations   should    reach    him   in    the  case    of  kharif 
claims  on  or  before  the   ist  of  April  and   in  the  case  of  rabi 
claims  before  the  15th  of  June.     Ordinarily  remissions  are  not 
granted  when  the  value  of  the  gross  produce,  including  karbi, 
straw,  etc.,    exceeds    or    equals    double    the    amount    of    the 
assessment.     When  it  is   less    than  this.    Government    takes 
one-third  of  the  value  of  the  actual  produce,  and   the   remain- 
der of  the  assessment,  after  deducting  the  sum,    is  remittted 
to  the  zaminddrs. 
Exemption  ^n  connection  with  the  settlement  of  the  Shahrig  tahsil,  the 

from  reve-        Government   of   India   ruled    that   cultivation    from    all    new 
nue  of  im-  .....  ,  .  1       r-       1 

provements.     sources  of  irrigation  in  estates  subject  to  the  nxed  assessment 

should    not    be   liable    to   any  additional  revenue    during   the 


Kharif. 

{a)  Injury  by   floods  or  deficient  water   supply 

to  all  crops  except  rice        ...         30th  September, 

(6)  Injury  from  other  causes  to  all  crops  ex- 
cept rice  15th  November. 

(c)  Injury  of  any  kind  to  rice  crops         ...         ...     31st  October. 

Rahi. 
Injury  to  all  kinds  15th  March. 


TRANSFER  OF  LAND.  205 

term  of  the  settlement.      In  areas  which  are  not   subject  to  a  Land 

fixed  cash  assessment,   the  rules   are  : — [a)  that  when  waste      Reveni'e. 

land  is  reclaimed  with  the  aid  of  a  takdvi  loan  and  is  brought 

under  cultivation,  no  revenue  may  be  assessed  on  it  until  the 

expiration  of  three  years,  reckoning  from  the    beginning  of 

the  harvest  first  reaped  after  the   reclamation  was  effected. 

If  no  lakdvi  loan  was  obtained,  the  period  of  exemption  may 

be  extended  to   four    years  ;   (6)    when    khushkdba    land   has 

been  improved  by  irrigation  with  the  aid  of  a  takdvi  \o-a.n,   the 

period  of  exemption  is  four  years  ;    in  the  case  of  waste   land 

which  has  been  improved  by  irrigation  or  of  an  improvement 

either  of  khushkdba  or  waste,  which  has   been   made    without 

the  aid  of  a  loan,  the  period  of  exemption  may   be  extended 

to    five    years  ;     (c)    new    water     mills,    constructed    with    or 

without   the    aid     of    Government    loans    are,    on    sufficient 

reasons  being  shown,  exempt  from  taxation  for  two  or    three 

years  as  the  case  may  be.      In  special  cases  these  periods  may 

be  further  extended. 

No  final  decision  has  yet  been  arrived  at  in  regard  to  waste 
waste  lands.  Under  Afghdn  rule  the  right  to  all  waste  lands, 
lands  was  vested  in  the  State.  In  the  draft  of  the  proposed 
Land  Revenue  Regulation  for  Baluchistan  which  is  still 
(1905)  under  consideration,  a  provision  has  been  included 
giving  Government  the  presumptive  right  to  all  lands  com- 
prised in  hills,  forests,  and  to  unclaimed  or  unoccupied  land. 

Under  the  provisions  of  the  Baluchistdn  Civil  Justice    Law    Restrictions 
and  Regulation,  agricultural  land  cannot  be  sold  in  execution    against 
of  a  decree  without  the    sanction  of   the    local    Government,    jand  to  non- 
and  it  is  usually  made  a  condition  of  the   sale    that   the  land    agricul- 
shall    not   be    sold    to  non-agriculturists.     In  the  draft  Land 
Revenue  Regulation,    a    provision    has  been    made    that   no 
agricultural  right  in  land  shall  be  alienated  by  transfer,    sale, 
gift,  mortgage  or  other  private   contract  to    any   person,   (i) 
who  is  not  entered  in  a  record  of  rights  as  a  member   of  the 
proprietary  body  of  an  estate,  or  (2)  if  the  transferee  is  resi- 
dent in  a  part  of  Baluchistdn  where  no  such  record   of    rights 
has  been  prepared  unless  the  transferee  is  a  Pathdn  or  Baloch 
land   owner,    and    unless   he    is  approved  by  the  headmen  of 
the  village  where  the  land   is    situated.     This    draft   has    not 
yet  (1905)  become  law,  but  in  the   meantime,    in    accordance 
with  executive  orders  passed  from  time  to  time,   land  cannot 


206 


CHA  P.  III.  —A  DMINISTRA  TIVE. 


Land 
Revenue. 

Government 
lands. 


be  sold  or  mortgaged   with  possession  to    aliens  without    the 
permission  of  the  District  Officer, 

In  the  course  of  the  settlement  of  Shiihrig,  83  pieces  of 
land  with  a  total  area  of  1,425  acres,  of  which  83  acres  were 
irrigable,  were  found  to  belong  to  Government.  The  ma- 
jority of  these  lands  were  obtained  by  purchase  from  time  to 
time  by  various  Government  departments.  Those  belonging 
to  the  Shdhrig  bazar  and  Zidrat  Improvement  Funds  pay 
no  revenue,  but  all  other  lands  are  liable  to  assessment 
whenever  cultivated.  Areas  used  as  gardens  are  exempt 
from  revenue  so  long  as  they  are  used  as  such. 

In   the   Sibi    tahsil,    the    Government   lands  are  [a)  those 

w'tbin  the  limits  of  the    Sibi 


Uultivated 
Culturable 
Unculturable 


1,960  acres. 
5'. 634       ,, 
1.832       ,. 

55.426 


Water 
mills. 


Municipality,  consisting  of 
1,675  ^cres  of  culturable  land, 
which  pay  an  annual  revenue 
of  Rs.  746-1 1-9  to  the  Civil 
Department  ;  and  55,42  acres  of  waste  land  in  the  Mai  and 
Talii  circles  (details  as  per  margin),  which  were  declared  the 
property  of  Government  after  the  Settlement  Survey  of  the 
tahsil.  Of  these  lands  an  area  equal  to  50  per  cent,  of  the 
cultivated  area  in  each  of  these  circles  was  made  over  to  the 
saminddrs,  leaving  a  balance  of  33,993  acres  in  the  Mai, 
and  18,223  acres  in  the  Talli  circle  in  the  possession  of  the 
Government.  The  land  given  to  the  zaminddrs  is  liable  to 
resumption  unless  brought  under  cultivation  within  five 
years  with  effect  from  the  ist  of  January,  1903. 

The  number  of  water  mills  in  each   tahsil  is  shown  in   the 
following  statement  : — 


Tahsil. 


Revenue- 
free. 


Revenue- 
paying. 


Shdhrig         

Sibi      

1 

2 

37 

3 

Total     ... 

3 

40 

In   Shdhrig   i    water   mill    is  revenue-free,   33   pay    a  fixed 
asessment  for  the  term  of  the   Settlement,    and  the    remain- 


GRAZING  TAX,  207 

der  are  assessed  annually,  the  basis  of  assessment  being  Land 
one-sixth  of  the  receipts.  The  average  annual  assessment  Revenue, 
on  each  mill  amounted  in  1903-4  to  Rs.  11-15-3.  In  Sibi, 
2  water  mills  are  revenue-free  :  1  belongs  to  the  Sibi  Muni- 
cipality and  pays  rent  at  the  rate  of  Rs.  100  per  annum, 
while  the  remaining  2  are  assessed  annually.  The  revenue 
from  these  2  mills  during  1903-4  amounted  to  Rs.  6. 

Grazing  tax  was  known  in  Afghdnistdn  as  sar  rama,  and  Grazing  tax 
the  rates  levied  by  the  Afghans  in  Pishin  and  Shorariid 
were  Re.  i  for  a  camel ;  8  annas  for  a  cow  ;  6  annas  for  a 
donkey  ;  and  i  anna  for  a  sheep  or  goat.  This  system  of 
taxation  does  not  appear  to  have  been  extended  to  more 
remote  districts,  and  the  revenue  accounts  of  Sibi  prior  to 
the  year  1846,  when  the  District  was  farmed  out  on  contract 
to  the  Baruzai  chief,  do  not  contain  any  entry  on  account  of 
grazing  tax.  In  1880,  a  sum  of  Rs.  486  was  recovered  on 
this  account  from  the  Kach  Kowds  valley,  but  with  this 
exception  no  tirni  was  levied  in  either  the  Sibi  or  Shdhrig 
tahsils  until  June  1890,  when  the  tax  was  imposed  through- 
out the  Agency.     The  revised  schedule  was — 

As.  As. 

Male  camel       8         Female  camel         i 

Buffaloes  8         Cattle  6 

Donkeys  4         Sheep  and  goat      i 

Animals  which  are  exempt  include  horses,  bona   fide  plough 
bullocks  and  milch-cows  kept  for  private  use  by  villagers. 

The  above  rates  prevail  throughout  the  District  (1905), 
except  in  Kohlu  where  the  Marris  are  taxed  at  half  rates. 
The  question  of  levying  the  tax  in  the  Nasirdbad  tahsi'l  is 
under  consideration.  Collections  are  carried  out  once  a 
year  by  the  tahsil  establishments  with  the  aid  of  the  head- 
men, either  by  actual  enumeration  of  the  cattle  or  by  tem- 
porary contracts  [ijard).  Headmen  who  assist  are  paid  5 
per  cent,  on  the  collections  as  their  remuneration.  The 
income  derived  from  the  grazing  tax  collected  throughout 
the  District  during  1904-5  was  as  follows  : — 

Rs. 
From  settled  inhabitants 
From  nomads     ... 


Total     ...       12,443 


2o8  CHAP.  III.—ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land  Grazing  tax  is  credited  into  the  District  accounts  under 
Revenue.  Land  Revenue,  and  the  average  collections  from  Sibi,  Shdh- 
rig  and  Kohlu  tahsils  for  the  quinquennial  period  ending 
with  the  31st  of  March,  1902,  show  that  the  sum  obtained 
from  it  amounted  to  about  9  per  cent,  of  the  total  land 
revenue  receipts  of  these  tahsils. 

Revenue-  The  revenue-free  grants  in  the    Shdhrig  tahsil   are   classed 

free  grants  ,  ,         , 

in  Sh4hrig.      under  two  heads  :  — 

(i)  Grants  in  favour  of  the  Saiads  on  religious  grounds. 

(2)  Grants  in  recognition   of  good   service   rendered   to 

the  British  Government. 

The  total  annual  value  of  these  nmdfisy  as  confirmed  by  ilie 

local  Government  in  1901,  was  Rs.  284-14-7,  all  grants  being 

sanctioned  for  the  lives  of  the  incumbents,  and  being  subject 

to  the  usual  conditions  of  loyalty  and  good  service.     A  new 

vmdji,  valued  at  Rs.  10-8-9  per  annum,  was  sanctioned  in  1902, 

and  grants  valued  at  Rs.  19-4-3  per  annum    have  since  been 

resumed  in  consequence  of  the  deaths  of  certain  incumbents. 

The  value  of  the   existing  viuafis^   therefore,   at  the  present 

time  (1905),  is  Rs.  276  per  annum. 

Saiad  mudfi,        The  principal  religious  mudfi  in  the    tahsil   is  that  enjoyed 

Ka^hf  Shah-    by  Saiad  Afzal  Shdh,  the  chief  of  the  Saiads   of  Mi^n   Kach 

rig  tahsil.         j„  ^j^g  Bibihdn  circle.     It  consists  of  an  exemption  of  revenue 

on    61    acres    and    26    poles,    and    was    in    the    first  instance 

granted  in  the  early  eighties   jointly   to    all  the    Saiads.     In 

1901,  after  disputes  lasting  over  several  years,  the  co-sharers 

renounced  their  claims  in  favour  of  Saiad  Afzul  Shdh. 

Revenue-  The  important  mudfis  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  which  have  already 

free  grants      \^q^q^  referred  to  in  the  section  on  Land  Tenures   are  those 
in  Sibi. 

of  Kurk  and  Sdngdn  belonging  to   the  Bdruzais,    and    Badra 

held  bv  the  Langhani  section  of  the  Marri  tribe.     The  annual 

value  of  each  of  these  grants  is  as  under  : — 

Rs. 

( 1 )  Kurk  mudfi  ...  ...  ...  ...      1 0,000 

(2)  Sringan  , 4,462 

(3)  Bddra     ,,     ...  ...  ...  ...       3,000 

No.    ;    is  in  perpetuity  and  the  case  of  No.    2   is  still  (1905) 
under  consideration.     The  Badra  w7/<v/7  was  granted   for  his 


REVENUE-FREE  GRANTS.  209 

life-time     to    Khdn    Sdhib'"     Haji    Dur    Muhammad    Khjin,  Land 

Langhani  Marri,  for  the  good  services  rendered    by   him  and        avenue. 

his  tribesmen  at  the  time  of  the    Kuchdli   raid.     In   addition 

to   the  above  there  are  four  small  7nud/is,  aggregating   103 

acres  with  an   approximate   annual  value   of  Rs.  70.     These 

grants  are  for  the  lifetime  of  the  present  incumbents. 

In  the  Kohlu  tahsil   the    private    lands    belonging    to    the    Revemie- 

Marri    Nawjib    at    Pharai    and    Gulu  Gozu  are  exempt   from   free  grants 

^  .      .  .  .in  Kohlu. 

revenue.     The   grant   is   m    perpetuity,    and    was  sanctioned 

under  the  terms  of  the  Marunj  Settlement  of  1892  in  consi- 
deration of  certain  rights  in  the  Kohlu  valley  ceded  to  the 
British  Government.  The  area  is  2,944  acres  and  the  esti- 
mated value  about  Rs.  727  per  annum.  In  1893  assign- 
ments were  also  granted  to  seven  Marri  headmen  for  their 
lifetime  on  the  condition  of  loyalty  and  good  service.  In 
connection  with  these  assignments,  the  following  orders 
were  passed  in  1904  by  the  Agent  to  the  Governor- 
General  (Colonel  C.  E.  Yate)  : — "  The  imidfis  granted  under 
the  terms  of  the  Marunj  Settlement  are  to  be  left 
intact,  and  the  orders  now  conveyed  relate  only  to  the  mudfis 
granted  in  1893.  These  ;;«/«/?■.$  were  granted  for  the  lifetime 
of  the  recipients,  and  no  promise  was  made  for  their  continu- 
ance to  their  heirs.  Of  the  seven  original  grantees,  two  are 
dead,  namely,  Fateh  Khan  and  Mi'r  Hazdr  Khdn.  The 
mudfi  enjoyed  by  the  latter  lapses  to  Government.  In  the 
case  of  the  former,  however,  the  continuance  of  the  nuidfi  to 
his  two  sons,  Khuda  Bakhsh  and  Khudaddd,  was  sanctioned 
in  July,  1899,  as  a  temporary  arrangement  pending  the  settle- 
ment of  Kohlu.  Of  the  two  sons,  Khuda  Bakhsh  has  died, 
and  his  share,  therefore,  lapses  to  Government.  The  share 
of  Khudddad  and  the  mudfis  enjoyed  by  the  remaining  five 
headmen,  viz  :  (i)  Mirzihdn  Khdn,  (2)  Kote  Khdn,  (3)  Shdr 
Dil,  (4)  Ddd  Ali,  (5)  Mir  Hazdr  Khdn  Ghazni  are  to  be 
resumed  on  the  death  of  each  man."  The  total  area  of 
these  revenue-free  holdings  is  1,032!  acres  and  the  annual 
value  Rs.  1,083.  ^"  addition  to  the  above,  small  mudfis  of 
the  annual  value  of  Rs.  20   and   Rs.    31    are    enjoyed    by    the 

*   Dur    Muhammad  Khan  died  in  January  1906    and  the    question 
of  the  resumption  of  the  mini  ft   is  under  consideration.      This  vnu'ifi  is 
liable  to  a  nominal  revenue  demand  of  twO  annas  per  acre. 
'4 


2IO  CHAP.  in—ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Land         keepers  of  the  shrine   of  the    Tawakli    Mast    Fakir,    and   by 
Rkvexue.       Samand  Khan,  Zarkun,  respectively. 

Grain  The  following  chiefs  and  headmen  receive  annual  grants  of 

allowances. 

grain  : — 

(0  Nawab     Khalr     Bakhsh     Khin/i    .     ^.;,^^^,^^,    „, 
the    iMarri    chief,   lo   khanudrs,  |_  ^^^      ^^ 

Adam    Khan,      Ghazni     Marri,         .  ^^^ 
5  Jcharwdrs. 

iizo  mds.  of  wheat 
(2)  Dada  Khan,  Zarkun  of  Kohlu...-       and    50    mds.of 

I  bhiisa. 
The  allowances  of  the  Marris,  which  were  granted  in  April, 
1892,  in  lieu  of  certain  rights  acquired  by  the  Marri  chief  and 
Mir  Adam  Khan  in  the  village  of  Talli,  are  paid  from  the 
Talli  or  Sibi  revenues,  and  have  been  sanctioned  until  fur- 
ther orders.  The  grant  to  Ddda  Khan,  the  Zarkiin  head- 
man of  Kohlu,  was  also  made  in  1892  in  consideration  of 
good  service  rendered  by  him  to  Government. 

The  following  cash  allowances,  sanctioned  in  June  1879, 
are  granted  in  perpetuity  in  the  Sibi  tahsil  in  lieu  of  annual 
indms  or  gifts  given  by  the  Afghan  Government  prior  to 
the  cession  of  the  district  to  the  British  : — 

The  Bdruzai  chief  of  Kurk    ...  ...  ...  Rs.    100 

Shskar  Khan,  son  of  Khalifa  Yakub  of  Khajak   ,,       77 
Kdzi  Muhammad  Usmdn  of  Kurk   ...  ...      ,,       20 


Rs.    197 


Total  value  On  the  31st  of  March,  1905,  the  total  annual    value    of  the 

°miiTfis  grants  and  assignments  was  Rs.  17,077,  of  which    Rs.  10,197 

were  in  perpetuity,  and  Rs.  6,880  for  the  lives  of  the  holders 
or  for  fixed  terms.  The  total  land  revenue,  excluding  the 
arrears  of  previous  years  but  including  the  haq-i-malikdna 
payable  to  the  headmen  during  1904-5,  amounted  to 
Rs.  2,21,774,  so  that  the  value  of  the  revenue-free  holdings 
represents  rather  more  than  7  per  cent,  of  the  land  revenue. 

Financial  The    following    table    shows   the   financial   results    of    the 

changes  which  have  taken  place  so  far  as  the  land  revenue — 


:  esui 


RECORD  OF  RIGHTS. 


211 


which   includes   grazingr  tax,   cess   and   water   mills — is  con 
cerned  since  the  British  occupation  : — 


Financial 
Results. 


Revenue  in  1904-5. 

Revenue  under  native 

s  = 

S  (u  3  ti/l 

rule  in  year   imme- 
diately preceding 
British  occupation. 

Revenue 

in  first  year 

.£00  = 

of  adm 

inistration. 

divi 
prod 
ellan 

gra 

H  "o  rt 

rom 
of 
misc 
and 

tax. 

^ 

fa 

Year. 

Amount. 

Year 

Amount.  ' 

Rs. 

Rs.    i 

Rs. 

Rs. 

Sh/ihrig     ... 

... 

1880-T 

il,4f6 

20,253 

7,079 

Sibi 

.877 

10,000 

1878-9 

9.683  1 

3,208 

39,600 

Kohlu 

... 

1892-3 

6,269 

2.5 

111,907 

Nasi'r/ib/id... 

1902-3 

1.27,403 

1903-4 

*42,435 

1,22,822 

629 

The  record  of  rights  prepared  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  j^g^ord  of 
comprises  the  fahrist-i-vidlia,  or  list  of  assessment  ;  shajra^  rights  and 
or  survey  map  ;  khasra,  or  field  index  to  the  map  •,fa/irist-  nanTe'"  ^' 
i-mahdhmr,  or  list  showing"  all  documents  relatmg  to  an 
estate  ;  shajra-i-nasab,  or  genealogical  table  of  the  proprie- 
tary body  \jard-i-taqstm-i-dby  or  list  showing  rights  in  water  ; 
katauni,  or  list  of  holdings  which  shows  all  owners  and 
co-sharers,  and  also  tenants  and  mortgagees  with  posses- 
sions ;  fard-i-dsidb,  or  list  of  mills  ;  iqrdr-ndma-i-mdlia ,  or 
Engagement  for  revenue  ;  fard-i-indfiydt,  or  list  of  revenue- 
free  holdings  ;  and  the  khewalj  or  record  of  the  shares  and 
revenue  responsibility  of  each  owner  or  member  of  the  pro- 
prietary body.  With  the  exception  oi  t\\Q  fard-i-mdli'a  3.nd 
igrdr-ndina-i-mdl/a,  the  record  of  rights  of  the  Sibi  tahsi^ 
contains  all  other  documents  prepared  in  bhahrig,  and  in 
addition  the  genealogical  table  of  the  jdginidrs  and  the 
dasttir-ul-amal  or  village  customs  relating  to  the  hnq-i-topa 
(rights  of  proprietor^-),  names  of  awdras  (plots  of  land  in 
villages  cultivated  by  turns)  shares  of  produce  assigned 
to  miillds  and  village  menials,  and  rules  regarding  irrigation 
and  tenancy  rights. 

The  village  revenue  staff  is  required  to  keep  this  record  up 
to  date,  and  every  pniivdri  has  to  maintain  for  each  of  the 
mahdls  in  his  charge  a  harvest  inspection  register,  a  return 
of  crops,    a    register   of  mutations,    a    yearly  total  of  trans- 

*  This  figure  represents  revenue  for  /t/rrtr^y  harvest  only. 

+  Excluding  Rs.  32,444,  arrears  of  r903-4,  recovered  during  1904-5- 


212  CHAP.  III.— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Financial     fers,  a  statement  of  the  revenue  demand  and  of  the  persons 

Results.       from  whom  it  is  due,    and   a  yearly  register  of  area  showing 

how   every    acre    in    each   estate    has   been  dealt  with,  i.e., 

whether  it  has  been  cultivated,    left  fallow  or  newly  broken 

up. 

MiscELLANE-       The  Salt  used  in  the  Sibi   district  consists  of   Punjab  rock- 
ets Reve-     salt  3„d   the  S^gi,  Zhob  and    Kachhi    earth    salt.     The  first 

Salt.  is  knowMi  as  Lahori  salt,    pays  duty    at   the  mines,    and    is 

imported  chiefly  for  use  by  the  Indian  population  residing  in 
the  Sibi  town  and  in  the  bazars  of  the  district.  The  in- 
dio'enous  population  commonly  use  earth  salt.  The  salt 
manufactured  at  Segi  in  the  Pishin  tahsil  pays  no  duty  on 
exports  to  places  other  than  the  Quetta  town  and  the  Pishin 
and  Kila  Abdulla  bazars,  while  that  produced  in  Zhob  is  not 
taxed.  The  import  of  Kachhi  salt  into  Sibi  was  permitted 
in  1882  c  1  the  payment  of  a  duty  of  8  annas  a  maund,  in 
7^0?  the  duty  was  raised  to  Re.  i,  and  in  June,  1895,  to 
R:.  Il=-8j  ard  formal  orders  were  issued  by  Government  in 
January,  1902,  legalising  the  imposition  of  this  duty  in 
British  Baluchistdn  and  the  Agency  Territories.  The 
amount  realised  from  this  taxation  in  1904-5  was  about 
Rs.  1,210.  During  the  years  1893-4  to  1902-3  the  total 
quantity  of  salt  imported  into  Sibi  was  14,610  maunds,  on 
which  Rs.  18,762  were  levied  as  duty.  Kachhi  salt  is 
manufactured  at  Gdjdn  in  Kaldt  territory,  the  salt  pans  being 
owned  jointly  by  Sard^r  Pasand  Khdn,  Zarrakzai  and 
Wad6ra  Sardar  Khdn,  Rind.  Salt  was  also  manufactured 
at  Mamal  in  the  Nasirabdd  tahsil,  where  the  works  were 
first  opened  in  or  about  1878,  when  the  manufacture  of  earth 
salt  was  prohibited  in  Sind  and  the  local  salt  workers, 
known  as  nnndris,  crossed  over  into  Nasirabjid,  then  a 
nicihai  of  the  Kalat  State.  The  right  to  manufacture  and 
sell  this  salt  was  leased  annually  to  contractors  by  the  Khdn 
of  Kalat,  and  the  amount  of  revenue  thus  realised  is  said  to 
have  varied  from  Rs.  5,000  to  Rs.  7,000  per  annum.  The 
annual  out-put  was  estimated  at  about  7,000  maunds,  of 
which  about  2,000  maunds  were -exported  to  Quetta  and 
Sibi,  1,000  used  locally,  and  the  remainder  sold  to  the  inhab- 
itants of  the  neighbouring  niabats  and  to  the  Marri  and 
Bugti  tribesmen.  There  appears  to  have  been  no  manufac- 
ture in  1903-.1,    but  in    the  May    of  the    following    year    the 


OPIUM,  213 

works  Wire  re-opeiied.     These  were  prohibited  in  the  follow-   :\Iiscellank 
ingf  Augfust  under   the   orders  of  the   Government   of  India,      °^'^  Revk- 

,      .     .  .  I  NIK. 

and  it  has  now  been  decided  that  the  salt  administration  01 
the  Nasirabad  tahsil  should  be  amalgamated  with  that  of 
Sind.  The  question  of  compensating  ihe  Baluchistan  Agency 
for  loss  of  revenues  under  the  head  'salt'  is  under  con- 
sideration. 

The  method  of  manufacture  of  potash  (  khdr  )  has  already  Khdr. 
been  described  in  the  section  on  Minerals.  It  is  chiefly 
made  in  the  Sibi,  Kohlu  and  Nasirrlbdd  districts.  The 
potash  produced  in  Sibi  has  been  taxed  since  1884,  but  no 
tax  is  levied  in  other  tahsils,  where  the  quantity  of  tlie 
manufacture  is  trifling.  The  monopoly  at  Sibi  is  sold  annu- 
ally by  public  auction,  and  the  contractor  has  the  sole  right 
to  all  the  khdr  bearing  plants  which  are  known  as  Idna  and 
Idtu.  The  manufacture  is  largely  dependent  on  the  rainfall 
and  consequently  the  amount  of  the  out-turn  varies  from  year 
to  year.  During  the  five  years  1900-1  to  1904  5,  the  receipts 
from  the  sale  of  the  monopoly  averaged  about  Rs.  1,120  per 
annum. 

The  import,  possession  and  transfer  of  opium  and  poppy  Opium, 
heads  is  governed  by  rules  issued  by  the  Local  Government 
in  1898  under  the  Opium  Act.  The  cultivation  of  poppy  is 
prohibited,  and  the  supply  required  for  local  consumption 
is  imported  from  the  Punjab,  under  pass,  by  licensed  vendors 
who  make  their  own  arrangements  for  procuring  it.  Such 
imports  pay  no  duty. 

The  exclusive  right  of  retailing  opium,  preparations  of 
opium  other  than  smoking  preparations,  and  poppy  heads 
for  ordinary  purposes,  is  disposed  of  annually  by  auction  by 
the  Defuty  Commissioner  subject  to  the  sanction  of  the 
Revenue  Commissioner,  the  number  of  shops  at  which  sale 
is  permitted  having  been  previously  fixed.  In  1904-5 
the  number  of  such  shops  was  46.  Medical  practitioners 
and  druggists  can  obtain  licenses  to  sell  opium,  etc.,  in  forms 
other  than  smoking  preparations  and  poppy  heads,  for 
medicinal  purposes  only,  on  payment  of  a  fee  of  Rs.  10  per 
annum.  Smoking  preparations  may  not  be  bought  or  sold, 
and  must  be  made  up  by  the  smoker  from  opium  in  his 
lawful  possession,  and  then  only  to  the  extent  of  i  tola  at  a 
time.     The  ordinary  limits  of   private    possession   are  3  tolas 


214  CHAP.   HI.— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

MiscELLANK-   of  opium  and  its  preparations  (other    than  smoking    prepara- 
olsKe\e-    tions)    and  i  seer  of  poppy  head-.     In   1904-5    the    consump- 
tion of  opium  amounted  to  2  maunds  25  seers  and   of   poppy 
heads  to  11  seers.     The  revenue  realised  was  Rs.  2,302. 
Intoxicating       Besides  opium,  the  intoxicating  or  hemp  drugs,  which  are 
drugs.  controlled    by    regulations,    are    gdnja^    charas,  and   bhang. 

Prior  to  the  time  of  the  Hemp  Drugs  Commission,  the  only 
restriction  imposed  was  to  farm  out,  by  annual  auction,  the 
monopoly  of  the  vend  of  these  drugs  at  shops  sanctioned  by 
the  Deputy  Commissioner.  The  local  cultivation  of  the  hemp 
plant  is  prohibited.  The  contracts  for  retail  and  wholesale 
vend  were  separated  in  1902,  and  at  the  present  time  (1905) 
the  number  of  licensed  shops  is  46.  The  ordinary  source  of 
supply  of  gdiija  and  bhang  is  Sind,  and  that  of  cha?as  the 
Punjab,  but  bhang  and  charas  are  also  imported  to  a  small 
extent  from  Kaldt  and  Afghdnristdn.  In  February  1902, 
revised  rules  were  issued  under  which  the  farmers  are  per- 
mitted to  import  the  drugs  from  other  British  Provinces, 
and  these,  when  so  imported,  are  stored  in  a  bonded  ware- 
house established  at  Sibi,  where  small  fees  are  levied  and 
issues  to  licensed  v^endors  are  taxed.  The  ordinary  rates* 
of  duty  on  drugs  imported  from  British  territory  are  Rs.  4 
per  seer  on  gdnja,  Rs.  80  per  maund  on  charas  and  Rs.  4 
per  maund  on  bhang ;  but  imports  from  foreign  territory  are 
taxed  at  double  rates.  The  contracts  for  the  right  to  sell 
the  drugs,  both  retail  and  wholesale,  are  sold  annually  by 
auction  by  the  Deputy  Commissioner  subject  to  the  sanction 
of  the  Revenue  Commissioner,  who  also  fixes  the  number  of 
shops.  The  ordinary  limit  of  private  possession  is  i  seer 
in  the  case  of  bhang  and  5  tolas  in  the  case  of  gdnja  and 
charas.  The  consumption  in  1904-5  was  :  gdnja  2  chittacks, 
charas  15  maunds  27  seers,  and  bhang  106  maunds  32  seers, 
and  the  revenue  amounted  to  Rs.  3,850.  The  fees  from  the 
bonded  warehouse  amounted  to  Rs.  4,189. 
Country  The  manufacture  and  vend  of  country  spirits  are  combined 

spirits  nnd  under  a  monopoly  system.  The  right  to  manufacture  and 
sell  country  liquors,  including  rum,  is  farmed  annually  by 
auction,  the  number  of  shops  at  which  liquor  and  rum  are 
to  be  sold  by  the  faimer  or  his  agent  being  fixed  previously. 

•  iVo/<?.— The    question    of  the    revision   of  these    rates  is  under 
consideration  (1906). 


rum. 


FOREIGN  LIQUORS.  215 

The    number  of  sucli    shops    in    1904-5    was  46.      More  than    jMisckixank 

I    seer  of  country   liquor  cannot  he   sold  to  an\'  one    person      ^^^  Reve- 
.  .      .  .  .   .  ,  N'^K. 

at    a    time    except   with   the  permission,    in   writing,    of   an 

Excise     officer    autliorised    on     this    behalf   by    the   Deputy 

Commissioner,     Tie   revenue  in  1904-5  was  Rs,    13,579  for 

couniry  liquor  and  Rs.  926  for  rum. 

Two  distilleries  have  been  provided  by  Government  in   the   Disiiliation 

District,  one  at  Sibi  and  the   other  at   Nasirdbdd,   at    which   of  country 

'  .  liquors. 

country  liquor  is  distilled  by  the  contractors  who  obtain  the 
farm.  The  still  and  the  buildings  are  kept  in  repair  by 
Government,  but  everything  else  is  found  by  the  contractors. 
The  materials  ordinarily  used  are  molasses  [gtir)  and  kikar 
or  dabtil  hark.  When  preparing  for  fermentation  i  maund 
oi gur  is  mixed  with  8  seers  of  bark  and  2  maunds  of  water, 
the  wash  being  ready  for  use  in  a  fortnight  or  20  days  in 
Sibi  and  in  12  days  in  Nasirdhdd.  Liquor  of  low  strength, 
obta:ined  from  the  first  distillation  of  6  hours,  is  called  kachOj 
or  chirukh.  This  chirakh,  after  a  second  distillation  lasting 
for  about  12  hours,  is  known  a.s  kora  dodtsha.  1  he  amount 
of  liquor  thus  obtained  is  about  20  seers.  Flavoured  liquors 
are  prepared  by  the  addition  of  spices  such  as  hundlpair, 
gill  khaira  (  marsh  mallow  ),  Jnijal  (nutmeg),  indatjati 
(  Neriiim  a7iiidycentricii7n\  sd/ab  mz'sri  {salep),  I'/cic hi  (carda.- 
mom),  iuranj  (citron),  gnldb  (rose  leaves),  ^rt?<«/"  (aniseed), 
su7id  (dry  ginger),  and  gdsar  (carrot  seeds).  In  Sibi  the 
price  varies  from  Re.  i  to  Rs.  1-4  and  in  Nasi'rabdd  from 
10  to  12  annas  per  quart  bottle  according  to  the  quality  of 
the  liquor.  The  question  of  the  continuance  of  the  Nasira- 
bdd  distillery  with  reference  to  the  smuggling  of  liquor 
across  the  Sind  border  is  under  consideration  (1906). 

Foreign  liquors,  which  term  includes  liquor  other  than  poreien 
rum  manufactured  in  other  parts  of  India  and  imported  into  liquors, 
the  District,  are  sold  under  wholesale  and  retail  licenses, 
which  are  granted  by  the  Deputy  Commissioner  on  payment 
of  fixed  fees.  These  amount  to  Rs.  32  per  annum  for 
wholesale  licenses,  and  vary  from  Rs.  100  to  Rs.  300  per 
annum  for  ordinary  rt  tail  shops.  There  are  also  hotel, 
refreshment  room  and  dak  bungalow  licenses  ;  and  in  the 
case  of  ordinary  shops,  opened  at  places  where  the  sale  of 
liquor  is  small  and  likely  to  continue  for  a  short  time  only,  a 
license  may  be  given  at  a  reduced  fee  at   the  discretion  of  the 


2i6  CHAP,  III. —ADMINISTRATIVE. 

MiscELLANE-   ^^P"*^)'  Commissioner,     The   most   important  conditions   of 

oL's  Reve-     retail  licenses  are  that  no  quantity   of  liquor  greater  than  2 

Imperial  gallons  or  12  quart   bottles,    or  less  than   i    bottle, 

shall  be  sold  to  any    one    person   at   one   time,    and   that   no 

spirituous    liquor,    except    spirits    of    wine    and     methylated 

spirits,  shall  be  sold  for  less  than    Rs.    i-S    per    bottle.     The 

latter  provision  is  mainly  intended   to  safeguard  the  revenue 

derived  from  country   spirits.      During   1904-5   eleven     retail 

licenses  were  issued  and  the  fees  amounted  to  Rs    443. 

Methylated  ^'^^  import,  possession  and    sale   of   methylaied    spirits    is 

spirits.  controlled  by  rules  issued  by  the   Revenue  Commissioner  in 

December   1900,   and  no   fees   are   charged   for   licenses.     In 

1904-5,  tvvo  licenses  were  issued. 

^  As  a  general  rule  in    the    upper  parts  of   the    District,    the 

Consumers,  °  ^  .        .  . 

consumption   consumption    of  opium,    intoxicating    drugs    and    liquors    is 

and  aggre-      chiefly   confined    to    the    Indian    population    residing  in    the 

gate  reve-  •'  . 

niie.  bazars,  and  the  local  people  have  neither  the  means   nor  the 

inclination  to  consume  excisable  articles.      In  the  Nasirabdd 

tahsil,  however,  the  use  of  Mrt«^  and  liquors   appears   to   be 

comparatively  large  both  among  the    Hindus  and    the    local 

Muhammadans. 

Table  XX,  Volume  B,  contains  details  of  the  consumption 
of  and  revenue  from  the  principal  articles  in  the  old  Thal- 
Chotiali  District.  In  1904-5  the  consumption  per  thousand 
of  the  entire  population  was  i  seer  of  opium,  i  maund  17 
seers  of  bhangs  and  8^  seers  of  charas.  The  revenue  shows 
a  considerable  decrease  during  the  last  fifteen  years,  the 
chief  reason  being  the  completion  of  large  works  on  which 
many  workmen  trom  India  were  engaged.  In  1902-3,  the 
total  revenue  had  fallen  to  Rs.  14,132-11-2  from  Rs.  28,149 
realized  in  1889-90.  Since  the  addition  of  Nasirabad  tahsil, 
the  revenue  has  again  risen  and  the  receipts  of  the  District  in 
1904-5  were  Rs.  25,288. 

The  Indian  Stamp  and  Court  Fees  Acts  and  the  rules 
made  under  them  are  in  force.  Licenses  for  the  sale  of 
judicial  and  non-judicial  stamps  are  issued  by  the  Deputy 
Commissioner  to  petition-writers .  and  others  who  obtain 
their  supply  from  the  sub-treasuries  at  Shdhrig,  Sibi,  Nasir- 
abad and  BiirkhAn,  and  are  paid  commission  at  rates  varying 
from  \2\  annas  to  6\  rupees  per  cent,  on  different  kinds  of 
stamps.     In  March  1905  there  were    eleven  licensed  vendors 


Stamps. 


LOCAL  FUNDS.  217 

in  the  District.  In  1904-5  the  receipts,  excluding  fines,  ^j,scELLAMi 
amounted  to  Rs.  11,185,  of  which  Judicial  stamps  realized  ous  Rkvk- 
Rs.  9,311  and  non-Judicial  stamps  Rs.  1,874. 

The  Income  Tax  Act  (II  of  1886)  has  not  yet  been    applied    Income  tax. 
to    Baluchistan,   but    the    tax    is    levied   on    the    salaries    of 
Government  servants  by  deductions  from  their  pay  bills,  and 
on  the    salaries    of  officers  paid  from    municipal    and    local 
funds.     The  receipts  in  1904-5  amounted  to  Rs.  1,726. 

There  are  three  local  funds  in  the  District,  namely,  tiie  Sibi  local 
Municipal  Fund,  the  Shahrig  Bazar  Fund  and  the  Ziarat  Funds. 
Improvement  Fund,  The  income  and  expenditure  of  the  last 
named  are  treated  as  a  sub-head  of  the  Shdhrig  Bazar  Fund. 
The  average  receipts  and  expenditure  of  these  funds  for  5 
years  ending  with  the  3 ist  of  March  1902,  and  the  actuals 
for  each  of  the  3  years  1902-3  to  1904-5  are  shewn  in  table 
XXI,  Volume  B. 

The  Sibi  Municipal  Fund  was  formed  in  the  early  eighties  sibi  Munici- 
when  the  Sibi  town  was  the  terminus  of  the  railway,  and  is  l^^^^  Fund. 
governed  by  the  rules  issued  by  the  Gov^ernment  of  India  in 
August*"  1883.  The  Deputy  Commissioner  is  the  Adminis- 
trator and  Controlling  Officer,  and  the  Revenue  Commissioner 
has  the  powers  of  a  Local  Government.  The  Extra  Assist- 
ant Commissioner  is  authorised  to  incur  expenditure  within 
the  sanctioned  budget  grants  up  to  a  limit  of  Rs.  25. 

The  principal  sources  of  revenue  are  («)  Octroi  f,  which  is 
levied  in  Sibi,  Kurk,  Khajak  and  Gulu  Shahr  according  to  a 
schedule  of  rates  sanctioned  by  the  Local  Government  ;  (6) 
public  gardens  and  lands  and  rents  of  serins,  buildings  and 
site'^ ;  [c)  conservancy  cess  imposed  at  rates  varying  from 
4  annas  per  house  to  8  annas  per  shop  in  the  Sibi  town  ; 
{d)  fees  from  educational  institutions. 

The  fund  is  expended  on  objects  of  public  utility  in  the 
places  from  which  the  revenue  is  raised.  The  chief  items  of 
expenditure  are  on  establishments  for  tax  collecting,  conserv- 
ancy and  watch  and  ward  ;  the  maintenance  of  gardens, 
roads,    and    arboriculture  ;     contributions    towards    medical 

*  Finance  and  Commerce  Department  Resolution  No.  2831, 
dated  31st  August  1883. 

t  iy<)te. — The  schedule  of  rates  and  the  rules  which  reg-ulate  the 
tax  are  embodied  in  a  collection  of  printed  papers  entitled  "  The 
System    of  levying  and  collecting  Octroi  in  Baluchistan,  1900." 


2i8  CHAP.   [II~ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Local        institutions;    the   maintenance  of  schools  and   libraries   and 

^^■^'^^-        on  public  works. 

In  1884-5,  tlie  first  year  of  the  formation  of  the  fund,  the 
revenue  amounted  to  Rs.  23,291  and  the  expenditure  to 
Rs.  24,586.  In  the  quinquennial  period  of  1S97-8  to  1901-2 
the  average  annual  income  was  Rs.  24,743,  and  the  average 
expenditure  Rs.  23.326.  In  1904-5  the  net  receipts  amount- 
ed to  Rs.  24,166  and  the  expenditure  to  Rs.  21,866.  In 
that  year  the  octroi  contributed  6o  per  cent,  of  the  total 
revenue,  and  the  expenditure  on  education  was  about  18  per 
cent.  The  closing  balance  of  the  fund  on  the  31st  of  March 
1905  amounted  to  Rs.  19,030. 

Shahrig  The  Shdhrig  Bazar  Fund  was  declared  to  be  an  Excluded 

nazar  I' unci.     _  1  t^        ,  •  _         - 

Local  tund  in  1892.      The  fund  is  governed  by   rules  issued 

by  the  Government  of  India  in  February  1900  as  modified  in 
April  1902.  The  Assistant  Political  Agent  is  the  Administra- 
tor, the  Deputy  Commissioner  of  the  District  the  Controlling 
Officer,  and  the  Revenue  Commissioner  has  the  powers  of  a 
Local  Government.  The  principal  sources  of  revenue  are 
{a)  proceeds  of  lands  assigned  to  the  fund  at  Shahrig  and 
Harnai  ;  [V)  conservancy  cess  levied  in  the  bazars  at  Spin- 
tangi,  Harnjii,  Shahrig  and  Khost  ;  [c]  octroi,  which  is 
levied  in  the  Harnai,  Shdhrig  and  Khost  bazars  ;  [d)  rents  of 
houses  and  shops. 

The  expenditure  is  chiefly  incurred  on  establishments  for 
conservancy  and  watch  and  ward,  education,  public  gardens 
and  public  works. 

In  i*"9i'2,  the  first  year  of  its   existence   as    an  Excluded 

Local  Fund,    the   receipts   amounted   to   Rs.    13,314,  and  the 

expenditure  to  Rs.  6,995,     In  the  quinquennial   period   from 

1897-8   to    1901-2    the    average  annual  income  was  Rs.  6,803 

and  the  average  expenditure  Rs.  6,915,  while  during   1904-5 

the  receipts   amounted    to  Rs.    6,839  ^^^  ^^^  expenditure  to 

Rs.  6,444.     The -fund  has  lost  much  of  its   importance   since 

the   days   of   the    construction    of   the   railway,   but   with  the 

closing  of  large  works  and  the   gradual  development  of  the 

District,   both   the  income  and  expenditure  have  exhibited  a 

tendency  to  become  fairly  stationary.     The  closing  balance 

in  favour  of  the  fund  on  the  31st  of  March  1905  was  Rs.  7,516. 

Ziarat  Im-  'pi^g   Zidrat  Improvement  Fund  was  first  formed  in  '890, 

provement  , 

Fund.'  when  it  was  assisted  by  annual  contributions  from  the  several 


ZIA  KA  T  IMPRO  VEMENT  FUND.  2 1 9 

Excluded  Local  Funds  of  the  Agency  at  the  rate  of  2  per  cent.         Local 
of  their  income.  Finds. 

Between    1890- 1  an  J    1895-6,  the  receipts  and  expenditure 
of  the  Fund  aver.ng-ed   Rs.    3,870  and  Rs.  3,846  respectively. 
In  1896,  the  contributions   were  discontinued,   and   the  Fund 
was  forrred  into   a  branch   of  the  Shdhrig  bazar  fund.     In 
1899,  ^he  following  taxes  were  imposed  with  the  sanction  of 
the  Government  of  India  : — 

Tax  on  servants  ...      Re.  i    per   mensem  per  ser- 

vant. 
Conservancy  tax...  ...      Rs.  4  per  house  per  mensem. 

Rs.  2  per  tent  ,, 

Re.  I  per  shouldari  ,, 
Water  tax  ...  ...      Rs.  5  per  house  or  camp  per 

mensem. 
Bazar  Chaukiddri  ...     By  assessment, 

'rfax  on  butchers...  ...     Rs.  7/8  per  shop  per  mensem. 

In  .April  1902  the  tax  on  servants  was  abolished,  the  chaii- 
kiddri  and  water  taxes  and  slaughter  fees  were  retained,  and 
the  following  modifications  were  made  as  regards  other 
taxes  : — 

(i)  On  house  and  camp  combined.  Rs.  5/8   per  mensem. 

(2)  On  camp  alone  ...  ...      ,,   3/8  ,, 

(3)  On  house  alone  ...         ...     ,,  4  ,, 

A  tax  of  Re.  i  was  also  imposed  on  all  tiimtums  or  other 
wheeled  carriages  bringing  passengers  or  goods  into  Zidrat. 
In  May  1902,  the  payment  of  Rs.  100  per  annum  by  each  of 
the  offices  of  the  Agent  to  the  Governor-General,  the  Revenue 
Commissioner  and  the  Deputy  Commissioner,  Sibi,  was 
sanctioned  as  a  contribution  towards  the  sanitation  of  the 
station.  Between  1896-7  and  1902-3,  the  annual  average 
revenue  and  expenditure  of  the  Fund  amounted  to  Rs.  3,128 
and  Rs.  3,049  respectively. 

In  1904-5  the  receipts  were  Rs.  4,320  and  the  expenditure 
Rs.  3,i6f. 

Important  civil  works  in  the  District  are  carried  out  by  the         public 
officers  of  the  Military  Works  Services.     The  Assistant  Com-        Works. 
manding   Royal    Engineer  of  the   Loralai  Sub-district,  with 
his  head  quarters  at  Loralai,  exercises    general  ci  ntrcl,    and 
the   civil  works  of  the  Sibi   District  are   under  the  Garrison 
Engineer  of  Loralai,  who  has  under  hmi  two  Sub-divisional 


220 


CHA  P.  Ill— A  DM  IN  IS  TRA  TI VE. 


PUBLK 

Works. 


Important 
Works. 


Officers,  one  of  whom  is  in  subordinate  charge  of  civil  works 
in  the  Shdhrig-,  Sibi  and  Nas,Ir4bdd  tahsils,  and  the  other 
in  charge  of  tho^e  in  the  Kohlu  tahsil. 

Civil  works  which  cost  Rs.  i,ooo  and  over  are  provided  for 
in  the  Public  Works  budget,  and  are  generally  carried  out  by 
the  Military  Works  Services.  Works  of  a  petty  nature 
and  those  required  in  places  remote  from  head  quarters  are 
executed  under  th  orders  of  the  Deputy  Commissioner. 
Civil  works  of  this  class  are  supervised  by  the  Assistant 
Political  Agent,  who  is  assisted  by  a  Sub-overseer  paid  from 
the  Provincial  revenues.  The  Sind  canals  in  the  Nasirabad 
tahsil  are  in  the  charge  of  the  Executive  Engineer  of  the 
Begdri  Canals  in  subordinati::':!  to  the  Superintending 
Engineer  of  the  Indus  Right  Bank  Division. 

Reference  will  be  found  in  the  section  of  Means  of 
Communication  to  the  railways  and  principal  roads,  and  a 
separate  account  of  the  Begiri  'and  the  Desert  Canals  has 
been  given  in  the  section  on  Canals,  and  oi  the  Sibi  Water 
Works  in  the  article  on  "  Sibi  Town."  The  following  are  the 
principal  buildings  in  the  District  : — 


Work. 


Year      i 

when       !  Approxi- 
comple-    mate  cost, 
ted.        i 


Rs. 

Political  Agent's  house  (Sibi) 

1878 

5»-75 

Post  Office  (.Sibi)        

1878  80 

5047 

Telegraph  Office  (Sibi)        

187880 

7.914 

Tahsil  and  tliAna  (Sibi)        

1881-2 

34>6o7 

Civil  Hospital  (Sibi) 

... 

7,067 

Thana  (Harnai)          

1883 

6,300 

TahM'l  and  thana  (Shdhriir) 

1883 

12,573 

Agent  to  the  Governor-General's  Circuit  house 

(SibiJ 

1884 

:?8.373 

Jail  (Sibi)          

1886 

20,1 14 

Police  Lines  (Sibi;     

1887 

15.373 

Political  Agent's  house  (Zidrat)  ... 

1891 

16,689 

Agent     to     the     Governor-General's 

house 

(Zidrat) 

1P91-2 

39.012 

Levy  post  and  Police  lines  (ShAhrig) 

1893 

8,001 

Political  Agent's  Office  (Sibi) 

1895 

8,056 

Levy  Lines  (Sibi) 

1895 

4,558 

Political  Agent's  Office  (Zidrat)    ... 

1896 

15.007 

Victoria  Memorial  Hall  (Sibi; 

1903 

38,800 

Agent      to     the     Governor-General' 

s     Office 

(Zidrat)          



1902-3 

6,292 

LEjy  POSTS.  221 

In    addition    to     the    houses    here    mentioned    there     are        Ph^mc 
at  Sibi  :—  Works. 

1.  The    Assistant   Political     Agent's    house     (called 
Mosley's  house) 

and  at  Ziarat : — 

2.  Revenue  Commissioner's  house. 

3.  First  Assistant's  house. 

4.  Second  Assistant's  house. 

5.  *'  Pentpnvilla"  for  Political  Ag'ent,  Loralai. 

6.  Forest  Officer's  house. 

A  list  of  the  Rest-houses  in  different  parts  of  the   District 
is  given  in  table  XII,  Volume  B. 

Levy  posts  have  been  built  at  various  places  ;  the  buildings  Levy  posts 
in  charge  of  Civil  Officers  are  :  at  Kuridk,  Gamboli,  Kandi, 
Tung  Kurk,  Mizri,  Khajak,  Chdndia,  Talli,  Mai,  Sangan, 
Quat,  Lehri,  Phuleji,  Shdhpur,  Asreli,  Herdn,  Khajuri,  Gan- 
doi,  Gorandri,  Sui,  Nasirdbad,  Usta,  Kohlu  and  Malikzai  ; 
and  those  in  charge  of  Public  Works  Department :  at  Sibi, 
Narigorge,  Tanduri,  Bdbar  Kach,  Daliijdl,Kuchdli,  Spintangi, 
Gandakindaff,  Rojhdn,  Gandaka,  Mdnjhipur,  Sohbatpur, 
Sanri  Malguzdr,  Sundri,  Harnai,  Niikas,  Shdhrig,  Khost, 
Dirgi,  Mdngi,  Mudgorge,  Kach,  Torkhan,  Dilkuna,  Zandra, 
Ziarat  and  Sp^rardgha. 

The  station  of  Sibi  was  first  temporarily  occupied  by  troops  Armv. 
in  1839,  and  was  evacuated  on  the  conclusion  of  the  first 
Afghan  war  in  1842.  On  the  outbreak  of  the  second  Afghan 
war,  Sibi  was  again  occupied,  and  in  1882,  the  following 
posts  in  the  District,  in  addition  to  Sibi,  were  held  by  troops  : 
Kach,  Dirgi,  Shdhrig,  Harnai,  Spintangi,  Kuchtili,  Gandakin- 
daff, Kaldti  kila,  Quat,  Talli  Mai,  Lahri,  Phuleji,  Shdhpur, 
Gandoi,  and  Sui.  The  majority  of  these  garrisons  were  with- 
drawn in  1883,  and  the  posts  were  m.ide  over  to  the  local 
levies,  Kach  and  Sui,  which  were  evacuated  in  1890  and  1891 
respectively,  being  the  two  last  to  be  given  up. 

At  the  present  time  (1905)  the  only  troops  permanenth' 
quartered  in  the  District  consist  of  a  small  detachment  of  50 
rifles  at  Sibi,  which  supplies  a  guard  over  the  Sub-treasury. 
Troops  are  occasionally  sent  from  Quetta  to  Sibi  during  the 
winter  months. 


222  CHAP.  III.— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Levies.  Between  1877  and  1882   payments  for  tribal   services  were 

sanctioned  for  the  protection  of  the  various  passes,  the 
telegraph  lines  and  for  carrying  the  mails.  At  this  time  a 
number  of  isolated  posts  were  garrisoned  by  small  detach- 
ments of  regular  troops,  a  system  which  the  military 
authorities  were  anxious  to  abolish.  With  this  object  a 
committee  was  assembled  at  Quetta  in  1883,  under  the 
presidency  of  Sir  Robert  Sandeman,  to  consider  the  revision 
and  re-distribution  of  the  Levy  services.  Besides  recom- 
mending the  withdrawal  of  regular  troops  from  several 
posts  and  their  occupation  by  levies,  the  committee  laid 
down  certain  general  principles  for  future  guidance.  They 
drew  a  sharp  line  between  active  and  pensioned  service, 
and  decided  that  all  persons  drawing  pay,  whether  chiefs  or 
others,  who  \vere  not  pensioners,  must  render  an  equivalent 
in  service.  Levies,  they  also  considered,  should  be  local, 
and  tribal  responsibility  enforced.  The  chiefs  nominating 
and  the  men  nominated  should,  as  a  rule,  belong  to  the 
immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  post  in  which  they  were 
employed.  These  principles  are  still  the  back-bone  of  the 
levy  system.  Under  it  service  is  given  to  chiefs  or  headmen 
in  localities  where  they  have  influence,  and  ihey  can  nomi- 
nate their  men,  subject  to  confirmation  by  the  iJeputy 
Commissioner  or  the  officer  in  charge  of  a  Sub-division. 
A  nominee  of  a  chief  or  headman  may  be  rejected  on  the 
score  of  physical  unfitness,  bad  character  or  other  sufficient 
cause.  The  men  bring  their  own  weapons,  and  the  sowdrs 
their  own  mounts,  the  latter  being  subject  to  approval. 

At  the  time  when  the  committee  of  1883  met,  the  services 
in  the  Sibi  district  cost  Rs.  9,389-8-0*  per  mensem,  and  com- 
prised a  telegraph  service  between  Kuchdli  and  Kach  holding 
6  posts  and  costing  Rs.  730  per  mensem,  a  postal  service 
between  Sibi  and  Dirgi  and  Gandakindaff  and  Tung  costing 
Rs.  1,141  8-0,  a  service  from  Afghdn  tribes  in  Harnai,  Kach, 
Mdngi  and  Dirgi  costing  Rs.  1,298,  and  frontier  levies, 
including  the  Marri  and  Bugti  services,  costing  Rs,  6,220. 
Detachments  of  the  Baloch  Guide  Corps,  a  relic  of  the  days 
when  the  affairs  on  the  Baloch  border  were  managed  by  the 
Superintendent  of  the  Upper  Sind  Frontier,  were  also  located 

•  These  fig-ures  onl)' represent  the  levies  stationed  in  ihose  parts 
of  the  District  which  are  now  included  in  the  new  Sibi  District. 


LEVIES,  223 

at  Dirgi,  Harnai,  Spintang-i,    Kuchali,  Quat-Mandai,    Kaldti       Lkvies. 
Kila,  Nari  gorge,  Sibi  and  the  Sind  Froniier  posts. 

Under  the  revised  scheme  the  total  monthly  cost  of  the 
levies  in  the  District  was  increased  to  Rs.  11,504-8  per  men- 
sem, Rs.  690  being  allotted  for  the  telegraph,  Rs.  1,219-8  for 
the  postal,  and  Rs.  9,595  for  the  political  services. 

The  "  political  services"  comprised  16  headmen,  32  Resal- 
dars  and  other  oflficers,  214  Sowars,  74  footmen  and  4  clerks 
and  the  monthly  cost  w.is  Rs.  9,595.  Under  this  scheme 
several  posts  along  important  lines  of  communication  were 
manned  by  the  levies  ;  the  Baloch  Guide  Corps  was  disbanded 
and  the  posts  named   in   the  margin   were   placed  under  the 

Superintendent  of  Levies.  In 
1886  the  appointment  of  Su- 
perintendent was  abolished 
and  the  posts  under  his  control 
were  transferred  to  the  Politi- 
cal Agent.  On  the  completion 
of  the  railway  line,  the  majority 
of  the  levies  hitherto  employed 
in  the  Marri  country  under 
"Postal  and  Telegraph  services"  were,  in  consideration  ot  the 
additional  responsibility  thrown  on  the  tribe  by  the  opening 
of  tlie  railway  line  through  their  countr}-,  transferred  in  1887 
to  the  head  of"  Political  Levies"  and  the  levy  service  redis- 
tributed accordingly.  In  1889,  another  committee  was 
assembled  to  consider  the  working  of  ihe  levies  and  police, 
and  the  outcome  of  their  deliberations  was  the  sanction  by 
the  Government  of  India  to  the  provincialisation  of  both 
services.  The  levy  system  was  revised  in  1890,  and  in  the 
same  year  certain  services  were  transferred  to  the  newly 
created  Zhob  District.  The  outposts  ot  Kach  and  Siii, 
hitherto  held  by  military  detachments,  were  also  handed  over 
to  the  levies  in  July  1890  and  April  1891  respectively.  In 
1895,  certain  reductions  were  made  owing  to  the  partial 
failure  of  revenues  in  Zhob,  and  in  March  1898  the  levy 
service  was  again  reorganised. 

In  October  1903,  the  new  Loralai  District  was  formed, 
and  the  tahsils  of  Duki,  Sanjawi  and  Birkhdn  with  their 
establishments  were  transferred  to  that  District,  while  the 
Nasirabad    tahsil    was  added  to  the  ne  w  Sibi  District.     The 


Post. 

M 

onthly  Cost. 
Rs. 

Kach 

... 

...  750 

Talli 

...  710 

Mai 

... 

■  .  580 

Lahri 

...  480 

Phuleji 

... 

...  380 

Shdhpui      ... 

... 

-  455 

Garanari    ... 

... 

—  455 

Gandoi 

...  480 

224  CHAP.   III.—ADMIMSTRATIVE. 

Levifs.         total    strength    of  the    levies   in   December    1905    was    722, 

consistingf    of    140  headmen    and    officers,    436  sowars,    120 

footmen    and    26  clerks.      Their  monthly  sanctioned  cost  is 

Rs.    16,256-9-5,    and  they    are    distributed  in  63  posts,  the 

details  of  which  are  shown  in  table  XXII,  Volume  B. 

r»  ..       c  The  levies  in  this  District  may  be  classed  as  those  employ- 

Duties  01  .  ,  . 

levies.  ed  in  the  administered  districts  and  those    maintamed  in  the 

tribal  areas.  The  former  are  no  longer  merely  stationed  at 
posts  for  the  purposes  of  watch  and  ward,  but  are  actively 
employed  on  police,  executive  and  revenue  work,  and  per- 
form the  duties  which  in  more  regular  provinces  would  be 
carried  out  by  the  rural  police,  village  chaukiddrs  and  tahsil 
amla  generally.  They  are  also  employed  in  keeping  up 
communication  between  different  parts  of  the  country  where 
there  are  no  postal  systems,  and  providing  escorts  and 
guides.  The  levies  in  the  tribal  areas  are  employed  under 
the  orders  of  the  chiefs  in  the  management  of  the  tribal 
tracts,  the  maintenance  of  law  and  order,  and  in  guarding 
the  roads  and  passes  w'ithin  their  limits.  Further  details  in 
connection  with  the  levies  in  the  Marri  and  Bugti  country  are 
given  in  Chapter  V. 

A  police  force  was  first  sanctioned  for  Sibi,  Harnai  and  the 
railway  in  1879,  and  in  1882  the  force  consisted  of  one  in- 
spector, one  deputy  inspector,  one  jemadar,  50  sowars,  21 
sero-eants,  and  100  constables.  At  this  time  the  pay  of  the 
different  grades  varied  in  different  parts  of  the  Agency,  and 
the  question  of  putting  them  on  a  uniform  footing  was  taken 
up  by  the  committee  already  referred  to,  which  assembled  in 
188'^  to  consider  the  revision  of  the  levy  services.  The 
revised  strength  of  the  police,  recommended  by  this  commit- 
tee and  sanctioned  by  Government,  comprised  2  deputy 
inspectors,  2  imiharirs,  21  sergeants,  i  jemadjir,  5  duffadars, 
1^5  sowdrs,  90  constables,  10  footmen,  10  barkavddzes,  4 
chaukiddrs  and  2  menials  ;  and  the  total  monthly  cost  was 
Rs.  3.566  per  mensem.  In  1S86,  the  police  force  of  the  District 
consisted  of  207  men  of  all  grades,  including  58  railway 
police,  and  cost  Rs.  4,934  per  mensem.  The  railway  police 
included  a  European  Inspector  on  Rs.  200  per  mensem.  In 
February  1889,  a  committee  was  assembled  under  the  presi- 
dency of  Colonel  Sir  Robert  Sandeman  to  consider  the 
general    question    of   the    administration  of   the  police  and 


Police. 


POLICE.  225 

levies,  and  the  outcome  of   its  deliberations  was  the  appoint-      Police. 
ment  of  an  Assistant  Political  Agent,  who  was  to  be  District 
Superintendent    of    Police,    and    of    a    Native    Inspector    at 
Rs.  150  per  mensem,  the  raising-  of  the   pay  of  the  European 
Inspector  to  Rs.  250,  and  the   provincialisation  of  the  police 
and  levy   services.     In  1890,  reductions    were    made   in  the 
numbers  of  both  the  District  and  the  railway  police,  the  batta 
or  allowance  paid  for  dearness  of  provisions  was   abolished, 
the  scale   of  the  pay   raised,  and   the   Deputy  Commissioner 
made    ex-officio    Deputy    Inspector-General   for   Police.     The 
European  Inspector  was  given  the  honorary  rank  of  Assistant 
District  Superintendent   of   Police,    and    placed  in  executive 
charge  of  the  railway  police.      In  April  1897,  the  Government 
of  India  sanctioned  the   appointment    of  a    District  Superin- 
tendent of  Police    on    Rs.  600  for  the    Quetta-Pishin  District 
and  North- We  stern  Railway  Police    within   the    limit  of  the 
Baluchistdn  Agency,  a   police  officer  being  deputed  from  the 
Punjab    who    was    to    receive    an    allowance    of   Rs.  100  per 
mensem    while   employed   in   Baluchistiin.      Mr.  S.   Wallace 
joined    in    August    1897,    and    in  November    1897    was    also 
placed  in  charge   of  the  Thal-Chotiali  District    Police.     The 
powers   conferred  on  PoHtical  Officers  in  1890  in  regard   to 
the  police  were  now  withdrawn.     The  arrangement  whereby 
an  officer  was  obtained  from  the  Punjab    was    reconsidered 
in  1899,   and  a   local    appointment  of   a  District  Superinten- 
dent of  Police    on    Rs.    400    per   mensem    rising  by   annual 
increments  of  Rs,  40  to  Rs,  600  was  sanctioned. 

From  time  to  time  it  has  been  held  that  the  proper  agency 
for  the  detection  of  crime  in  the  District  was  the  local  head- 
men and  the  levies,  rather  than  the  foreign  policemen,  and 
that  the  system  of  tribal  responsibility  should  be  more 
generally  extended.  In  April  1902,  an  order  was  issued 
by  the  Agent  to  the  Governor-General  in  which  it  was  laid 
down  that  it  was  the  duty  of  all  lambarddrs  or  headmen  to 
keep  a  watch  on  their  villages,  and  to  report  the  misconduct 
of  any  one  or  the  advent  of  any  suspicious  persons  ;  it  was 
also  their  duty  to  detect  crime  and,  when  cases  were  taken 
up  by  the  Government,  to  help  in  their  detection  by  giving 
direct  information  or  furnishing  clues.  The  headmen  were 
also  held  to  be  responsible  in  the  case  of  the  tracks  of 
thieves  not  being    traced    beyond    their   villages.      In    1903, 


226 


CHA  P.  HI.  —A  DM  IN  1ST R  A  TJ  VE. 


Police. 


Total 
Strength. 


Sibi  Muni- 
cipal and 
Shdhrig 
Mazar 
Fund 
Police. 


I2» 
l6 
12 

20 

9 
22 

8 
63 


the  police  force  was  agajn  reconstituted  and  it  was  decided 
that  the  investigation  and  detection  of  crime  should  in  future 
be  more  largely  entrusted  to  levies,  and  that  except  in  the 
larger  towns  and  bazars  on  the  railway,  the  duties  of  the 
police  should  be  more  especially  confined  to  guards  and 
escort  duty. 

On  the  31st  of  March  1905  the  Police  f.  rce  of  the  District 
totalled  311  and  included  one  European  inspector,  9  deputy 
inspectors,  54  sergeants,  22  mounted  men  and  222  consta- 
bles.    They  were  distributed  as  under  : — 

Guards,  escorts  and    miscellaneous    duties 
including  reserve  and  sick,  &c. 

Sibi  City  Thrlna 

Harnai  Thdna... 

Shdhrig  Ihana 

Kohlu  Thdna  ... 

Nasirabiid  Th^na 

Khost,  Zarddlu,  Mai  and  Talli  Chaukis 

At  19  Railway  Stations 
Twelve  men  were  also  employed  on  temporary  guard  duty- 
provided  for  special  purposes  and  paid  for  by  the  employers. 
Details  of  the  distribution  are  given  in  table  XX I II,  Vol.  B. 
The  District  police  and  the  Railway  police  from  Jhatpat  to 
Kach  Kotal  ere  directly  under  the  charge  of  the  European 
Inspector  of  Police  in  subordination  to  the  District  Superin- 
tendent of  Police  at  Quetta.  The  head-quarters  of  the  local 
police  office  are  at  Shrfhrig  in  the  summer  and  at  Sibi  in 
the  u  inter. 

The  cost  of  the  force  emplojed  in  the  Sibi  town  and  in  the 
bazars  of  Khost,  Sh.-'ihrig  and  Harnai  is  charged  against 
the  Provincial  Revenues,  to  which  the  Sibi  Municipal  fund 
contributes  Rs.  152  and  the  Sh^hrig  bazar  fund  Rs.  114  ]'er 
mensem.  The  strength  of  the  force  in  each  place  is  as 
under  : — 

Constables. 

Sibi  town     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  12 

Khost  ...  ...  ..'.  ...  ..  2 

Sh^hrig        ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  4 

Harnai         ...          ...         ...         ...          ...  ^ 


Total 


POLICE.  227 

The  railway  police  are  not  a   distinct   body  but   form    part        Police. 

of  the  Di.>>trict  police.     An  inspector  holds    charsje,    and    the       Kailway 

.  Police, 

total  number  ot  men  employed  is  63.     Of  these  15    men    are 

employed  in  the  Sibi  Railway  Thjina,  and  the  remainder    are 

distributed    at     18     stations.       The     Railway      Department 

employ  their  own  cliaiikiddrs. 

Two  duffadars  and    six    chauktddrs   are    employed   by    the    Chaukiddrs. 
Si'bi  municipal    fund  for    night  watch    at  Khajak,    Kurk    and 
Gulu  Shahr,  and   one   chaukiddr  by  the   Shdhrig-  bazar    fund 
at  the  Spintangi  hduLdi^. 

The  police  are  enlisted    chiefly    from    Punjabis  and  others,    System  of 
who  come  to  Baluchistdn  from  India  in  search  ot    work,  and    "^^  J  »'   •,, 
the  percentage  of  the  people  of  the  country   employed  in    ti^e    ing"- 
force  is  II.     There   seems  no  reason  why  local  men  of  good 
character  should  not  be  obtained  in  time  and  with    patience, 
bat  at  present  the  majority  seem  unwilling    to    serve  except 
in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  their  homes. 

Measures  have  been  taken  from  time  to   time    to    improve    xMeasures 

the  pay  of  the    various    grades.     The    revision,    which    was   \'^'°^^° 

,  ,  improve  the 

sanctioned  in  1903,  provided  local  allowances  for  certain  status  of  the 
posts  of  deputy  inspectors  and  for  all  trackers  ;  an  increase  '^^'"''®'  ^  '^• 
from  Rs.  17  to  Rs.  18  per  mensem  in  the  pay  of  sergeants 
of  the  second  grade  ;  and  the  reconstitution  of  the  pro- 
portions of  the  various  grades  of  sergeants  and  constables 
so  as  to  give  a  fairer  scale  and  quicker  rate  of  promotion. 
The  rules  regarding  finger  prints  laid  down  in  Punjab 
Government  Resolution  No.  1998,  dated  3rd  of  Septem- 
ber, 1903,  were  adopted  in  1904  for  taking  the  finger  impres- 
sions of  pensioners,  but  systematic  measures  for  the  identi- 
fication of  criminals  by  this  method  have  not  yet  been 
introduced. 

1  he  police  have  hitherio  been  armed  with  snider  rifles  and  Arms, 
siJe  arms,  but  the  substitution  of  bored  out  Martini  Henry 
rifles  has  been  sanctioned,  and  the  re-armament  is  being 
carried  out  (1906-7).  An  excellent  wejipon  in  the  shape  of  a 
short,  weighted  hog-spear,  with  a  crook  let  into  the  head, 
has  been  supplied  to  the  municipal  police  at  Sibi,  Harnai, 
Shdhrig  and  Khost  since  1904. 

Table    XXIV,    Vol.    B.,    shows  the    details  of    cognizable    Cognizable 
crime  for  the  old  Thal-Chotiali  District   fcr  the  years  1899  to   '^""ime. 
J 902  (both  inclusive)  and  for   the  new   Sibi   District  for    1903 


228  CHAP.  I  I  [—ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Police.       and  1904.     The  average  number  of   cases    reported    durintf 
the  former  period  was  355,  and  the  percentage  of  convictions 

53- 

During  1904  the  number  of  cases  was  249  and  the  percen- 
tage of  convictions  8. 

The  figures  given  in  the  Table  quoted  above  practically 
include  all  cases  of  cognizable  crime  which  occurred  in  the 
old  Thai  Chotiali  District,  but  for  purposes  of  comparison  as 
regards  the  working  of  the  police  and  an  examination  of  the 
crime  in  the  District  in  later  years,  their  value  is  viti-ited  by 
the  changes  effected  in  the  formation  of  the  Agency  in  Octo- 
ber 1903,  and  by  the  introduction  in  1902  of  a  new  system  of 
criminal  investigation.  In  accordance  with  this  scheme  the 
District  was  divided  for  purposes  of  investigation  into  two 
separate  areas,  namely,  fr/)  the  "Political  area"  in  which 
no  regular  census  had  been  taken,  and  (b)  that  portion  of 
the  District  which  had  been  enumerated  during  the  Census 
of  1901,  and  which  included  the  town  of  Sibi,  all  bazars  and 
the  Railway  limits  from  Kach  to  Jhatpat.  In  the  latter 
area,  the  investigation  of  crime  was  undertaken,  as  hereto- 
fore, directly  by  the  police.  As  regards  cases  which  occurred 
in  the  Political  area,  the  investigation  was  conducted  by  the 
thanadiir  with  the  aid  of  the  local  levies  and  headmen,  and 
each  case  was  reported  in  the  first  instance  to  the  magistrate 
of  the  sub-division  or  to  the  tahsild^r,  who,  after  personal 
enquiries,  decided  whether  it  should  be  dealt  with  in  accord- 
ance with  the  ordinary  judicial  procedure  or  ba  submitted 
to  a  jirga.  In  the  latter  case  the  crime  was  not  entered  in 
the  usual  list  of  the  police  returns.  The  immediate  result 
was  that  in  1902  the  total  number  of  cognizable  cases  shown 
in  the  police  returns  fell  to  191  from  an  average  of  396  in  each 
of  the  four  preceding  years,  and  as  compared  with  473  cases 
reported  in  1898-9.  The  figures,  therefore,  for  the  later 
years,  which  will  be  found  in  table  XXIV,  Vol.  B,  really 
indicate  the  state  of  crime  in  the  towns  and  bazars.  Outside 
these  areas  the  important  forms  of  crime  are  murders  in 
adultery  cases,  cattle  lifting  and  occasional  robbery. 

Generally  speaking  the  District  may  be  said  to  be  remark- 
ably free  from  crime  ;  and  though  the  average  of  mur- 
ders is  large,  the  great  majority  are  committed  in 
connection    with    adultery     cases,    in     which     in    accordance 


TRACKERS.  229 

with  the  traditions  and  customs  of  most  of  the  sections  Police. 
of  the  population,  the  guilty  persons  are  punishable  by  death. 
This  class  of  murder,  which  is  usually  dealt  with  by  jirgas, 
is  gradually  decreasing,  as  the  people  are  coming  more  and 
more  under  the  influence  of  civilization.  Crime  on  the  whole 
is  fairly  distributed  among  the  several  tribes  residing  within 
the  District,  and  with  the  exception  of  the  Marris,  who  were 
notorious  cattle-thieves,  no  one  tribe  can  be  said  to  be  a 
special  off"ender  as  regards  any  particular  class  of  crime. 
Rifle  stealing  is  not  a  local  crime,  and  the  only  two  impor- 
tant cases  which  have  occurred  in  recent  years,  i.e.,  the  theft 
in  1894  of  4  rifles  belonging  to  the  military  guard  over  the  Sibi 
sub-treasury  and  the  theft  of  14  Martini-Henry  rifles  from  the 
Volunteer  Armoury  at  Sibi  in  January  1900,  were  committed 
by  the  relations  of  Pathdn  soldiers  quartered  in  Sibi.  In  the 
more  settled  districts, disputes  over  women  and  about  land  and 
water  are  the  mo.st  frequent  causes  of  crime.  These  cases, 
however,  are  usually  dealt  with  by  jirgns.  In  the  bazars  the 
largest  nvuiiber  of  cases  occurs  in  Sibi,  and  the  prmcipal 
ofl"enders  are  Brahuis, Punjabis, Ghilzais  and  dome-^tic  servants 
who  commit  petty  thefts  and  occasionally  liouse-breaking. 

Much  use  is  made  of  trackers,  one  of  whom  is  attached  to  Trackers, 
nearly  every  large  thdna.  Some  of  them  are  recruited  from 
D^ra  Ghdzi  Khan  ;  but  many  of  the  local  tribesmen  are 
experts,  and  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  are  especially  clever  in 
tracking  across  hilly  and  rough  country.  Cases  have  been 
known  of  the  recovery  of  lost  animals,  several  months  after 
their  loss,  by  the  trackers  identifying  their  prmts  in  areas 
far  removed  from  the  scene  of  the  theft.  A  good  instance  in 
point  was  the  following  up  of  some  camels  which  had  been 
carried  off  from  Tratdni  in  the  Marri  country  to  Larkdna  in 
Sind,  where  they  were  eventually   recovered. 

In  1900,  a  set  of  rules  was  framed  by  the  Inter-tribal   Jirga  Prevention 

at  Fort  Munro,  under  the  orders  of  the  Commissioner  of  the  of  crime  on 

7-  ,      . ,     T-v-    •   •         ,1-            ■   I      ,             .  the  Punjab 

L»erajat  Division  dealing  with  the  action  to  be  taken    in   the  border. 

case  of  off"enders  taking  refuge  in  other  tribes,  and  defining 
the  responsibility  of  the  chiefs  and  headmen  in  such  cases. 
These  rules  are  still  in  force,  and  as  they  are  of  importance  as 
regards  the  administration  of  the  tribal  areas,  they  are  given 
in  lull  in  appendix  IV.     The  same  appendix  contains  the  rules 


230  CHAP.  Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Police.       drawn  up  in  1902  with  a  view  to  checking  cattle-lifting  between 
Cattle  D^ra  Ghjlzi  Khjin  and  the  Haluchistdn  districts  on  the  border. 

^  "       '  The  District  possesses  32  cattle  pounds  which  are   located 

at  Sibi,  Talli,  Mai,  Shdhrig,  Khost,  Harnai,  Nasirdbjid, 
Kliajak,  Kurk,  Gulu  Shahr,  Quat-Mandai,  Sdngdn,  Bhakhra, 
Mizri,  Dehpil,  Hdmbi,  Basti  Boston,  Kote  Shahr,  Uri^ni, 
Zijlrat,  Kach,  Kahan,  Pur,  Spintangi,  Usta,  Ganddkha, 
Sanari,  Rojhdn,  Mdnjhipur,  Muhabatpur,  MalguzAr  and 
Bagar.  The  first  seven  are  managed  by  the  Polica  and  the 
remainder  by  the  Civil  Department;  those  at  Hdmbi,  Basti 
Bostfin  and  Dehpdl  being  opened  at  harvest  time  only. 
Fines  are  levied  at  rates  which  vary  from  i  anna  per  day  for 
a  sheep  or  goat  to  8  annas  per  day  for  a  camel,  in  addition 
to  which  feeding  charges  are  also  imposed.  The  receipts  of 
all  cattle  pounds,  with  the  exception  of  that  at  Zidrat  which 
belongs  to  the  Zidrat  Improvem.^nt  Fund,  are  credited  to  the 
Provincial  Revenues  under  head  "XVII  Police,"  from  which 
the  charges  for  maintenance  are  also  met. 
Jails.  j|-,g  district  jail  at  Sibi,  which  was    built  in  1886  at  a  cost 

of  Rs.  20,114,*  h^^  accommodation  for  67  male  and  8  female 
prisoners.  1  here  are  also  subsidiary  jails  at  Shdhrig, 
Harnai,  Kohlu  and  Nasirdbad  which  can  hold  from  15  to  20 
prisoners  each.  Convicts  whose  terms  of  imprisonment  do 
not  exceed  three  months  are  kept  in  the  subsidiary  jails  ; 
those  whose  terms  exceed  three  months  but  are  less  than  six 
months  are  detained  in  the  Sibi  jail,  while  those  whose  terms 
exceed  six  months  are  sent  to  the  Shikarpur  jail.  Murderous 
fanatics,  sentenced  to  life  imprisonment  under  section  2  of 
the  !•  rontier  Murderous  Outrages  Regulation  (IV  of  1901), 
are  sent  to  the  Hyderdbdd  Central  Prison.  Juvenile  prison- 
ers are  sent  to  th=!  reformatory  at  Shikarpur  and  European 
convicts  to  the  jail  at  Karachi.  Civil  prisoners  are  kept  in 
both  the  district  and  subsidiary  jails.  The  prisoners  are 
employed  in  grinding  corn  for  their  own  food,  in  making 
blankets  for  bedding  and  clothing,  and  on  work  in  the  public 
gardens  and  on  the  roads. 

During  1904-5  the  total  daily  average  number  of  prisoners 
was  80  :  males  77  and  females  3  ;  and  the  total  expenditure 
on  establishment  and  contingencies  for  the  year  amounted  to 

•  Does  not  Include  out-houses,  &c.,   costing  Rs.  5,786  and  built  in 
after  years. 


EDUCATION.  231 

Rs,    7,171.     The    number  of    prisoners  in  the  jails  on  the  31st  Jails. 

of  March,  1905,  was  69  :  males  64  and  females  5.  There  is 
no  lunatic  asylum  in  the  District,  and  such  lunatics  as  are 
required  to  be  detained  in  an  asylum  are  sent  to  Hyderdbdd 
in  Sind  through  the  Deputy  Commissioner  of  the  Upper  Sind 
Frontier  at  Jacobdbiid. 

Before  the  Britibh  occupation  no  system  of  public  instruc-  Education. 
tion  existed.  Midlds  taught  the  Kordn  by  rote  to  boys  and  ,„ethods. 
a  few  gfirls,  and  such  men  as  aspired  to  a  more  extended 
knowledge  of  Muhammadan  theology  and  Ihw  had  to  spend 
some  years  in  Kandahdr  or  in  Sind  in  prosecuting  their 
studies.  /l/«//flA- charged  no  tuition  fees,  but  were  maintained 
by  the  57-*«/ subscribed  by  the  villagers,  generally  one-tenth 
of  the  produce  of  the  lands  and  one-fortieth  ot  the  flocks, 
which  every  Muhammadan  is  required  to  set  apart  for  charity, 
and  also  by  alms  given  on  various  occasions  and  by  marri- 
age fees.  This  system  is  still  maintained  in  many  places  in 
the  District,  and  a  rough  estimate  shows  that  in  96  such 
institutions  about  861  boys  and  65  girls  were  under  instruc- 
tion in  1903. 

An    Anglo  Vernacular   middle    school    was  fir^t  opened  at   Growth  of 
Sibi  in  1S82,  the    cost    of   the    building,    establishment    and    schools, 
other  charges  being  met  from  the  town  funds. 

In  1898,  the  present  school  building,  kn.)wn  as  the  Barnes'  The  Barnes 
School,  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  Rs.  3,315,  to  which  Provm-  '^  ^°°  • 
cial  Revenues  contributed  Rs.  1,410,  the  additional  cost  being 
raised  by  private  subscriptions.  Books,  furniture,  etc.,  were 
provided  at  a  cost  of  Rs.  1,000  and  Rs.  2,950  was  invested 
in  a  Scholarship  fund,  both  these  sums  being  also  collected 
by  private  subscriptions.  The  appointment  of  a  head  master 
piid  from  Provincial  Revenues  was  sanctioned,  and  the 
teaching  staflf  was  at  the  same  time  increased  and  the  pay 
revised.  A  sum  of  Rs.  10  per  mensem  was  sanctioned  from 
Provincial  Revenues  in  1899  for  scholarships  for  local  students; 
and  in  the  same  year  a  Sindi  department  was  added,  and  a 
boarding  house  provided  for  local  boys.  Between  1890  and 
1904,  31  boys  passed  the  middle  school  examination.  The 
number  of  pupils  in  March,  1905,  was   108. 

A  school  which  admits    European  and  Eurasian  children  of   Education  of 
both  sexes  was  established    in  Sibi    in  1892.      It  follows    the    and°Eu*a-* 
EJucation   Code   for    European   schools  in   the   Punjab,  and    sians. 


232  CHAP.  in—ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Edication.     teaches  up  to  the  middle  standard.     The   sources  of  income 

are  fees  and  contributions    paid  by  the  Sibi  Municipality  and 

the    Nrrth-Western     Railway.     The     number    of    pupils    in 

March,  1905,  was  g. 

Female  A  Primary  school  for  girls  was  established  in  Sibi  by  private 

education.        subscription  in   J;  nuary,  1897,    and    is  now    maintained  from 

the  municipal  funds.     Since  1899  it   has  been   located  in    the 

old  building"  formerly  used  for  the  boys'  school.      The  school 

is    divided,    according    to   the    vernacular    language    which 

forms    the    medium    of   instruction,    into    Urdu,    Hindi  and 

Gurmukhi  departments,  each  department  having  five  classes. 

Since   its  establishment    a  number    of  girls    have  successfully 

passed   the    upper    primary  examination.     The    number    of 

pupils  in  March,  1905,  was  48,  of  whom  32  were  Hindus  and 

16  Muhammadans. 

Education  Special    efforts    have    been    made    from    time    to    time   to 

of  Muham- 

madans.  popularise    education  among   the   local    Muhammadans,    the 

more  important   measures  being  the  exemption  of  local  boys 

from  certain  tuition    fees  in  Sibi  ;  the    entire  exemption    of 

monthly  tuition  fees  in  all  village  schools  ;  the  reservation  of 

a  certain   number  of  stipends  in  the  Barnes'    school  for  local 

boys  ;  the    provision  ot    a  boarding   house  at    Sibi  ;  and  the 

opening  of  a  special  class   for  Muhammadan    girls,  in    which 

the  Koran  is  taught. 

Village  Primary   schools    have     been    opened    at    Shahrig    {1894), 

Kowc-is  (1896).  Kohlu  (1901),  Khajak  (19^2),  Sjing^n  (1903) 
and  Kurk  (1903). 

Miscellane-  Table  XXV,  Vol.  B.,  contains  the  statistics  of  the  number 

and  class  of  pupils,  the  sources  of  income  and  the  cost  of 
each  school  during  1904-5.  In  March,  1905,  there  were  9 
schools  containing  301  pupils,  of  whom  136  were  local  Pa- 
th^ns,  Baloch  and  others.  The  total  cost  of  education  in 
1904-5  was  Rs.  7,057,  of  which  Rs.  4,162  were  paid  by  the 
local  funds,  Rs.  1,995  contributed  by  Provincial  Revenues, 
Rs.  840  by  the  North-Western  Railway,  while  the  balance 
was  met  from  fees  and  private  subscriptions.  The  cost  of 
the  Kowas,  Sdngdn  and  Kohlu  village  schools  is  paid  from 
the  Provincial  Revenues,  and  that  of  the  Sibi  Girls'  school 
and  the  village  schools  of  Kurk  and  Khajak  from  the  local 
funds.  The  Barnes'  school  is  maintained  from  Iccal  funds,. 
assisted  by  a  grant  from   Provincial    Revenues.     The    public 


ous 


MEDICAL.  233 

schools  in  the  Shdhrig  sub-division  are  managed  by  the  Epucation. 
Assistant  Political  Agent,  Sibi,  and  those  in  the  Sibi 
sub-division  are  under  the  control  of  the  Extra  Assistant 
Commissioner,  Sibi,  who  is  assisted  in  the  management  of 
the  Barnes'  school  and*  the  Girls'  school  by  a  committee 
representing  the  various  native  communities.  The  scheme  of 
studies  and  the  scale  of  tuition  fees  are  based  on  the  Punjab 
models.  In  1903,  an  appointment  of  Inspector-General  of 
Education  was  sanctioned  for  the  North-West  Frontier 
Province  and  Baluchistan,  and  a  Personal  Assistant  to  the 
Inspector-General  of  Education  has  since  been  stationed  at 
Quetta.  The  latter  is  now  in  charge  of  all  matters  connected 
with  the  educational  and  physical  training  of  the  pupils. 

A  public  library  was  established  at  Sibi  in  18S8,  and  was  Libraries, 
named  the  "  Gaisford  Library  "  in  i8g8  in  memory  of  the 
late  Lieutenant-Colonel  G.  Gaisford.  It  has  three  classes  of 
members,  the  rates  of  monthly  subscription  are  annas  4,  8 
and  Re.  I,  and  it  receives  a  monthly  grant  of  Rs.  20  from  the 
Sibi  municipal  funds.  In  March  1905,  the  library  had  38 
members,  and  p^issessed  672  English  and  297  vernacular 
books  ;  it  subscribed  to  14  papers  and  periodicals. 

The    District    possesses   a  civil  hospital  at  Sibi,  a  civil  dis-    Mb-dical. 
pensary  at  Harnai  and   railway   dispensaries  at  Shahrig  and 
Khost.     Separate    statistics   for    each,   covering    the   period 
from  1893  to  1904,  will  be  found  in  tgble   XXVI,  Vol.  B. 

There  is  also  a  Zenana  Dispensary  at  Sibi  whicli  was 
opened  in  1903,  and  was  named  the  Mclvtr  dispensary  in 
memory  of  the  late  Major  Ivai  Mclvor. 

The  Principal  Medical  Officer  is  the  Agency  Surgeon,  who  is 
also  the  Administrative  Medical  Officer  of  the  whole  Province. 

The  Sibi  railway  and  civil  dispensaries  were  first  establish-  -phe  Sibi 
ed  in  1880;  in  the  autumn  of  the  following  year  they  were  Civil 
amalgamated  into  a  civil  hospital  under  the  charge  of  a 
Military  Medical  Officer  who  received  an  allowance  of  Rs.  150 
a  month.  Since  1883  the  hospital  has  been  placed  under  the 
charge  of  an  Assistant  Surgeon,  who  has  under  him  two 
Hospital  Assistants,  one  of  whom  is  paid  for  by  the  North- 
western Railway.  The  Sibi  municipal  funds  contribute  a 
monthly  sum  of  Rs.  140,  and  the  balance  of  the  expenditure 
is  paid  partly  by  the  North-Western  Railway  and  partly  from 
Provincial  Revenues.      In    1904  the  total  number  of  in-patients 


234  CHAP.  IIL— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Medical.       treated  was  452  and  of  out-door    patients  1 1,770,    whilst  505 

operations  were  performed. 

The  Sibi  The    Sibi  female   dispensary  was  established  by    subscrip- 

Female  {.j^^    jj^  iQO^,    and  the    present    buildine    was    presented    by 

dispensary.  .  .  fc>  r  j 

Bhdi   Sant   Sing,  the  Government  contractor    at  the    Khost 

Colliery.     It   is  in  charge   of  a   lady  Assistant   Surgeon,   and 

the  monthly  expenditure  amounts  to  about  Rs,  150,  of  which 

Rs.  30   are  paid    by    Provincial    Revenues,    Rs.   70    by    local 

funds,  Rs.  20  by  Dufferin  Fund,  Rs.  25  by  interest  of  money 

invested  in  Government    paper  and   the   balance    by   private 

subscriptions. 

Other  The   Shdhrig  and    the    Khost   Railway   dispensaries   were 

dispensaries,  opened  in  June  1887  and  May  i88g  respectively,  and  the 
civil  dispensar}'  at  Harnai  in  1890.  The  number  of  in- 
patients treated  in  these  dispensaries  in  1904  was  576  and  of 
out-door  patients  34,130. 

Since  1904,  the  dispensary  at  Sanjdwi  (in  the  Loralai  Dis- 
trict) is  moved  annually  to  Zidrat  during  the  summer  months. 
Principal  The  principal  diseases  are    malarial   fever,  dysentery,    eye 

fhet^cauiTe's     diseases  and  diseases  of  the  skin,  ulcers  and    syphilis,  whilst 
in  the  winter  in  the  higher  parts  of  the   District  the    exces- 
sive cold  causes  attacks    oi   pneumonia,    catarrh,    bronchitis 
and   frost  bites. 
Malaria.  In  his  Medical  Report    for  the  year  1904    the  Agency    Sur- 

geon records  that  in  Baluchistjin  malaria  is  "  at  once  the 
greatest  primary  cause  of  illness,  and  indirectly  gives  rise  to  a 
large  proportion  of  the  ill-health  expressed  in  other  terms." 
To  show  what  can  be  done  by  preventive  measures.  Major 
Duke  quotes  the  records  of  the  Shiihrig  Railway  Dispensary, 
which  is  largely  attended  by  the  civil  population  of  the  tahsil 
bazar  and  the  villages  in  the  neighbourhood.  The  average 
annual  number  of  malarial  cases  treated  between  189S  and  1900 
was  2,827,  and  in  1900  there  were  3,227  cases.  The  follow- 
ing year  the  number  rose  to  3,376  cases,  and  in  1902  special 
anti-malarial  measures  were  enforced.  Quinine  was  distri- 
buted, surface  drainage  and  the  kerosining  of  pools  were 
adopted,  and  the  malarial  cases  fell  to  2,722  In  1903  these 
measures  were  continued,  and  in  a  idition  the  cultivation  of 
rice  within  a  mile  of  the  tahsil  was  prohibited,  and  in  that 
year  the  cases  fell  to  1,792,  In  1904,  with  the  continuance 
of  these  measures,  there  was  a  further  decrease  to  951  cases. 


CHOLERA.  235 

At  the  same  time  in  the  dispensaries  above  and  below  Shtihrig      Mbdical, 

in  the  last  named  year,  there  was    in    the  one  case    a    >teady 

and  in  the  other  a  marked  increase  of  malarial    cases.     Thus 

1904  was  evidently  not  a  healthv    year   in    the    District,    and 

there  is  no  evidence  of  any  special  exodus  of  the    population. 

The  effectiveness  of  the  anti-malaria!  campaign  would,  tliere- 

fore,  seem  to  be  clearly  established. 

Both  small-pox  {kaivae)  and  measles  appear  to  be  endemic.    Small-pox 

The  latter  disease  is  fairly    frequent,   and    is    often    attended   ^"'^  . 

.  .  measles 

with  considerable  mortality  among  the    children.     The    local 

people  consider  it  to  be  generally  iollowed  by  dysentery  and 
cough,  doubtless  owing  to  the  absence  of  precautions  dur- 
ing convalescence. 

Small-pox  is  also  a  frequent  visitor  in  all  parts  of  the 
District,  and  its  prevalence  is  probably  due  to  the  local 
practice  of  inoculation.  Of  later  years,  both  the  frequency 
and  severity  of  the  epidemics  have  been  lessened  by  the 
introduction  of  vaccination,  but  the  disease  is  still  held  in 
much  dread  by  the  tribesmen. 

Cholera  appeared  in  1S83  and  1884  in  the  Harnai  valley  Cholera, 
during  the  construction  of  the  Sind-Pishin  railway,  and 
again  in  the  spring  of  1885  when  it  caused  heavy  mortality 
among  the  workmen  and  the  troops  guarding  the  line. 
The  disease  also  spread  to  all  parts  of  tlie  District,  but  the 
numbers  of  the  seizures  are  not  kno^vn,  as  no  regular  system 
of  registration  was  then  in  force.  The  next  serious  out- 
break occurred  in  the  autumn  of  189 1,  when  there  were  over 
300  seizures  and  170  deaths  among  the  railway  coolies 
working  at  Mudgorge,  Harnai  and  Dirgi.  In  the  following 
year  a  few  cases  were  reported  in  the  Sibi  District,  and 
later  on  the  disease  spread  to  SanjAwi,  Duki  and  the  Marri 
country,  causing  considerable  mortality.  In  1896,  11  cases 
and  10  deaths  occurred  among  the  coolies  working  in  the 
Shdhrig  mines.  The  infection  is  said  to  have  been  introduced 
from  Afghanistjin  by  the  Powindahs  moving  down  to  the  Pun- 
jab, Sibi  was  also  infected  and  there  were  58  seizures  and 
32  deaths.  The  last  epidemic  appeared  in  1903  when 
the  disease  spread  through  the  greater  part  of  Baluchistcin, 
but,  as  far  as  the  District  was  concerned,  was  confined  to 
the  town  of  Sibi  and  the  villages  in  the  Harnai  valley  and 
the  Zidrat  hills. 


236 


CHA P.  ///.  —.-J  DMINISTRA  TIVE. 


Medical 


Typhus. 


Plague  pre- 
cautions. 


Vaccination 
and  inocu- 
lation. 


Writing  in  connection  with  the  outbreaks  of  cholera  in 
1891  and  1892,  the  Agency  Surg'eon  said  : — 

"  The  history  of  these  two  outbreaks  of  cholera  closely 
resembles  that  of  others  already  recorded  in  former  years. 
The  disease  generally  first  appears  among  the  people  living 
in  the  Boliin  or  Nari  systems  of  water-supply,  which  consist 
of  exposed  surface  irrigation  streams  easily  susceptible  of 
pollution  and  infection,  or  it  suddenly  breaks  out  among 
workinen  who  are  d^'pendent  on  open,  exposed  streams  for 
their  water-supply.  The  disease  is  then  carried  from  one 
exposed  water-supply  to  another,  and  as  these  supplies  are 
often  limited  in  number  and  far  apart,  and,  as  the  travellers 
generally  travel  long  distance  to  their  homes,  infection  is 
quickly  and  widely  spread  in  all  directions.  In  my  opinion 
all  open,  exposed  streams,  especially  those  on  the  line  of 
frequented  roads  or  kdfila  tracks  are  never  safe,  as  they  are 
always  exposed  to  pollution  and  infection  from  many  sources. 
1  he  only  extensive  and  sudden  outbreaks  of  cholera  we 
have  had  in  the  last  fifteen  years  in  Ualuchistan  have  occur- 
red in  villages  or  collections  o\  men  congregated  along  open 
streams  ;  while,  y^n  the  other  hand,  towns,  villages  and 
other  communities,  supplied  with  water  taken  direct  from 
springs,  artesian  wells,  or  deep  kdrczcs  not  susceptible  of 
pollution  or  infection,  ha\e  never  developed  cholera  to  any 
great  extent,*  " 

A  virulent  epidemic  of  typhus  fever  broke  out  in  1903-4 
in  the  tahsils  which  had  suffered  from  cholera,  but  the 
disease  was  local  and  did  not  spread  into  the  outlying  pans 
of  the  District. 

Since  1846,  an  Inspection  Camp  has  been  maintained 
during  the  winter  months  at  Sibi,  where  people  coming  by 
train  from  infected  areas  are  examined  and,  if  necessary, 
detained.  During  the  summer  the  camp  is  moved  to  Hirok 
in  the  Bolan  Pass.  It  is  in  charge  of  a  Medical  Officer 
whose  salary  is  charged  to  the  Provincial  Revenues,  while 
other  expenses  are  paid  pfo  rata  by  the  local  funds  of  the 
Agency. 

Vaccination  is  optional,  and  in  the  greater  part  of  the 
District  inoculation  is  still  in  vogue.  The  advantages  of 
vaccination  are,  however,  beginning  to  be   appreciated,   and 

*  Baluchistdn  Agency  Administrative  Report,  1892-3,  pages  i83-iy4. 


INDIGENOUS  REMEDIES.  237 

between  i8<)5  and  1902,  16,344  successful  operations  were  Medical. 
performed  by  Government  vaccinators  in  the  old  Thal- 
Chotiali  District.  In  1904  the  number  of  operations  in  the 
Sibi  District  was  1,156.  There  appears  to  be  no  consci- 
entious objection  to  vaccination,  but  the  people  are  still 
ignorant  and  apathetic,  and  until  quite  recent  years  only 
resorted  to  vaccination  when  an  outbreak  of  small-pox 
actually  occurred. 

Inoculation  is  practisad  liy  /«/^//rty,  saiads  and  other  persons 
of  religious  sanctity,  whose  services  are  requisitioned  when  an 
outbreak  of  small-pox  occurs,  and  who  are  paid  a  small  fee  as 
an  offering  in  cash  or  kind.  Certain  persons  are  generally 
considered  specialists  in  the  art,  and  the  operation  is  either 
performed  by  them  personally  or  by  their  deputies  [khalifa). 
The  method  usually  adopted  is  for  a  small  incision  to  be 
made  with  a  razor  on  the  wrist  of  the  right  hand  in  which 
the  small-pox  powdered  pustules,  mixed  with  some  aromatic 
substances,  and  a  grain  of  wheat  are  placed.  Among  the 
Marris  the  incision  is  generally  made  on  the  left  wrist.  An 
eruption  and  fever  generally  occur  within  three  days  of  the 
operation,  and  at  this  time  the  patient  is  fed  on  strengthen- 
ing foods,  such  as  meat,  soup  and  milk,  the  details  varying 
in  different  parts  of  the  District.  If  no  eruption  or  fever 
occurs  within  three  days,  the  operation  is  repeated  a  second 
and  someti  nes  a  third  or  fourth  time,  until  it  proves  suc- 
cessful. When  suffering  from  the  eruption,  a  patient  may 
not  be  visited  by  women  or  other  persons  who  for  any 
reason  mav  be  considered  "unclean"  according  to  the 
custom  of  the  country.  The  indigenous  Hindus  and  many 
of  the  Muhammadans  in  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil  consider  small- 
pox as  a  divine  visitation  and  take  no  precautions. 

While  the  people  who  live  near  places  where  there  are  Indigenous 
dispensaries  have  begun  to  appreciate  the  advantages  f^emedies. 
afforded  by  these  institutions  and  freely  visit  them,  those 
living  in  the  remote  parts  still  resort  to  their  own  simple 
remedies,  of  which  some  notice  may  here  be  given.  In 
cases  of  consumption  [dig  iJian),  the  remedies  are  either  to 
wrap  the  patient  in  the  skin  of  a  wolf  and  to  feed  him  on 
donkey's  milk  and  bread,  or  to  brand  him  three  times  on 
both  sides  of  the  chest.  In  cases  of  typhus  [sarakh),  the 
patient  is  wrapped  in  the  skin  of  a  freshly  slaughtered  goat 


238  CHAP.   Ill— ADMINISTRATIVE. 

Mkdical.  or  sheep  for  about  sixteen  hours  at  a  time,  ihe  process  being^ 
repeated  a  second  or  third  time  if  necessary.  If  the  patient 
does  not  recover  he  is  wrapped  in  a  cow  skin,  and  it  this 
fails  he  is  wrapped  in  a  donkey  skin.  The  disease  is  consi- 
dered to  be  infectious  and  the  patient  is  segregated.  In 
cases  of  ague  (5«/rtM/ //i</«),  charms  and  spells  {Jiudda)  are 
resorted  to.  A  chatm  is  recited  by  a  mulla^  and  the  patient 
places  a  handful  of  grain  in  an  unused  earthen  vessel  which 
is  buried  in  the  ground.  Ihe  evil  is  thus  tranj^ferred  to  the 
vessel  and  the  man  is  cured.  In  cases  of  malarial  fever  and 
pneumonia,  the  most  common  remedy  is  to  wrap  the  patient 
in  the  skin  of  a  sheep  or  goat  killed  fresh  for  the  purpose. 
Eye  diseases  are  treated  with  fresh  cow  dung  or  the  boiled 
yolk  of  an  e<jg.  In  cases  of  dysentery,  curds  mixed  with  the 
powdered  bark  of  the  pomegranate  are  administered. 

VVorkine  of         Tho.    pice-packet    system    of   selling    quinine     through    the 
the  pice-  agency   of   the   post    office  was    introduced  in  1895.      During 

system  of        ^'^^  ^^^'-  X®^'"'  ^•^•'  1895-6,  2,890  packets  were  sold,  the  largest 
sale  of  sale    being    in    the    Harnai    post  office    (1,011  packets).      In 

quinine.  , ,  1        ,      j     •  <-,.-,-      1  •    ,  ^r.  11 

1904-5  the  sales  hid  risen  to  2,890,  ot  whicli   1,268  were  sold 

in  Sibi. 

yjjl  Apart  from  tlie  villages  of    Khajak,  Kurk  arid  Gulu  Shahr, 

sanitation  and  the  bazars  at  Khost,  Sh.4hrig,  Harnai  and  Spintangi, 
suDDhT  ^'  where  fees  are  levied  and  sweepers  are  employed,  no  arrange- 
ments, official  or  priv'ate,  exist  for  the  sanitation  of  villages. 
The  villages  are  dirt\  and  the  litter  and  filth  are  allowed  to 
remain  in  the  houses  and  streets  until  they  are  removed  for 
manuring  the  tields.  But  the  mii^ratory  habits  of  the  people 
and  specially  of  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  who  never  remain  long 
in  one  place,  assist  in  sanitation  to  a  great  extent,  and  afier 
a  lapse  of  time  most  village  sites  are  changed.  There  is 
also  a  tendency  among  the  zaminddys  to  deseit  the  villages 
and  build  their  houses  near  their  fields. 

In  the  highlands  the  supply  of  drinki  ig  water  is  drawn 
from  springs,  streams  and  kdrczes^  while  in  the  plains  it  is 
obtained  from  canals,  nullahs^  wells,  and  pools  in  wnich  rain 
water  has  collected.  The  wells  offer  a  fairly  protected 
source  of  supply,  but  the  open  channels,  which  are 
found  in  the  greater  part  of  the  District,  are,  as  already 
remarked,  especially  liat^le  to  pollution  and  infection,  and  are 


SURVEYS.  239 

a  source  of  danger  in  times  ot   epidemics.     On  the  whole  the       Medical. 
quality  of  the  water  throughout  the  District  is  good. 

The  cantonment  and  railway  at  Sibi  have  been  provided 
with  a  piped  water  supply  from  the  Ndri  river  at  a  cost  of 
Rs.  1,15,000  furnishe  J  by  military  funds;  and  in  1905  the 
supply  was  extended  to  the  town  of  Sibi. 

rhe  Survey  Department  of  the  Government  of  India  has  Slrveys. 
prepared  and  published  maps  of  the  whole  District  on  the 
one-eighth,  quarter  inch  and  half  inch  scales.  In  connection 
with  the  settlement  operations  a  cadastral  survey  was  under- 
taken of  all  irrigated  villages  and  certain  khushkdba  tracts  in 
the  Shdhrig  tahsll  during  1899-1900,  partly  on  the  scale  of  16 
inches  to  the  mile  and  partly  on  that  of  32  inches.  In  Sihi, 
thdkbast  survey  on  the  .>-cale  of  16  inches  to  the  mile  was 
made  in  igoi  of  the  irrigated  lands  belonging  to  the  Sibi, 
Kurk  and  Khajak  circles,  and  a  field  to  field  survey,  also  on 
the  scale  of  16  inches  to  the  mile  of  the  Sdng^n,  Talli  and 
Mai  circles  as  well  as  of  the  lands  irrigated  by  flood  water 
in  the  circles  of  Sibi.  Kurk  and  Khajak. 


CHAPTER     IV^ 


MINIATURE   GAZETTEER. 


SiBi  Slb  ^^^  S^^^  sub-division  comprises  the  tahsils  of  Sibi  and 

Division.      Kohlu,  and  is  in  charge  of  an  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner, 

who  also  exercises  political  control  in  the  Marri-Bugti  country 

and  over  the  Dombki  and  Kaheri  tribes  in  the  Lahri    nidbat 

of  the  Kaldt  State  in  Kachhi. 

Sibi  tahsi'l.  The    Sibi   tahsil,   which   includes   the  Sangdn,     Pur,    and 

General  de-     Quat-Mandai  valleys  and  the   Railway   line    from   Pirak   Pir 
scription.  *■  o  o 

Takri  to  Spintangi  lies  between     29    21'  and  30    15'  N,  and 

67°  11'  and  68°  9'  E.,  and  has  an  area  of  1,343  square  miles. 

It  is  the  most  northerly  portion  of  the  Kachhi  plain,    from 

which  it  is  separated  by  a  ridge  of  low  stony  hills. 

Boundary  of        ^^  ^^  bounded  on  the  north  by   the   Shfihrig  tahsil,  on  the 

tahsil.  east' by  the  Marri  hills   and    on    the  south    and    west    by     the 

Kaldt  State  territory. 
Sane-an  The     Sangiin    valley,     which    was    transferred    from    the 

valley.  Sh^hrig    to    the    Sibi    tahsil    in    1895,    is    bounded    on     the 

north  by  the  Zawarah  valley,  on  the  south  by  the  Dddhar 
plain,  on  the  east  by  Bddra  valley  and  on  the  west  by  the 
Boldn  Pass.  It  is  circular  in  shape,  and  consists  of  consider- 
able stretches  of  alluvial  soil  affording  about  4,500  acres  of 
arable  land  ;  the  remainder  is  stony  and  cut  up  by  water 
courses. 


PHYSICAL  ASPECTS.  241 


The  Quat-Mandai   valley  is    a  continuation    of  the    B^dra         Sibi. 
"^  Quat- 

^fandai, 


valley,    and    is   enclosed    on    all  sides    by    hills.      It    has  an  ^"*' 


elevation  of  about  1,000  feet,  and  is  a  well  watered  plain 
with  fertile  soil.  The  valley  belongs  to  the  Marris  and  was 
occupied  in  1880  in  con'^equence  of  the  Kuchdli  raid,  when 
after  General  MacGregor's  successful  occupation  of  Kahc-in, 
the  tribesmen  tendered  their  submission  and  a  fine  of 
Rs.  2,00,000  was  imposed;  of  this  Rs.  1,25,000  were  paid  up, 
Rs.  25,000  were  remitted  by  Government  in  consideration  of 
the  destruction  of  the  crops,  and  the  valley  of  Quat-Mandai 
was  held  as  a  security  for  the  payment  of  the  balance.  At 
the  same  time  in  consideration  ot  the  services  rendered  by 
the  Liingdni  Marris  both  during  and  after  the  raid,  the  Bddra 
lands  were  exempted  from  payment  of  revenue  during  the 
life  time  of  Khtin  Sdhib  Hdji  Dur  Muhammad,*'  the  head  of 
that  section. 

The  Pur  valley  is  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  tahsil  by  r*'"'  valley. 
the  Marri  hills,  and  is  about  10  miles  in  length  and  about  2 
miles  in  breadth  ;  it  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Sialu 
hill  which  separates  it  from  the  Thai  plain  :  on  the  south  by 
the  Mazarin,  Sarukai,  Saraghara  and  Lakara  hills  ;  on  the 
east  by  the  Narae  or  Puzhi  hills  and  on  the  west  by  Tanga 
and  Kada  Wata.  The  valley  is  intersected  by  the  Shahra- 
ghundi  hillocks  ;  the  eastern  portion  being  known  as  Karar 
and  the  western  as  Palosin,  Pitao  and  Samghali.  The  soil 
is  fertile,  but  there  is  no  supply  of  permanent  irrigation  and 
the  cultivation  is  entirely  dependent  on  rain. 

The  Marri  hills,  the  elevations  of  which  vary  from  2,071  Hiu  ranges. 
to  2,444,  separate  the  Sibi  plain  from  the  Bddra  and  Quat- 
Mandai  valleys.  The  SAngjin  valley  is  shut  in  on  the  south 
by  Torghar  (2,912)  ;  on  the  west  by  Shabdn  (5,270)  ;  and  the 
Dalujdl  (2,333)  ^fid  Dungc-in  (6,239)  mountains  intervene 
between  Quat-Mandai  and  the  Pur  valley,  which  is  separated 
from  the  Thai  plain  by  the  Sifilu  range  (8,113)  ^"*^  Mazarin 
(6,322). 

The  main   drainage  of  the  tahsil  is  carried  off  by  the   N.-iri,  Drainage 
known   as  the  B^ji   in  Marri  country,  and  its  principal  tribu-  '""^'  '■'^'^'"^* 
taries  are  the  Kuridk  and  the  Ddda.     The  Talli,  also  known 

•  H.iji  Dur  .Muhammad  died  in  January  1906  and  the  question  of  the 
resumption  of  the  mtu'tfi  is  under  consideration. 
16 


242         CHAP.  IV.— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

SiBi.  as  the  Gurkh,  which  drains  a  considerable  portion  o\  the 
Marri  hills,  emerges  into  the  Sibi  plain  throug'h  a  narrow 
defile  called  Thani<  or  Gurkh  Between  Ndri  and  the  Talli 
there  are  several  minor  torrents  which  drain  the  outer  range 
of  hills,  the  principal  being  the  Arand,  Gazi,  Chimar,  Pogiini, 
Churri,  Kalgiri,  Mai,  Mah^r  and  Karmun. 
Forests.  The  total  area  of  reserved  forests  is  about  2,^  square  miles 

and  includes  the  Dehpdl,  Gulu  Shahr,  Abdul  Kh^li,  Lahri, 
Nari  Bank,  Bhakhra  and  Talli  reserves,  all  of  which  are  in 
charge  of  a  Deputy  Ranger  of  the  Forest  Department.  The 
principal  trees  are  the  kandi  [Prosopis  spicigcra),  karil 
{Capparls  aphylla),  pilu  [Salvadora  persica),  j'hau  [Tamarix 
indicu)  and  babiil  {Acacia  arabica). 
Climate,  The  average  temperature  of  the  Sibi  plain    in  the    summer 

a^nd^ra'infa'if  "'onths  rises  to  95°  and  96°  Fahr.,  while  the  winter  months 
have  a  mean  temperature  of  about  60°.  The  highest  tempera- 
ture of  the  hottest  da}'  in  sumrner  frequently  rises  to  110°  in 
the  shade  and  less  frequently  to  120°.  In  normal  years  the 
lowest  temperature  of  the  night  in  winter  is  a  few  degrees 
below  freezing  point  and  the  temperature  of  the  winter 
days  ranges  between  40°  and  80°.  Owing  to  the  deficiency  of 
rain  the  heat  of  the  summer  is  continuous  and  prolonged. 

The  rainfall  in  the  Sibi  plain  is  scanty  ;  the  average  for  the 
fifteen  years  endmg  with  1904  being  4*95  inches,  of  wliich 
I '77  inches  fell  in  the  Iialf  year  ending  with  31st  of  March  and 
3' 1 8  inches  during  the  second  half,  the  months  of  July  and 
August  showing  i"26  and  i'o5  inches  respectively.  At  Bdbar 
ICach  (817  feet)  the  average  is  6*09  inches  ;  and  it  is  some- 
what higher  at  Sdngdn,  for  which,  however,  no  actual  figures 
are  available. 
Historv.  The  ea'ly  h'istor\-    of   the    tahsll    has    been    mentioned    in 

Chapter  I  under  History.  Ihe  country  was  first  occupied 
in  1878,  and  in  1879  was  assigned  by  the  Amir  of  Afghd- 
nistdntothe  British  Government  by  the  Treaty  of  Gandamak. 
It  formed  part  of  the  charge  of  the  Political  Officer  at 
Jacobdbdd  up  to  December  1882,  when  it  was  transferred  to 
the  Thal-Chotidli  District.  Sang;'in  originally  formed  part 
of  the  Shdhrig  tahsll  and  was  transferred  to  the  Sibi  tahsil 
in  1895. 

The  Pur  valley  originally  belonged  to  the  Adwdni  Tarins  of 
Thai,  but  portions  of  it  gradually  passed  into  the  possession 


POPULA  TION.  243 

of  the  Marris  and  VVanechis,  and  at  the  present  time  (1905)  Sibi. 
the  Adwdnis,  ancj  Wan^chis  own  about  one-fourth,  while  the 
remainder  belongs  to  the  Shah^ja,  Chhalgari  and  Mazardni 
sections  of  the  Marris.  On  the  separation  of  Shjihrig  from 
the  Sibi  sub-division  it  was  transferred  to  the  Sibi  tahsi'l  in 
December  1904. 

In  1905  the  Sibi  tahsi'l,  excluding-  the  Quat-Mandai  and  Population. 
Pur  valleys,  contained  i  town  (Sibi),  and  32  villages  ;  and 
the  total  population  according  to  the  Census  of  igoi  was 
20,526  "' (males  1 1,719,  females  8,807)  as  compared  with  13401 
in  1891,  showing  an  increase  of  about  53  per  cent.  Of  these 
3,598  were  Hindus,  16,643  Muhammadans,  83  Christians  and 
202  others.  The  number  of  the  Hindus  included  the  local 
Hindus  who  are  mostly  of  the  Arora  caste  and  have  resided 
in  the  larger  villasfes  for  several  generations.  The  indi- 
genous Muhammadans  are  of  the  Sunni  sect  and  numbered 
13,928  (males  7,312,  females  6,616).  The  principal  races  and 
tribes  are  the  Panni  Afghans  (3,648)  ;  the  Dombki  (809)  and 
Rind  (1,138)  Baloch  ;  the  Bangulzai  (791),  Mengal  (357), 
Raisc-ini  (147)  and  Ldngav  (246)  Brahuis  ;  the  Jat  (4,762), 
Khdtrdn  (813)  and  Saiads  (273). 

The  trade  of  the  country  is  chiefly  in  the  hands  of  the 
Hindus,  while  the  principal  occupation  of  the  indigenous 
Muhammadans  is  agriculture. 

The  dialects  spoken  are  Pashtii,  Baluchi,  Brdhui  and  Jatki. 

Besides  the  Sibi  town,  the  principal  villages  are  :  Kurk 
(2,288)  the  head  quarters  of  the  Bdruzais,  Khajak  (2.738), 
Talli  (1,002),  Gulu  Shahr,  a  Nodhdni  village  (773),  Dehpjil 
(624),  Bhakra  Ghuldm  Bolak  (540),  Chdndia  (586),  Gashkori 
(527)  and  Sangan  (846). 

The  average  annual  area  under  irrigated  crops  is  about  Agriculture 
38,700  acres,  which  are  fairly  equally  distributed  between 
the  rabi  -Awdi  kharif  harvests.  The  principal  dry  crop  area*; 
dependent  on  flood-water  and  rain  are  Talii,  Mai  and  the 
Pur  valleys,  the  cultivation  of  which  varies  in  accordance 
with  the  amount  of  the  rainfall.  The  principal  crop>  of  the 
spring  harvest  are  wheat  and  sarshaf,  and  of  the  autumn 
harvest ywa;' and  cotton.  A  rough  e.->timate  made  in  1904  of 
the  agricultural  stock  belonging  to  the  permanent  inhabit- 
ants puts  the  number  of  camels  at    1,337,  donke}s    526,  bul- 

*   Pur  and  Quat-Mandai  were  included  in  the  Marri  tribal  area. 


244 


CHAP.  IV. —MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 


SIBI. 


Communi- 
cations 


Administra 
tive  Staff. 


Land 
Revenue. 


locks  and  cows  4.691,  sheep  and  goats  16,649,  and  buffaloes 
128.  The  numbers  belonging  to  the  nomads  were  esti- 
mated at  4,042  camels,  529  donkeys,  128  cattle,  and  14,164 
sheep  and  goats. 

The  North-VVestern  Railway  enters  the  tahsU  near  Pirak 
Pir  Takri.  about  7  miles  below  Sibi.  At  Sibi  the  line 
branches  off  into  the  Mushkaf-Bolan  and  the  Harnai-Shdhrig 
sections,  about  5  miles  ot  the  former  ^nd  42  miles  of  the  latter 
(Sibi  to  Spintangi),  lying  in  the  Sibi  tahsil.  The  principal 
roadsleading  fromSibiare  the  Sibi-Harnai-Pishin  road  and  the 
Sibi-Rindli-Quetta    road.     The  other  important  tracks  are  : — 

(i)  From  Bibar  Kach  to  Quetta  via  Sdngdn  (83  j  miles). 

(2)  From  Bdbar  Kach  to  Kah^n  via  Khattan  (94  miles). 

{3)  Three  separate  tracks  from  Sibi  to  Kahdn  via  Mai, 
Talli  and  Mdwand  respectively,  the  distance  in  each  case 
being  about  92  miles. 

(4)  From  Sibi  to  Ldhri  (35  miles). 

(5)  From  Sibi  to  Quat-Mandai  by  Khajak  and  Arand 
(32  miles)  ;  and  (6)  tracks  leading  from  Sibi  to  the 
villages  of  Gulu  Shahr,  Kurk,  Khajak,  and  Talli. 

The  tahsil  staff"  consists  of  Tahsilddr,  a  naib  tahsilddr,  a 
muhAsib,  3  kdnungos  and  8  patwdris.  A  mun>^iff  also  exer- 
cises civil  jurisdiction  within  the  limits  of  the  tahsil  and  has 
the  powers  of  a  judge  of  a  court  of  small  causes.  The 
police  force  employed  on  district  and  railway  work  number- 
ed 41  in  1905.  The  total  number  of  the  levies  is  180,  and 
the  details  of  their  posts  and  distribution  are  given  in 
table  XXII,  Vol.  B. 

The  Land  Revenue  of  Sibi  is  recovered  in  kind  at  the  rate 
of  two-ninths  of  the  produce  ;  in  Sdng^n  the  rate  is  one- 
fourth,  half  of  the  produce  being  paid  to  the  Bdriizai  jdgirddrs  ; 
in  Quat-Mandai  it  is  one-twelfth,  an  equal  amount  being 
paid  to  the  Marri  chief.  In  the  Pur  valley  tlie  rate  is  one-sixth. 
Grazing  tax  is  levied  in  both  Sibi  and  Sdngdn.  The  annual 
average  receipts  for  the  years  between  1897-8  and  190 1-2 
were  Rs.  99,002,  and  between  1902-3  and  1904-5  Rs.  81,539, 
the  decrease  being  due  to  unfavourable  seasons.  The 
grazing  tax  represents  from  2  to  4  per  cent,  of  the  total 
land  revenue. 

Sangan,   a  village  in    the   Sibi    tahsil,  is  situated    in    29° 
53'   N.  and  d,"  3c,'  E.,  at  an  elevation  of  about    1,690  feet 


SANG  A  A'  VILLACjE.  245 

feet.  It  is  25  miles  from  the  Beibar  Kach  station  and  about  Sibi» 
the  same  distance  from  the  Pishi  station  on  the  Mushk^f- 
Boldn  railway.  The  irrigation  is  Irom  a  stream,  which  is 
divided  into  three  channels  known  as  the  Lai'm  or  PirAni, 
Zhadiin  and  Saudi  vidlas.  The  water  is  divided  into  108 
shabdnas,  of  which  35  were  originally  allotted  to  the  Bdn'izais 
and  73  to  aliens.  The  principal  crops  are  wheat  and  rice  of 
an  inferior  quality.  Cumin  seed  is  also  collected  in  the 
neighbouring  hills  in  years  of  good  rainfall.  Drinking  water 
is  good  and  abundant  and  is  obtained  from  the  Kamdn 
stream  and  four  wells.  The  hills  round  Sdngdn  furnish  good 
grazing  for  both  camels  and  cattle. 

The  population  of  the  village,  which  consists  of  mud  huts, 
was  846  in  igoi  (424  males  and  422  females),  the  principal 
tribes  being  the  Bdriizai,  Laun,  Saudi,  Isot,  Sharkun  and 
Musakht^l.  Tlie  leading  men  among  the  Bdruzai  are  Tdj 
Muhammad  Khdn,  Mehrdb  Khdn  and  Rahmdil  Khdn.  The 
village  contains  six  shops,  three  guest  houses,  a  masjid,  a 
primary  school,  a  small  levy  post,  a  patimr  khdna  and  a 
small  rest  house  for  revenue  officials. 

Local  tradition  asserts  that  the  country  originally  belong- 
ed to  the  Zamands,  who  were  ousted  by  the  Panni  Afghans 
under  Husain.  BAri'i,  the  grandson  of  Husain,  was  the 
founder  of  the  Bdriizai  clan  and  the  ancestor  of  the  ruling 
family  which  now  holds  Sdngdn.  The  fort  and  village  were 
built  by  Ismdil  Khdn,  son  of  Mohabat  Khdn  and  sixth  in 
descent  from  Husain.  Ismdil  Khdn  accompanied  Ahmad 
Shdh,  Abddli,  to  the  Punjab  and  was  given  the  title  of 
Nawdb  and  granted  the  Sdngdn  valley  as  a  Jdgir.  In  the 
time  of  Muhammad  Azim,  fourth  in  descent  from  Ismdil 
Khdn,  the  power  of  the  Bdruzai  began  to  wane  and  the  Marris 
seized  Quat-Mandai  and  Bddra  ;  they  also  closed  the  cara- 
van routes,  and  the  valley  was  being  gradually  depopulated 
when  the  district  was  first  occupied  by  the  British  in  1878. 
Zulfikdr  Khdn,  Hazdr  Khdn  and  Ghdfar  Khdn,  the  sons  of 
Muhammad  Azim,  divided  the  property  into  three  shares 
(jams),  which  are  now  known  as  the  Jams  of  Tdj  Muham- 
mad Khdn,  Rahmdil  Khdn  and  Mehrdb  Khdn  (1905). 

Sibi  Town  (Siwi),  the  head  quarters  of  the  district,  is 
situated  between  29°  33' N.  and  67°  53' E.  and  is  88  miles 
from   Quetta   and   448  miles   from  Kardchi.     It  is  a  place  of 


2^6         CHAP.  IV.— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

SiBi.  considerable  antiquity, and  according  to  local  tradition  derives 
its  name  fro  n  Sewi,  a  Hindu  princess  of  the  S6\va  race,  who 
ruled  over  this  part  of  the  country  prior  to  the  era  of  the 
Muhammadans'  invasions.  Owing  to  its  exposed  position 
between  the  mouths  of  the  Boijin  and  Harnai  passes  it  has 
suffered  from  constant  sieges,  including  an  assault  by  the 
British  in  1841. 

The  present  town  w  is  built  after  the  second  occupa- 
tion of  1878,  and  in  its  early  days  was  known  as  Sande- 
manabdd.  The  ground  on  which  it  stands  was  at  one  time  a 
jdgir  oi  \\\Q  Baruzai  chiefs  of  Sibi  and  was  called  the  bdghdt 
or  garden  lands  ;  these  have  now  been  assigned  to  the  muni- 
cipality. 

In  1886  the  population  was  estimated  at  about  5,000,  and 
there  were  some  800  shops  and  1,000  houses.  After  the 
withdrawal  of  the  troops  and  the  completion  of  the  railway 
works  the  prosperity  of  the  to^vn  declined,  and  in  1891  the 
number  of  its  inhabitants  had  decreased  to  about  2,900. 
The  town  has  since  regained  some  of  its  former  prosperity, 
and  at  the  time  of  the  census  of  1901  the  population  was 
4,551  (males  3,166  and  females  1.385). 

Sibi  is  the  winter  head  quarters  of  the  local  Government, 
and  of  the  Political  Agent  of  the  District.  The  Shdhi  Jirga 
also  assembles  at  Sibi  during  the  winter  months  and  the 
proceedings  are  usually  terminated  by  a  public  darbdr  held 
by  the  Agent  to  the  Governor-General.  The  annual  Horse 
Show  is  held  about  the  same  time.  The  most  important 
building  is  the  Victoria  Memorial  Hall,  which  was  erected  by 
public  subscription  in  1903,  and  in  which  the  sittings  of  the 
Shdhi  Jirga  are  held.  In  addition  to  the  Government  offices 
and  quarters  for  officials  the  other  principal  buildings  are  the 
Dispensary,  Barnes  School  (for  boys),  Girls'  School,  Gais- 
ford  Library,  Mclvor  Zendna  Hospital  for  women,  Victoria 
Serdi,  two  masjids  and  two  dharnisdlas.  The  Cantonments 
are  situated  in  the  north-west  corner  of  the  town  near  the 
old  fort.  There  are  also  extensive  railway  buildings,  includ- 
ing workshops  and  quarters. 

In  1904  the  imports  by  rail  amounted  to  69,493  maunds 
and  included  piece-goods,  grain,  firewood,  oils,  ghi,  tea, 
sugar  and  iron  ;  the  exports  were  158,025  maunds,  the  chief 
items  being  grain,  wool,  potash,  salt  and  straw. 


KOHLU  TAIISIL.  247 

The  supply  of  drinking- water  was   formerly  broug-ht   from  Sibi. 

the  Ni'iri  River  in   open  channels    and  collected  in  tanks.      In 

1904  a  piped  supply  of  water  for  the  Mobilization  Camp  and 
Railway   was  completed    at   a  cost   of  Rs.    1,15,000,  and  in 

1905  the  scheme  was  extended  to  the  Sibi  town  at  an  addi- 
tional cost  of  Rs.  6,800. 

The  revenue  of  the  municipal  funds,  which  are  chiefly 
derived  from  octroi  and  conservancy  cesses,  amounted  in 
1904-^  to  Rs.  24,166  and  the  expenditure  to  Rs.  21,866. 

The  Kohlu  tahsillies  in  the  north-eastern  part  of  the  Dis-  Kohlu 

trict  between  29°  4^',  and  30°  2'  N,  and  68°  :;8',  and  69°  32' E.  Tahsil. 
.     •  •  ,  ^  •  .  ^  '   ^  -1       General    de- 

It  IS  a  triangular  plateau  with    an  area    of   362  square  miles  scription. 

and  about  3,900  feet  above  sea  level.  The  general  lie  is 
east  and  west,  the  apex  of  the  triangle  being  to  the  east  and 
terminating  at  the  Han  Pass.  The  length  of  the  tahsil  frcm 
east  to  west  is  about  40  miles  and  the  breadth  at  the  base 
of  the  triangle  on  the  west  about  18  miles.  It  is  bounded  on 
the  north  by  the  Suwran  hills  which  separate  it  from  the 
Duki  plain,  on  the  south  and  east  by  the  Jandrdn  range  and 
the  Nikra  hills  which  divide  it  from  the  Bdrkhdn  tahsil  of  the 
Loralai  District,  and  on  the  west  by  the  Koh-i-Sarad  moun- 
tains which  form  the  boundary  between  it  and  the  Marri 
country.  The  length  of  the  Kohlu  plain  itself  is  about  25 
miles  and  the  greatest  breadth  about  10  miles.  The  soil  ot 
the  plain  is  chiefly  alluvial,  but  in  many  places  the  ground  is 
salt  (kallar).  The  tahsil  is  enclosed  on  all  sides  by  hills  ; 
the  Tikhel  range  (6,881)  lying  to  the  north,  Batur  (5,745)  to 
the  west  ;  the  Jandrdn  range  (6,727)  with  Mdr  to  the  south 
and  Bibartak  (6,285)  t°  the  east.  These  hills  are  mostly 
barren,  but  in  the  T'khel  and  Jandrdn  ranges  there  are 
patches  of  cultivation,  the  principal  being  the  Girsani, 
Nisoba  and  Phardhi  valleys. 

The  best  know'n  passes,  commencing  from  the  east,  are  the 
Bibartak,  Mar,  VVanga  (4,145),  Narial  (4.430),  Mezhlidr, 
Sinni,  Ormazhi  or  Bar  (4,850)  and  Kuba  Wanga  (4,896). 

The  general  lie  of  drainage  of  the  valley  is  from  east  to 
west  and  there  are  several  mountain  torrents,  the  principal 
of  W'hich  is  the  Lahri,  known  by  the  Marris  as  the  S^nr,  which 
traverses  the  valley  from  east  to  west.  The  other  bigger 
streams  are  the  Bor,  which  rises  in  the  Phardhi  tract ;  the 
Rod  Bdladhdka,  which  rises  in  the    Garmor    hills    and   joins 


248         CHAP.  IV.— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

KoHLu.  the  Narechi  ;  and  the    Rod    Barg".     The    S(inr    has    a    small 

supply  of  perennial  water  near  Nikra  and  also  in  its  western 
portion  below  Kote  Shahr. 

Forests.  There  are  no  reserved  forests  in  the  tahsi'l.     The    principal 

trees  are  the  Pistacin  kha7ijak,  Acacia  ?nodesia,  the  wild  olive, 
{Olea  cuspidata),  and  wild  pomegranates  in  the  hills  ;  and 
the  ber  [sisyphus),  tamarisk  [Tamnrix  indica),  kirar  [Cap- 
parts  aphylla),  pilic  [Salvadora  persica)  in  the  plains.  The 
dwarf  palm  [Nannorhops  Richieana,)  is  also  found  in  most 
of  the  ravines. 

Climate,  No  records  have  been    kept    either  of   the    temperature  or 

and^a'infalL  °^  ^^®  rainfall,  but  the  climate  of  the  plateau  is  intermediate 
between  the  extremes  of  the  plains  and  the  high  lands.  The 
rainfall  appears  to  be  somewhat  higher  than  the  average 
owing  to  the   proximity  of  the  hills. 

History  The  district  appears  in  earlier  times  to  have  been  inhabited 

by  the  Bul6di  Baloch,  who  deserted  it  about  300  years 
ago,  when  it  was  occupied  by  the  present  inhabitants,  the 
Zarkiins,  who  were  originally  a  branch  of  the  Musakhel 
Afghans.  About  100  years  ago  the  Hasnis,  who  had  been 
ousted  from  Pheldwag  by  the  Marris,  attempted  unsuccess- 
fully to  wrest  Kohl  u  from  the  Zarkuns.  In  1876,  a  party 
of  Masori  Bugtis  invaded  Kohlu  to  revenge  the  death  of 
some  of  their  tribesmen  killed  during  a  raid  but  were  re- 
pulsed with  loss.  The  Bugtis  thereupon  decided  to  make 
another  expedition,  and  the  Marris,  who  appear  to  have 
fomented  the  strife,  gave  a  passage  through  their  country  to 
a  large  Bugti  force,  consisting  of  almost  all  the  tribal  war- 
riors led  by  their  chiefs.  The  Zarkiins  were  outnumbered, 
their  villages  were  sacked  and  70  of  their  tribesmen  killed. 
The  Zarkuns  then  deserted  the  district,  but  were  persuaded 
to  return  by  the  Marris,  who  offered  them  an  offensive  and 
defensive  alliance  against  the  Bugtis.  In  1878  the  Marris, 
who  had  already  acquired  Gamboli  and  Mdwand,  partitioned 
the  Kohlu  valley  into  four  shares,  which  were  divided 
among  the  three  principal  Marri  clans  and  the  Zarkuns, 
the  former  obtaining  three  shares  and  the  latter  one  share. 
According  to  this  division,  the  Ghazni  Marris  obtained  Arwa, 
Wanga,  Pusht,  Mar,  and  Bhar ;  the  Loharjinis,  Narijil, 
Kalikar,  Sawar  and  Maiddr  ;  and  the  Bijardnis  and  Zarkiins 
B^gh,  Bhar,  Zidrat  and  Sonri    in    equal    shares.     Thus    the 


THE  MURANJ  SETTLEMENT.  249 

Zarkuns  became  practically  incorporated  with  the  Bijardni  Kohlu. 
Marris.  Gulu  Gozu  was  allotted  to  the  Marri  chief, 
Mehriilla  Khdn,  as  his  panjuk  or  Sarddr's  share.  The  Zar- 
kuns were  also  permitted  to  retain  the  land  within  a  radius 
of  a  mile  round  tlieir  villages  ofOririni,  Malikzai  and  Shirdni, 
to  levy  sung  in  these  villages  and  to  tax  the  Hindus. 

In  1891  the  Zarkuns  petitioned  against  the  encroachments  The  Muranj 
of  the  Marris  and  asked  to  be  taken  under  British  protec-  ^'^  emen  . 
tion.  The  case  was  taken  up  by  Major  C.  E.  Yate,  C.S.I., 
C.M.G.,  tlien  Political  Agent  of  the  District,  and  with  the 
consent  of  both  Marris  and  Zarkuns  was  referred  to  a  Jifgci 
of  the  Baloch  and  Punjab  Chiefs  which  assembled  at  Muranj 
in  January  1892.  The  terms  of  their  decision,  which  were 
accepted  by  both  parties  and  approved  of  by  the  Agent  to 
the  Governor-General,  were  (i)  that  the  British  Government 
should  take  possession  of  the  Kohlu  valley  and  levy  revenue 
at  the  usual  rate  of  one-sixth  of  the  produce  ;  (2)  that  the 
original  sanad  givtn  to  the  Marris  by  Sir  Robert  Sandeman 
on  the  24th  of  August  1878  should  be  renewed  ;  (3)  that 
one-half  of  the  revenue  assessed  on  the  land  in  the  Kohlu 
valley  belonging  to  the  Marris  should  be  considered  as  a 
grant  to  the  Marri  chief  and  headmen  and  be  divided  among 
them  in  shares  to  be  fixed  hereafter  ;  (4)  that  Government 
should  levy  grazing  tax  within  the  limits  of  Kohlu,  bui 
that  only  half  rates  should  be  levied  from  the  Marris  ;  (5) 
that  revenue  should  be  levied  in  kind  and  not  in  cash, 
and  (6)  that  an  additional  levy  service  of  Rs.  195  a  month 
should  be  given  to  the  Marris  and  of  Rs.  130  a  month  to 
the  Zarkuns. 

In  May  1892  a  sub-tahsil  was  established  at  Kohlu,  the 
income  being  treated  as  a  part  of  the  Zhob  Revenues.  The 
sub-tahsil  was  abolished  in  1895,  but  was  again  established 
in  October  1897.  '"  1898  the  ndib  tahsilddr  in  charge  was 
vested  with  the  powers  of  a  Magistrate  of  the  2nd  class  and 
with  those  of  a  MunsifF  in  1902. 

The  internal  distribution  of  the  grants  remitted  to  the 
Marris  by  the  Muranj  Settlement  was  determined  by  a  Marri 
j'irgn  at  Fort  Munro  in  September  1892,  when  it  was  agreed 
(i)  that  all  remissions  given  on  lands  purchased  from  the 
Zarki'ins  should  be  the  right  of  the  actual  owners,  whether 
they    were    headmen    or   tribesmen  ;    but   that   each    owner 


250         CHAP.  IV.— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

KoHLi-,  should  pay  a  fixed*"  share  of  grain  at  each  spring  harvest  to  the 

Marri  chief  as  sarddri  allowance  ;  (2)  that  the  remissions  on 
lands  given  by  the  Zarkuns  to  the  Marris,  and  known  as 
mirds,  should  form  the  exclusive  right  of  tlie  Marri  chief; 
and  (3)  each  headman  should  give  3  chhattis  or  18  maunds 
of  J-rain  annually  to  Mir  Hazdr  Khdn,  Ghazni,  the  hereditary 
w.izir  of  the  Marris,  who  was  also  to  receive  one-fifth  of  the 
sarddri  allowance  given  to  the  chief. 

Population.  According  to  the  census  of  1901  the  total  population  of 
tr.e  tahsil  was  1,081  (males  594  and  females  487).  To  this 
should  be  adde  772  Marris  who  were  included  in  the  popu- 
lation of  .ne  -N.arri  country.  The  principal  tribes  were  the 
the  Zarkiin  Afghans  (751),  Marris  (772)  and  Khetrfins  (145). 
There  were  also  21  local  Hindus. 

The  head-quarters  bear  the  same  name  as  the  tahsil,  and 
the  buildings  are  situated  in  the  middle  of  the  plain  near  the 
village  of  Azdd  Shahr.  The  tahsil  buildings  include  a  com- 
bined Post  and  Telegraph  Office,  a  small  resi-house  and  a 
primary  school.  There  are  23  villages  (including  hamlets), 
the  largest  of  which  are  Azdd  Shahr  (261  inhabitants).  Malik- 
zai  (207),  Oridni  (258)  and  Karam  KhAn  Shahr  (253).  The 
chief  occupation  of  the  inhabitants  is  agriculture,  but  the 
Marris   also  combine  flock-owning. 

Agriculture.  The  permanent  sources  of  water  comprise  3  small  streams, 
7  springs  and  5  kdrczes  which  irrigate  about  3  per  cent,  of 
the  total  area  cultivated  in  each  year.  The  rest  of  the  cul- 
tivation depends  on  rain  and  on  flood  water  from  the  hills 
which  is  collected  by  a  series  of  embankments.  The  rabi  or 
spring  harvest  is  the  most  important,  and  the  chief  crop  is 
wheat  which  forms  the  staple  food  of  the  people  of  the  coun- 
try. The  autumn  harvest  is  comparatively  small  and  consists 
chiefly  oi  j'udr  with  a  small  amount  of  millets,  miing  and  bdjri. 
A  rough  estimate  made  in  1904  of  the  agricultural  stock  of 
the  tahsil  puts  the  number  of  camels  at  about  640,  donkeys 
8co,  cattle  i,c8o,  sheep  and  goats  32,300. 

Communi-  From  Biibar  Kach  on  the  Railway  line  an  unmetalled  road 

cations.  .  -1  T-i  •  J 

leads  via  Mamand  to  Kohlu  (distance  120  miles).       Ihis  road 

was  constructed  mainly  by  famine  labour  in  1905  and  is  good 

except  where  it  has  to  follow  the   beds  of  rivers.     Kohlu  is 

*  20  khais  or  chhattis  of  grain  or  about  120  maunds- 


SHAhRIG  TAHSIL.  251 

also  connected     with    Biirkhcin    (distance     22    miles)    by    a  Koin  v. 

good  unmetalled  road  which  runs  over  the  Bibartak  Pass,  and 

with    Gumbaz  (31  miles)    by  another    road  over    the   Suwran 

hills.     Both  roads  are  in  good  repair  (1905).     There  are  also 

tracks   (i)  to  Vitiikri  (about  28  miles)  by  ihe  Mdr  pass   (2)  to 

Bdladhaka   (about  17   miles)  on  the    Gumbaz    Bdrkhdn    road 

through  Kuba  Wanga  ;  (3)  to  Bdladhiika  via  Tirkha  ;  (4)  to 

Kah^n   (about  65  miles)  via    Rabi  Wanga,    Fazal  Ch^l   and 

Dojumbaktak  ;    (5)  to  Pazha  (42  miles)   in  the  Duki  tahsil  by 

the  Girsin  Wad  pass  and  (6)  to  Hosri  (about  22   miles)  in  the 

Duki  tahsil  via  Laharkhi. 

The    tahsil  is    divided   into    the  two    circles  of   Oric'ini  and   ytl'ii'mstra- 

.  .  live  staft. 

Kote  Shahr,  and  the  administrative  staff  consists  of  a  ntiib 
tahsildir,  a  miihdsih  and  two  pntivdris.  There  are  also  27 
levies  and  g  policemen. 

Land  Revenue  is  recovered  in  kind  at  the  rate  of  one-sixth  Land 
of  the  gross  produce,  except  on  those  lands  which  were  in  ^ 
the  possession  of  the  Marris  before  the  Muranj  settlement 
and  which  pay  one-twelfth.  Grazing  tax  is  levied  at  half 
rates  from  Marris  and  at  full  rates  from  Zarkuns.  As  almost 
all  ihe  cultivation  of  the  tahsil  depends  on  rain  the  revenue 
is  subject  to  considerable  fluctuations.  The  average  annual 
income  between  1897-8  and  190 1-2  was  Rs.  8,908,  and  in 
1904-5  it  amounted  to  Rs.  12,122,  of  which  grazing  tax  con- 
tributed Rs.  3, 140. 

The   Shahrig  sub-division  and  tahsil  lies  in  ihe   north-  Shahrig 
western  part  of  the  District  between  29"  49'  and   30°   37'  N,  Qgnerai 
and  67°  14' and  68°   22' E  and    has  an  area  of   1,595   square  description, 
miles.     It  is  bounded  on  the  north   by   the   Pishin,   Bori   and 
Hindub^gh    tahsils  ;  on  the  south    by  the  Marri  country  and 
the  Sibi  tahsil  ;  on  the  east  by  the  Sanjdwi  and    Duki   tahsils 
and  on  the  west  by  the  Sibi  and  the  Quetta  tahsils. 

The  tahsil  is  divided  into  two  well  defined  portions, 
namely,  the  hilly  country  to  the  north  and  west  which  is 
known  as  the  KhurAsdn  and  is  inhabited  by  the  Di'imar, 
Pdn^zai,  and  Sirangzai  Kikars  ;  and  the  Zawaiah  or  Harnai 
valley. 

The  larger  valleys  in  the  Kdkar  country  are  Kach,  Kowds, 
Zidrat  and  Manra,  and  the  principal  hill  ranges  are  Bebai 
(6,55 1 ')i  Siirghund  (10,690'),  Ghwanza  (8,880'),  Kasa  (11,105'), 
Pdn  and  Khalifat  (11,440'). 


252         CHAP.  IV. —MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

Sn.MiRu:.  The  Zawarah  valley  extends  from   the   Chappar  mountain 

to  the  Spi'ntangi  or  Gan^ji  rift  with  a  length  of  about  56 
miles  and  an  average  breadth  of  6  miles.  It  rises  gradually 
from  an  elevation  of  1,800  feet  at  Spintangi  to  4,764  feet  at 
Dirgi,  and  has  been  described  as  consisting  of  "a  long 
narrow,  broken  bottom,  in  many  places  intersected  by  ravines, 
but  here  and  there  smoothed  out  into  a  level  plateau  of 
limited  extent,  these  plateaus  being  clothed  with  a  fairly  rich 
arable  soil ;  in  other  places  its  basin  is  stony  and  harsh,  but 
covered  with  low  brush-wood  of  dwarf  palm  trees  and  with 
coarse  grasses."'-'  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Khalifat 
mountain  and  the  Pdn  range  and  en  the  south  by  a  range  of 
the  Brahuic  mountains  locally  known  as  Gulu  Shiih.  The 
north-eastern  extremity  is  closed  by  the  Pll  and  Chappar  hills, 
which  are  cleft  by  narrow  and  difficult  gorges. 

Rivers  The  lie  of  the  d.rainage  is  in  a  general  southerly   direction 

and  the  principal  streams  are  the  Mdngi,  Shahrig,  Harnai  or 
Ddda  and  the  Kuri^ik,  which  are  fed  by  numerous  small  hill 
torrents  and  eventually  join  the  Ndri  which  forces  its  way 
into  the  Sibi  plains  through  the  Ndri  Gorge.  The  Mdngi, 
Harnai  and  Kurijik  streams  have  a  perennial  supply  of  water. 

Forests.  The  reserved  juniper  forests  are  Pil  (1,280  acres),  Shahid<in 

(2,500  acres),  Zargat  (2,760  acres),  Gohar  (1,500  acres),  Kach- 
Mdngi  (9,400  acres),  Tor  Shor  (i  i,coo  acres)  Surghund  (7,5*  o 
acres)  and  Batsargi  (7,680  acres),  making  a  total  of  68  square 
miles.  The  olive  and  shisham  reserves  at  Wf4m  Tangi  and 
Wdm  Kach  comprise  about  5^  square  miles. 

Climate,  The  climate  varies  with  the    altitude   which    ranges   from 

temperature   ,  goo  feet  at  Spintangi   to  over  8,000  feet  at   Zidrat.     The 
and  ramtali.  •        ,  .     ,,  •  ,     .    . 

only   place  in  the   tahsil  wl  ere    temperature    is    recorded    is 

Shdhrig  (3,963  feet),  which  shows  a  mean  average  of  88° 
during  the  summer  and  46°  in  the  winter  Many  parts  of  the 
Zawarah  valley,  and  especially  the  circles  of  Shahrig  and 
Harnai,  are  extremely  unhealthy  and  malarious  during  the 
autumn,  owing  probably  to  the  large  amount  of  rice  cultiva- 
tion and  the  swarms  of  mosquitoes  which  are  bred  in  the 
swamps.  The  permanent  inhabitants  of  the  valley  compare 
unfavourably  in  physique  with  the  Pathdns  of  Quetta  and  the 
hills.  The  people  divide  the  year  into  the  following  parts  : 
7nane  40  days  beginning  about  the  20th   of  August,  sdwri  40 

*  Dr.  Duke's  Report  on  the  Harnai  and  Thal-Chotidli  Districts  (1883). 


POPULATION,  ETC.  253 

clays,  samai  100  days,  chiirniiin  40  days,  dobae  40  days,  nhnr  Suahrig. 
40  days  and  -joasa  or  the  rainy  season  60  days. 

The  aver  ige  rainfall  of  the  valley  is  higher  than  in  other 
parts  of  the  District,  being  11^  inches  at  Shahrig  and  1 1  •o'S 
inches  at  Kach.  The  heaviest  rain  occurs  in  the  months  of 
January,  February  and  March,  and  July  and  August. 

The    history  of  the    District   is   given  in    Chapter    I.     The    History. 
Kach-Hamadud    and    Kowds  valleys  originally    formed    part 
of  the  Pishin  District,  but  were  tratisferreJ    to  Thal-Chotiali 
in    1881.      Pur,   which   formed   part   of   the  Duki   tahsil,    u  as 
transferred  to  Shahrig  in  1897  and  to  Si  hi  in  1904. 

The  tahsil  contains  93  villages,  and  the  total  population  Population, 
according  to  the  census  of  1901  was  16,573  (9,421  males, 
7,152  females)  or  about  10  persons  to  a  square  mile.  Of 
these  15,583  were  Mu'iammadans,  777  Hindu  and  39  Chris- 
tians. The  indigenous  inhabitants  who  are  Musalmdns  of 
the  sufint  sect  and  speak  Pashlu,  numbered  i4-,iii  (males 
7,428  and  females  6,683).  ^^^  Wan^chis  speak  a  modified 
form  of  Pashtii  known  as  the  Tarinao  or  Chhalgari  dialect. 
The  principal  tribes  were  the  Sanzarkhel  Kdkars  1,535, 
Sanatia  Kdkars  4,967,  Tarins  6,404  (including  1,248  Wan6- 
chis  and  4,525  Makhianis)  and  1,053  Saiads. 

Shahrig  (population  325)  is  the  head  quarter  station  of 
the  tahsil  ;  it  is  connected  by  rail  with  Sibi  (74  miles)  and 
Quetta  (81  miles)  and  has  a  small  bazar,  post  and  telegraph 
offices,  a  rest-house,  a  railway  dispensary  and  a  primary 
school.  The  larger  villages  in  the  tahsil  are  :  Kach,  Ahma- 
diin  or  Hamadun  (670),  Kowas  or  Khowas  (878),  Zandra 
(615),  Miankach  (109),  Harnai  (252)  and  Khost  (r,377)- 

Among  the  indigenous  inhabitants  the  principal  occupation 
is  agriculture  combined  with  flockowning. 

Except  for  a  few  circles  which  lie  in  the  hills  the  quality  Agriculture, 
of  the  land  in  the  tahsil  is  fairly  uniform.  1  he  land  avail- 
able for  cultivation  is  limited,  while  the  supply  of  water  is 
i^enerally  (and  in  the  Harnai  and  Babihdn  circles  invariably) 
more  than  sufficient  for  the  land.  The  people  are  perpetually 
occupied  in  maintaining  and  improving  the  quality  of  their 
lands  and  manage  to  cultivate  a  greater  portion  twice  in  the 
year,  or  three  times  in  two  years.  The  permanent  sources  of 
irrigation  are  13  streams,  14  kdrezes  and  144  springs.  The 
irrigable  area  is  about  lo.ooo  acres,  the  dry  crop  cultivation 


254         CHAP.  IV— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER 


Shahrig 


Communi- 
cations. 


Administfc 
tive  staff. 


Laad 
revenue. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


representing-  about  23  per  cent,  of  the  total  cultivated  area. 
Wheat  is  the  principal  crop  of  the  j-ahi  harvest  and  rice  and 
makai  oi  \\\Q.  kharif  \\z.xvQS\..  A  rough  estimate  made  in  1904 
of  the  ag^ricultural  stock  of  the  tahsil  puts  the  number  of 
camels  at  100,  donkeys  923,  bullocks  and  cows  5,020,  and 
sheep  and  goats  44,690. 

The  Sind-Pishin  section  of  the  North-Western  Railway 
traverses  the  tahsil  from  Spintangi  to  Kach  Kotal.  The 
important  roads  are  sliown  in  detail  in  table  XI,  Volume  B, 
and  include  the  Sibi-Quetta  road  ;  Harnai-Loralai  road  ; 
the  Quetta-Ziarat  and  Smallan  road  ;  and  the  Spintangi- 
S^mbar-Duki  road.  Other  important  tracks  are  (i)  Ahmadiin 
to  Pisnin,  (2)  Ahmadun  to  Kdnr  through  the  Gogi  Tangi,  (3) 
Mdngi  to  Zidrat  by  Kasim  Tangi  (21  miles),  (4)  .Sunari  to 
Warikha  (24  miles)  and  thence  to  Duki,  and  (5)  footpaths 
also  lead  from  Shdhrig  to  Zidrat  by  Wuch  Aghbargi  and 
Domiara(22  miles)  ;  from  Shdhrig  to  S^ngdn  ;  from  Zarddlu 
to  Quetta  by  the  Uzhda  Psha  pass  (44  miles)  ;  from  Zandra 
to  Sanjdwi  by  Manra,  Ghunz  and  Piii  (61  miles)  ;  from 
Kowds  to  Hindubagh  via  Sperar^gha  and  the  Kaldt 
Pir  Tangi  (41  miles)  ;  and  from  Spintangi  to  Pi'ii  {21 
miles). 

The  tahsil  is  divided  into  five  circles  ;  Kach,  Kowds, 
Shdhrig,  Harnai  and  Bdbihdn.  The  Assistant  Political 
Agent  is  in  charge  of  the  Sub-division,  and  the  tahsil  staff 
consists  of  a  tahsildar,  a  ndib  tahsildar,  a  miihdsib,  two 
kdnungos  and  five  patwdris.  The  number  of  the  police  and 
levies  located  in  the  tahsil  are  70  and  176  respectively. 
There  are  170  village  headmen. 

A  cash  assessment  fixed  for  ten  years  from  1902  has  been 
introduced  on  irrigated  areas,  and  revenue  in  kind  is  taken 
on  unirrigated  lands  at  the  rate  of  one-sixth  of  the  total 
produce.  The  incidence  per  acre  of  irrigable  area  varies 
from  a  maximum  of  Rs.  2-14-11  to  a  minimum  of  Rs.  2-2-6. 
Between  1897-8  and  1901-2  the  average  annual  land 
revenue,  including  grazing  tax  and  tax  on  water  mills,  was 
Rs.  30,294,  In  19^4-5  it  amounted  to  Rs.  27,332,  to  which 
grazing  tax  contributed  Rs.  5,369. 

Coal  is  worked  at  Khost,  and  the  minor  products  are 
cumin  seed  (sira),  hyssop  {su/a),  asafoetida  {hhig)  and  the 
dwarf  palm  {pish). 


HARNAI  AND  KACH.  255 

Harnai  is  a  station  on  the  Sind-Pishi'n  section  of  the  Shahrig. 
North-Western  Railway  58  miles  from  Sibi  and  97  miles 
from  Quetta.  It  is  situated  in  the  Zawarah  valley  between 
30°  6'  N  and  67°  56'  E.,  at  an  elevation  of  3,000  feet  and  is 
the  forwarding'  station  for  Loralai  find  Fort  Sandeman.  A 
cart  road  takes  off  to  Loralai  (55^  miles)  and  Fort  Sandeman 
(167 J  miles)  with  branches  from  Smallan  (Sanjdwi)  to 
Ouetta  via  Zidrat  (102  miles)  and  to  Duki  (22  miles).  A 
regular  service  of  tum-tums  plies  between  Harnai  and  Lora- 
lai, the  rate  of  hire  being  Rs.  14.  Camels  are  the  principal 
means  of  transport  and  can  be  obtained  from  the  Govern- 
ment contractor  at  Harnai.  There  is  a  police  thdna  (12 
men),  a  levy  post  (13  men),  combined  telegraph  and  post 
office,  Political  rest-house,  dak  bungalow,  and  a  serai.  The 
water-supply,  which  is  good  and  abundant,  is  obtained  from 
the  Harnai  stream  and  springs  ;  there  are  also  five  wells. 
Ojctroi  and  conserx'ancy  cesses  are  levied  in  the  bazar  and  a 
small  sanitary  establishment  is  maintained.  There  are 
seventeen  shops.  The  imports  by  rail  in  1904  amoimted  to 
62,900  maunds,  consisting  chiefly  of  stores  for  Loralai  and 
Fort  Sandeman,  and  the  exports  to  about  20,470  maunds, 
which  included  grain,  wool  and  bhi'isa. 

The  villages  in  the  neighbourhood  are  inhabited  chiefly 
by  the  Makhidni  Spin  Tarins.  These  Tarins  are  supposed 
to  have  first  occupied  the  valley  in  the  fourteenth  century, 
but  there  is  no  authentic  information  regarding  the  earlier 
inhabitants.  According  to  local  traditions  these  were  Hin- 
dus, and  the  name  of  Harnai  is  said  to  be  derived  from  one 
Harndm  Dds,  a  Hindu  ruler  of  the  place.  In  the  beginning 
of  the  nineteenth  century  Mir  Mustafa  Khan,  the  Br.-ihui 
governor  of  Kachhi  and  the  brother  of  Mir  Mahmud  Khan  1, 
Khdn  of  Kalat,  is  described  by  Muhammad  Sadik  ■*■"  as 
having  made  expeditions  into  Kdkaristjin  and  given  over  the 
country  to  be  plundered  by  his  troops.  During  one  of  these 
expeditions  he  captured  and  destroyed  the  fort  at  Harnai. 

Kach  or  Kachh,  a  station  on  the  Sind-Pishin  section 
of  the  North- Western  Railway,  lies  between  30°  26'  N.  and 
67°  iS'  E.,  at  an  elevation  of  about  5,900  feet  above  the  sea. 
It  is  i;o  miles  by  rail  and  115^  miles  by  road  from  Sibi,  45 
miles    by    rail    and  28|  miles  by    road    from    Quetta  and   is 

*    Tate's  Kiilat,  page  44. 


256         CHAP.  IV— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

SiiAHRiG.  connected  by  a  cart  road  with  Zidrat  (32^  miles).  There  is 
a  rest-house  close  to  the  station,  where  a  khdnsdnia  is 
maintained  from  May  to  September.  The  gfoods  traffic  is 
chiefly  connected  with  TA-kx2L\.,  the  imports  being-  about 
19,000  maunds  and  exports  about  3,600  maund'-  in  the 
year. 

The  Kach  post  lies  about  a  mile  and  a  half  south  of  the 
station  on  a  gravelly  flat  opposite  the  gap,  through  which  the 
Akhtamar  stream  escapes  into  the  Mdngi  valley.  It  was 
held  by  regular  troops  up  to  July  1890,  when  it  was  handed 
over  to  the  levies.  The  levies,  who  are  cliiefly  Pin^zai 
KdUars,  consist  of  one  resaldar,  one  jemaddr,  3  dufFaddrs,  8 
sowars,  1 1  footmen  and  one  munshi. 

On  the  i6th  of  August  1880,  a  large  body  of  Pdn^zai  Kdkars, 
led  by  Faiz  Muhammad  and  Hakim  Khdn  and  reinforced  by 
a  strong  contingent  of  Zhob  Kakars  under  Shdhjahdn 
Jogizai,  attacked  the  post,  which  was  then  held  by  a 
detachment  of  300  men  of  the  i6th  Bombay  Infantry  under 
Colonel  T.  W.  Pierce.  The  attack  was  repulsed  after  three 
hours'  fighting,  during  which  the  enemy  lost  ;.bout  200 
killed  and  wounded.  On  the  i8th  the  garrison,  being 
reinforced  by  a  body  of  cavalry  under  Major  Mosley  of  the 
i5aloch  Guides,  moved  out  against  the  villages  of  Kach  and 
Ahmadun,  which  were  occupied  and  burnt. 

The  Kach  village  is  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Akhtamar  stream,  about  3  miles  to  the  north-east  of  the 
Kach  post.  The  inhabitants  number  about  155  persons 
(males  85  and  females  70)  and  belong  to  the  Pdn^zai  anti 
Isakhel  Kdkars.  This  village,  which  with  Ahmadun  and 
Kowjis  forrrerly  formed  part  of  1  ishin  under  the  Afghan 
rule,  was  transferred  to  the  Shahrig  tahsil  in  1881. 

Kowas,  a  village  in  the  ShAhrig  tahsil  between  29°  17'  N. 
and  68°  56'  E.,  is  situated  on  the  Kach-Ziirat  road,  22  miles 
from  the  Kach  railway  station.  In  former  days  it  formed  one 
of  the  stages  on  the  main  caravan  route  between  India  and 
Persia,  and  was  visited  in  1614  by  Messrs.  Richard  Steel  and 
John  Crowther,  two  merchants  in  the  service  of  the  East 
Indian  Society,  who  have,  however,  recorded  no  information 
regarding  it  beyond  that  they  were  compelled  to  pay  a  heavy 
tax  on  their  camels.  It  was  thus  described  in  1880  by 
Colonel  Sir  Oliver  St.  John  :   "  It  is  a   flourishing   village    of 


KOWAS  AND  KHOST.  257 

abmt  200  houses,  built  on  a  small  rising  ground  ;  there  is  SwAHRie 
no  regular  rampart  to  the  town,  but  the  outer  walls  of  the 
houses  are  built  touching  each  other  without  exterior 
openings  of  any  sort  in  the  whole  enceinte  save  four  small 
posterns,  and  thus  form  a  continuous  barrier.  Tiie  material 
used  is  rubble  stone  in  mud,  and  the  roofs  are  flat  *" 

*         *         *  For  a  space  of  seven  or  eight  miles  and  for 

a  breadth  varying  from  a  mile  to  a  hundred  yards,  the  cul- 
turabie  land  was,  at  the  time  we  passed  through  it,  one  sheet 
of  ripe  corn  dotted  with  mulberry,  willow  and  apricot  trees, 
forming  a  scene  of  rustic  beauty  and  fertility  rare  in  this 
country.  The  fields  are  in  terraces,  the  faces  of  which  are 
carefully  rivetted  with  stone  ;  the  river  is  kept  within  bounds 
by  well  constructed  spurs  of  timber  and  brushwood,  the 
water  is  economically  distributed,  and  the  channels  clean  and 
in  good  repair.  In  short  the  whole  place  bears  unmistake- 
able  signs  of  considerable  prosperity  and  of  more  careful 
husbandry  than  I  have  seen  anywhere  in  Afghjinistdn,  save 
in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  Kandahdr."*  At  the 
present  time  there  is  a  general  tendency  among  the  in- 
habitants to  desert  the  village  and  build  their  houses  on  the 
borders  of  the  fields  ;  the  cultivation  also  has  greatly 
increased,  and  potatoes,  melons  and  tobacco  have  been 
introduced  with  considerable  success. 

The  population  in  1901  was  678  (males  442  and  females 
436),  the  principal  tribes  being  the  Spin  Tarin,  Pdnezai 
Kdkdrs,  Saiads,  and  a  few  Brdhuis. 

The  patron  saint  of  the  town  is  Mian  Shadi,  whose 
shrine  is  close  to  the  village  and  who  is  credited  with  having 
destroyed  the  old  town  of  Kowds  by  an  earthquake. 

Khost,  a  station  on  the  Sind-Pishin  section  of  the  North- 
Western  Railway  in  the  Shdhrig  tahsil  lies  between  30*  13'  N, 
and  67°  35' E,  at  an  elevation  of  4, 119.  It  is  9  miles  from 
Shdhrig,  83  from  Sibi  and  73  from  Quetta  ;  and  derives  its 
sole  importance  from  the  colliery  works  in  the  vicinity.  It 
is  the  head-quarters  of  the  Mining  Manager  and  has  a  small 
but  thriving  bazar  of  some  thirty  shops.  There  is  also  a 
Railway  Hospital,  and  police  and  levy  posts.  The  popula- 
tion of  the  bazar  in  1901  was  99,  and   ordinarily  about  1,200 

•A    Historical   and   Descriptive    Report  on    the   District  of    Thal- 
Chotidli  mnd  Harnai  by  Dr.  O.  T.  Duke  (Calcutta,  1883),  page  82. 

'7 


258         CHAP,  rw— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

Shahrig.  men  are  regularly  employed  in  the  collieries.  The  Khost 
village  has  a  population  of  254,  chiefly  Khami's,  T.-iran  and 
Sanzarkhel  Kjikars. 

Spintangi,  which  is  known  by  the  Baloch  as  Ganr6ji  is  a 
station  on  the  Sind-Pishin  section  of  the  North-Western 
Railway,  and  derives  its  name  from  the  white  {spin)  rift 
{ta7i§^i)  througli  which  the  stream  forces  its  way.  It  lies 
between  29°52'N,  and  68°  8'  E,  at  an  elevation  of  1,800  feet; 
and  is  the  forwarding  market  for  Duki,  Kohlu,  Mdkhtar, 
B<-irkhfin  and  the  north-western  portion  of  the  Marri  country. 
The  imports  in  1906  amount  to  about  17,240  maunds,  chiefly 
piece-goods,  rice  and  sugar  and  the  exports  to  about  18,500 
maunds  which  are  principally  made  up  of  wheat  and  wool. 
It  is  connected  with  the  Thai  valley  by  a  road  w'hich  passes 
through  the  Sembar  Pass. 

Ziarat,  a  sanitarium  and  the  provincial  summer  head- 
quarters of  the  Baluchistan  Agency  is  situated  in  30°  23' N, 
and  67°  51' E,  at  an  elevation  of  about  8,050  feet  above  the 
sea.  It  lies  in  the  Shjihrig  tahsil  of  the  Sibi  District  and  is 
the  residence  of  the  Political  Agent  from  May  to  October. 
Zidrat  is  most  easily  reached  from  Kach  station  by  a  cart 
road  (32I  miles)  which  is  provided  w-ith  ddk  bungalows  at 
Kach  and  Kdnr.  It  is  also  connected  with  Loralai  (59! 
miles)  by  a  cart  road  running  through  Karbi  Kach,  Chanter, 
Wani  and  Smallan.  There  is  a  good  bridle  path  to  the 
Mcingi  Railway  station  (21  miles)  through  the  Kdsim  Tangi. 
Hill  paths  also  lead  to  Sh.-ihrig  (22  miles)  by  the  Wuch 
Aghbargai  Kotal  and  the  DomiAra  hill. 

The  local  name  of  the  place  is  Gwashki  or  Koshgi,  which 
was  changed  in  1886  to  Zifirat  after  the  neighbouring  shrine 
of  Midn  Abdul  Hakim.  It  was  first  visited  and  selected  as 
a  sanitarium  in  1883.  The  Residency  was  built  in  1890-91, 
and  the  land  (about  81  acres)  on  which  the  station  is  built 
and  the  water  were  purchased  in  1895  from  the  Sdrangzais 
for  Rs.  14,000. 

A  pipe  water  supply  was  provided  in  1808-9  at  a  cost  of 
Rs.  38,000.  A  summer  camp  for  the  European  troops  sta- 
tioned at  Quetta  was  first  formed  at  Ziarat  in  1885,  but  the 
experiment  was  afterwards  abandoned  until  1903,  when  the 
camp  w^as  again  established.  The  camp  is  situated  on  a  spur 
(Ambfir  Zawar)  of  the  Batsar^i  hill  to  the  north  of  the  station. 


nas/rAbAd. 


259 


The  climate  during  the  sliort  summer  is  delightful  and  the       Shahrig. 
air  is  bracing.     The  hill-sides  are  covered  with  juniper  and 
huge  gc^rges  and  defiles  constitute  a  feature  of  the  scenery. 

In  addition  to  the  Residency  the  principal  buildings  con- 
sist of  houses  for  officials,  Government  offices,  a  d^ik  bunga- 
low, post  and  telegraph  office  and  a  dispensary.  The 
sanitation  is  provided  for  by  the  Zijirat  Improvement  Fund, 
which  is  a  branch  of  the  Shdhrig  Bazar  Fund  and  of  which 
the  revenue  in  1904-05  amounted  to  Rs.  4,320  and  the  ex- 
penditure to  Rs.  3,161.  The  place  is  practically  deserted 
during  the  winter  owing  to  the  severe  cold  and  heavy  snow. 

The  Nasirabad  sub-division  includes  the  Nasir^biid  tahsil     nasirabad 
and  the  Railway  line  from  Jhatpat  to  Mithri.      It  lies  between    Sub-division 
■27°  5.^'  and  2S°4o'  N,  and  67°  40'  and   69°  20'  E,  and  has  an    General 
area    of  852    square  miles.     The    tahsil  which  is  situated  on    desc.iption. 
the  northern  and  western  borders  of  the  Jacobdbfid  or  Upper 
Sind  Frontier  District  of  Sind,  is  a    narrow  strip  of  country, 
running  east  and  w^est    for   a    distance    of  about    104   miles 
and  varying  in  breadth  from    i  to  12   miles.      In  its    extreme 
eastern   corner   is    the    L^ni    Tower,    which    forms    the    tri- 
junction  of  the    Sind,    Baluchistan    and    Punjab    boundaries, 
and  on  the  north  it  is    bounded    by    the    Bugti    country    and 
the  Kalfit  State.     Its  physical  aspects  resemble  those  of   the 
Kaclihi  province  of  the  Kal^t  State,  and  the  chief  character- 
istics are  its  canals,  its    dead  level    surface,    excessive    heat 
during  the  summer  and  scanty  rainfall.     The  soil    is    chiefly 
alluvial  and    very  fertile  if  irrigation  can   be  brought  to  bear 
on  it. 

It  depends  for  its  cultivation  on  the  Begdri  and  Desert 
canals  of  the  Sind  system.  A  few  hill  torrents,  which  occa- 
sionally bring  down  flood-water,  enter  the  tahsil  on  the  north 
from  the  Bugti  country,  but  are  lost  in  the  sand  hills  before 
they  proceed  any  distance,  the  principal  being  the  Gorandri 
Nilagh,  Phanydn,  Ghari  Manak,  Dingrizo,  Bi.ri,  Kabula  and 
Bcigh. 

There  are  no  reserved  forests.  The  commoner  trees  and  Forests 
bushes  are  the  bahiil  [Acacia  arabica),  kirar  {Capparis 
aphylla),  kandi  {Prosopis  spicigera,^  ber  {Zisyphus)^  ivati  or 
khabbar  {Sulvadora  oleoides),  ghaz  [Tatnartx  tiidica),  ak 
[Calatropis  gigantea)  and  lana.  There  are  also  a  few  tahri 
{Dalber^^ia  sissu)  and   7iirn  [Asadirachia). 


26o 


CHAP.  IV.— MINIATURE   GAZETTEER. 


Nasirabad.        The  climate   resembles   that   of  the  Upper  Sind  Frontier, 
which  has  been  described  "  as   being   perhaps  the   driest  in 
the  world,  and  as  showing  at  times  very   remarkable  varia- 
^,.      .  tions  in  temperature."     There  are  only  two  marked  seasons, 

temperature  the  hot  and  the  cold,  the  first  extending  from  i\!ay  to 
and  rainfall,  ggptember,  and  the  other  from  October  to  April.  The  tem- 
perature during  the  months  of  April  and  October  is,  however, 
very  uncertain.  From  November  to  Marcli  the  climate  is 
temperate  and  enjoyable  ;  but  during  December  and  January 
the  cold  is  frequently  great,  the  thermometer  sometimes 
indicating  as  low  a  temperature  as  27°.  The  greatest  heat 
is  experienced  in  the  months  of  June,  July  and  August. 
The  mean  monthly  temperature  of  the  "cold  "  season  ranges 
from  58°  to  73°  and  that  of  the  "  hot"  season  from  80°  to 
102°.  The  following  figures  recorded  at  Jacobdbdd  show 
the  temperature  at  various  times  of  the  year  : — 


History. 


Date. 

sis 
_  c 

c 
iL  0 

u  0 
£  c 

< 

"  0 

c 

L.     0 
< 

COS 

0 

,   c 

u   0 
V  0 

< 

ist  January 

47" 

65. 

43-S 

IT 

40-8 

75-6 

I  si  April 

79*2 

I02"2 

8i'8 

•05'4 

69-9 

86-4 

1st  July 

9'- 

I  14*2 

88-9 

109- 

92- 

io8-8 

1st  October 

83-5 

I08-2 

798 

103-7 

95" 

11 1  2 

The  rainfall  is  small  and  varies  from  3  to  5  inches. 

The  earlier  history  of  the  revenue  and  administrative 
arrangements  of  Nasirdbid  has  been  given  in  Cnapter  III. 
The  revenue  administration  was  at  first  in  the  hands  of  the 
Political  Agent  of  Jacobabad,  but  in  1877  when  the  H^luchi- 
stin  Agency  was  created,  it  was  transferred  to  this  province. 
The  management  then  alternated  between  Political  Agents 
of  Southern  Baluchistan  and  Kahit  until  1895,  when  it  was 
finally  handed  over  to  the  former.  In  18S3  a  tahsilddr  was 
appointed,  together  with  a  staff  of  nine  tapaddrs  [pahodris) 
and  a  supervisor.  The  revenue  adininistration  was  intri- 
cate ;  the  irrigation  was  entirely  in  the  hands  of  tlie  Sind 
officials,  while  the  revenue  was  assessed  by  the  ta  isildjir  and 
collected  by  the  Khan's  Naib.     Thus  the  latter   was   unable 


POPULATION  AND   VILLAGES,  261 

to  interfere  in  fixing  the  demand,  for  the  collection  of  which  Nasirabad. 
he  was  solely  responsible ;  while  the  tahsi'lddr  had  the 
responsibility  of  assei-sing  the  revenue,  but  had  no  authoiity 
to  enforce  his  as>eshmenis.  In  practice  it  was  found  extreme- 
ly difficult  to  define  the  limits  of  their  respective  jurisdictions, 
and  the  evils  resulting  frc  m  this  system  of  dual  control  were 
still  greater  in  civil  jtnd  criminal  matters  than  in  questions 
cf  revenue  pure  and  simple.  In  order  to  terminate  this  ano- 
malous and  tT^a'isfactory  condition  of  affairs,  His  Highness 
the  Khan  made  over  the  management  of  the  Nasirdbad  nid- 
lut  in  perpetuity  to  the  British  Government  for  an  annual 
payment  of  Rs.  1,15,000.  The  lower  portions  of  the  Man- 
juthi  lands  were  at  the  same  time  handed  over  on  the  pay- 
ment of  an  additional  sum  of  Rs.  2,500  per  annum. 

A  copy  of  the  agreement,  which  is  dated  the  17th  of  Feb- 
ruary 1903  and  which  was  ratified  by  the  Viceroy  on  the  14th 
of  May  1903,  is  attached  as  Appendix  V. 

In  October  1903  the  .Southern  Baluchistan  Agency  was 
abolished,  and  the  Nfisirabfid  nidbat,  together  with  the  charge 
of  the  lailway  line  from  Jhatpat  to  Mithri,  formed  into  a 
separate   sub-division  and   attached  to  the  new  Sibi  District. 

The  tahsil  has  90  villages  ;  and  the  total  population  accord-  Population, 
ing  to  the  census  of  190 1  was  35,713  (males  19,885,  females 
15,828),  or  42  persons  to  the  square  mile.  Of  the  total* 
33,525  were  Muhammadens  and  2,173  Hindus,  the  former 
belonging  to  the  Sunni  sect.  The  dialects  spoken  are  the 
Sindi,  Jatki  and  Baluchi.  The  principal  tribes  represented 
were  Rind  8,8c6  (including  Chandia  505,  Jam^ili  3,088, 
Khosa  3,338,  Lashdri  796,  Ldghdri  417,  Mugheri  269)  ;  Gola 
5,134;  Umrani  1,098;  Brdhuis  i,q65  (including  Bangulzai 
470,  Baduzai  280,  Di'narzai  168,  Ldngav  137,  Lehri  164, 
M^ngal  4e  7,  Pindrdni  465,  Zehri  105)  ;  Magassi  605  ;  Marri 
44  ;  Dcmbki  269  ;  Jat  12,351  (including  7,400  Abra)  and  224 
Saiads.  The  principal  occupation  of  the  indigenous  popu- 
lation is  agriculture,  while  the  trade  of  the  country  is  chiefly 
in  the  hands  of  the  Hindus. 

In  addition  to  the  head  quarter  station  of  the  tahsil, of  which    Villages, 
the  name  has  recently  (1903)  been  changed    from  Nasirabdd 
to  Yatedbdd,  the  important  villages  are  Hdmidpur,  Mdhnipur, 
Sohbatpur,  Mamal,  Rojhan  Dur  Muhammad  Khdn  (the  head 
quarters  of  the  Jamalis),  Muhammadpur,  also  called  Usta 


262         CHAP,  IV.— MINIATURE  GAZETTEER. 

Nasirabad.     and    Ganddkha.       Muhammadpur    is    noted    for   its    leather 

works. 
Agriculture.  ^'^^  irrigation  is  supplie  1  by  the  Shahiwdh,  Frontier 
Rdjbdh,  Uch  Rdjbah  and  Manjiithi  branches  of  the  Desert 
canal,  and  the  Nur  W^h  and  Sir  Wdh  branches  of  the  Begari 
canal.  The  irrigated  area  under  cultiv^ation  in  1904-5  was 
1,03,085  acres,  of  which  71,348  acres  were  watered  by  tlie 
Desert  and  31,737  acres  by  the  Begari  canal  ;  t  le  largest  area 
irrigated  in  any  year  since  i88i*  was  1,08,788  acres  in  1903, 
of  which  68,302  were  irrigated  by  the  Desert  and  40,486  by 
the  Begdri  canal.  The  khushkdba  or  dry-crop  cultivation 
represents  about  10  per  cent,  of  the  whole. 

The  principal  harvest  is  the  kharif,  the  chief  crops  of 
which  are  judr,  HI ^  rice,  cotton  and  indigo  ;  the  principal 
crops  of  the  ;'«(5>/ harvest  include  wheat,  gram  and  oil-seeds. 
A  rough  estimate  made  of  the  agricultural  stock  in  1904 
puts  the  number  of  camels  at  2,000,  donkeys  500,  bullocks 
and  cows  5,000,  sheep  and  goats  6,000  and  buffaloes  400. 
Communi-  '\^\\Q.  railway  line  (about  82  miles)  from   Jhatpat    to   within 

cations.  7  miles  of  Sibi    is    under    the    administrative    charge   of  the 

Extra  Assistant  Commissioner,  Nabirabdd  ;    the  stations  are 
Jhatpat,  Temple  Ddra,  Nuttal,  Belpat,  Lindsay  and  Alithri. 

The  country  is  open  and  passable  in  all  directions  ;  the 
principal  tracks  are  from  Jacobdbdd  to  Nasirdbdd  (8  miles)  ; 
Jacobdbad  to  D^ra  Bugti  (78  miles)  ;  Nasirabad  to  Sibi  via 
Shdhpur.  Chhattar,  Phuleji  and  Lahri  (96  miles)  ;  and  from 
Lashkar  Khan  Kot  in  the  west  of  the  tahsil  to  Malguzdr, 
(104  miles)  in  toe  east. 
Administra-  The  present  liead  quarters  of  the  sub-division  and  tahsil 
staV"'^  are  at  Na->irdbdd  (Yateabdd)  about   2^  miles  to  the   east   of 

Jhatpat  station,  but  will  shortly  be  transferred  to  Jhatpat 
itself  (1906).  An  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner  is  in  charge 
of  the  sub-division  ;  and  the  subordinate  revenue  staff 
consists  of  a  tahsilddr,  naib  tahsil  Jar,  a  muMnb,  two 
kdmingos  and  nine  patwdris.  There  are  two  zaUddrs  and 
forty-eight  headmen.  The  tahsil  is  divided  into  nine  cir- 
cles :  Lahri  Dombki,  Sanhari,  Mdnhipur,  Dhandah,  Sohbat. 
pur,  Khdnpur,  Muhammadpur,  Sirvvah  and  Nisirabdd,  the 
first  five  of  which  are  watered  by  the  Shdhiwdh  or  Desert 
canal,  the  next  three  by  the  Begiiri  can^il,  while  the  Nasird. 
•   See  Table  IX,  Vol.  b. 


LAND  REVENUE. 


263 


Other  Crops. 


bdd  circle  receives  water  from   both   canals.     There  are  30    Nasirabad. 

police  and  88  levies  (including  60  sowars,  24.  men  of  wiiom 

are  employed  on  the  Railway  line).     The  Bugti   tribal   levies 

also   hold    the  posts  of  Shdhpur    (22),  Si'ji  (20),   Haran    (5), 

Asr^li  (5),  Gandoi  (10)  and  Gordnari  (16). 

As  a  tentative   measure   the  following   scale  of  rates   lias    Land 

^  .      7  Revenue, 

been  fixed  for  the  Desert  Canal  and  its  branches  : — 

Kharif. 

Rice 

Flow     ... 

Lift       ... 
Rabi. 

Bori       ... 

Flow     ... 

Lift 
Dubdri, 

Watered 

Unwatered 

and  a  special  cess  of  6  pies  per  acre  is  also  collected.  The 
water  rate,  which  is  paid  to  the  Bombay  Irrigation  Depart- 
ment, is  Rs.  1-8-0  per  acre. 

On  the  Begdri  Canal  the  land  revenue  is  Re.  i  per  acre, 
the  cess  6  pies,  and  the  water  rate  (paid  to  the  Bombay 
Government)  Re.  i.  The  Dubdri  voXes  and  the  rate  for  rice 
cultivation  are  the  same  as  for  the  Desert  Canal.  In  Kliush- 
kdba  lands  the  revenue  is  realized  in  kind  at  one-sixth  of  the 
produce.  Grazing  tax  has  not  yet  been  imposed  (1905).  In 
1904-5,  the  first  complete  year  of  the  present  administration, 
the  revenue,  excluding  water  tax,  amounted  to  Rs,  1,55,695. 

There  are  two  cemeteries,  one  at  Sibi,  one  at  Zidrat,  and  Christian 
graveyards  at  Ndri  near  the  Nari  bridge  on  the  Mushkaf  '^^'"^^^'■'^s- 
Bolan  Railway,  at  N^ri  Gorge  about  7^  miles  from  Sibi,  and 
at  Mdngi  and  Shdhrig.  Near  the  Dalujdl  Railway  station 
there  is  the  solitary  grave  of  Captain  Delacy  Passy  of  the 
24th  Madras  Pioneers  who  died  on  the  3rd  of  P'ebruary 
1886. 


Rs. 

a. 

P- 

3 

0 

0 

2 

8 

0 

2 

4 

0 

2 

8 

0 

3 

0 

0 

2 

12 

0 

I 

0 

0 

0 

8 

0 

I 


CHAPTER    V. 


Physical 
Aspects. 
Situation. 


Boundaries. 


Configura- 
tion, 


MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 

n^HE  Marri  and  Bugti  country  is  situated  between  28°  26' 
-*-  and  30°  4'N,  and  67°  55'  and  69°  48'E,  and  has  an  area  of 
7,129  square  miles.  The  northern  portion,  the  area  of  which 
is  3,268  square  miles,  is  occupied  by  the  Marris  and  the 
southern  portion  (3,861  square  miles)  by  the  Bugtis.  The 
cjuntry  covers  the  greater  part  of  the  southern  and  eastern 
portion  of  the  District,  and  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the 
Duki,  Kohlu  and  Bdrkhan  tahsils,  on  the  south  by  the  Nasir- 
AhAd  tahsil,  on  the  east  by  tiie  Dera  Ghdzi  Khan  District 
of  the  Punjab,  and  on  the  west  by  Kachhi,  Sibi  and  part  of 
the  Shdhrig  lahsil.  The  Bdmbor,  Nafusk,  Danda,  Jantali 
and  Utwanga  hill  ranges  roughly  form  the  line  of  division 
between  the  two  tribes. 

The  Marri  and  Bugti  tracts  are  situated  at  the  southern 
end  of  the  Sulaimdn  range,  and  consist  chiefly  of  narrow 
parallel  ridges  of  closely  packed  hills,  which  form  the  grijdual 
descent  from  the  Sulaimdn  plateau  into  the  plains.  They  are 
intersected  by  numerous  hill-torrents  and  ravines,  and  gene- 
rally speaking  are  barren  and  rugged,  poorly  supplied  and 
inhospitable.  Here  and  there  are  good  pasture  grounds, 
and  a  few  valleys  or  plains  which  are  gradually  being 
brought  under  cultivation. 

The  Marri  area  may  be  conveniently  divided  into  the  three 
following  portions  :  (i)  Kahdn  {2,353  feet),  including  Tadri, 
Ddho  and  Bdmbor  ;  (2)  a  portion  of  Pheldwagh,  Nesdu 
(3,000  feet),  and  Jantali  (2,847  feet)  ;  and  (3)  Miwand  (2,620 
feet)  and  Gamboli.  The  principal  plains  and  vallejsin  the 
Bugti  country  are  the  Sham,  Siahaf,  and  Marav  (2,195  feet), 
Chat,    Siihtdk,    and    Patr,    Loti,  Lop,   Tusso    and    Machro, 


HILLS   AND  RIVERS.  265 

Dashti-gorjin,  the  Mat  plain  south  of  the  Z6n  range,  and   the    Physical 
N (lag  north  of  Siri.  Aspects. 

The  mountain  ranges  of  the  Marri  country  may  be  described  Hill  ranges, 
as  presenting  a  series  of  limestone  ridges,  forming  more  or 
less  parallel  valleys,  the  general  lie  of  which  to  the  east  of 
69°E.  is;  from  north-east  to  south-west,  and  lo  the  west  of 
that  line  from  north-west  to  south-east.  They  incluJe  the 
Dungdn  (6,861  feet),  Lakar  (6,820  feet),  Sialu  (8,1 12'),  Tikil 
or  likhil  (6,886'),  Siih  Koh  (5,505'),  Kup,  Chappar  (4,674'), 
Sir  Ani  (3,790'),  Shatrak  (3,800'),  1  urki  Koh,  Tatra  (4,020'), 
Rastrani  (3,000  to  4,000'),  Danda  range  including  Nafusk 
(3,756'),  B^mbor  (4,890'),  and  Gurinuani  and  the  Sunari 
range  (5,630  to  5,740').  The  principal  passes  in  the  Marri 
country  are  the  Ndri,  Kuchdli  and  Spiniai  gi  on  tlie  Sibi- 
Harnai  road  ;  the  Arand  between  Khajak  and  Quat  Mandai; 
the  Angur  between  Gamboli  and  Sembar  ;  the  S^mbar 
between  Gamboli  and  Thai ;  the  Pazha  between  B^ji  and 
Thai  ;  the  Kuba  Wanga  between  Bdla  Dhdka  and  Kohlu  ; 
the  Mdr  between  Kohlu  and  Vitakri  ;  the  Lunidl  between 
Bor  and  Kui  ;  the  Dojamak  on  the  Kohlu  Kahan  road  a  few 
miles  to  the  north  of  Kahdn  ;  the  Dangar  in  the  Shatrak 
range  ;  and  the  Nafusk  between  the  Marri  and  Bugti  country. 

In  the  Bugti  country  tlie  principal  hill  ranges  are  the  Bdm- 
bor,  Nafusk  and  Danda,  which  separate  it  from  the  Marri 
country  ;  the  Zen  (3,630')  ;  the  Mir  Dost  Zard  hills  ;  the 
Khalandrani  range  (3,508')  ;  Pir  Koh  (3,650')  ;  and  the  Gian- 
ddri  hills  (4,143'). 

As  a  general  rule  the  communications  in  botn  the  Marri 
and  Bugti  tracts  are  comparatively  easy  to  the  east  and  west, 
while  those  from  north  to  south,  which  cross  the  transverse 
ridges  of  the  hills,  are  difficult. 

With  the  exception  of  the  streams  of  Nesau,  Pheldwagh  Rivers, 
and  Jantali,  which  flow  to  the  east,  the  Marri  country  drains 
into  the  Sibi  and  Kachhi  plains,  the  main  direction  of  the 
rivers  being  almost  due  west.  The  principal  rivers  are  the 
B^ji  and  Ddda,  both  of  which  are  affluents  of  the  Ndri  and 
have  a  perennial  supply  of  water  ;  the  Talli  stream  (known 
as  the  Sundimari,  Chakar  Thank,  Karmdri  and  M  njra  in 
different  localities)  which  rises  in  the  hills  bordering  on 
Kohlu  and  has  an  intermittent  flow  of  perennial  water  ;  and 
the  Ndl,  also  called  the  Gandhdr,  which  carries  off  the  drain- 


266  CHAP.    V.—MARRl-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 

Physical         age  of  the  Makhmdr,  Sori  Kaur,  and  Kah^n  valleys.     It  is  a 
Aspects 

fine    stream    at    Tratdni,    but  is  lost  before  it  reaches  Lahri, 

except  during  floods. 

The  principal  streams  in  the  Bugti  country  are  :  the  Sori, 
which  rises  in  the  Mir  Djst  Zard  hills  and  is  joined  by  the 
Tuso  or  Taso  ;  the  Sidf  or  Sidhaf  stream,  which  traverses  the 
valley  of  the  same  name  and  is  joined  near  Sangsila  by  the 
Pdtr  nullah  ;  these  united  form  the  Marwar  nullah  which  is 
lost  in  the  plain  of  Kachhi  south  of  Phul^ji  ;  the  Landa, 
Labbar,  Leni,  and  other  minor  streams,  which  drain  the 
southern  part  of  the  country  and  are  also  lost  in  the  plains 
The  eastern  portion  of  the  Bugti  country  is  drained  by  the 
Phaildwar,  Kalchas,  Sara  Dab,  Khaji'iri  or  Shori,  Zamurddn 
and  Doli  hill  torrents.  The  country  also  contains  many 
minor  rivulets  and  may  be  said  to  be  fairly  supplied  with 
water,  but  the  Siahaf  Pair  and  Tuso  nullahs  alone  contain 
large  bodies  of  running  water  or  deep  pools  which  may 
always  be  depended  upon  in  llieir  upper  courses. 
Water  Deep   pools    or   kumbs,  which    are    found  in  the  beds    of 

ItunXs.  ^"  streams  and  in  many  parts  form  the  only  supply  of  drinking 
water,  are  a  characteristic  feature  of  the  country.  Among 
the  principal  in  the  Marri  country  are  the  Zai,  Jangjflhi, 
Chhedgi,  Jaurakan  and  Sori  in  the  Zai  hills,  the  Sidh  gari 
and  Jainak  near  Kahan  ;  the  Bundfdor,  Nod^ngari  and  fho- 
lagh  in  the  Bandar  Lat  hills  ;  the  Gokhani  and  Sarto  in  the 
Bdmbor  hills  ;  the  Manda  in  the  Soren  Kaur  range  ;  and  the 
Bagzai  in  the  Nafusk  hills  Those  in  the  Bugti  country  are 
the  Bdgi,  and  Loha'  in  the  Zdn  hills  ;  the  Hargdhi  about  3 
miles  from  Dera  Bugti  ;  the  Khajuri  near  Loti  ;  and  the 
Chillo  in  the  Gidnddri  hills. 
Geology.  There  is  no  published  description  dealing  specially  with  the 

geology  of  the  Marri  country.  The  hills  include  strata 
belonging  to  the  Siwdlik,  Splntangi,  Ghazij  and  Duiigdn 
formations.  In  many  parts  there  are  indications  of  the  exist- 
ence of  petroleum.  The  Bugti  hills  consist  principally  of 
Siwdlik  strata  and  nummulitic  limestones,  and  have  been 
described  in  detail  by  Dr.  Blanford  in  \\\s^' Memoir  of  the 
Geology  of  the  hills  between  Quelta  and  Dera  Ghdzi  Khdn." 
A  number  of  fossils  have  recently  been  discovered  near  Dera 
Bugti,  which  have  been  classified  as  Reptilian  and  Mamma- 
lian remains,  some  of  the  specimens  of  the  latter  belonging  to 


BOTANY  AND  FAUNA, 


267 


unknown     species     of    the     rhinoceros      and      pig' 


Physical 
Aspects. 


hitherto 
family. 

The   following   account    of  the  Botany  of  the  Country  has    Botany, 
been  supplied  by  ihe  Director  of  Botanical  Survey  of  India  : — 

"  There  is  no  account  available  of  the  vegetation  ol  these 
areas,  but  in  all  probability  the  flora  differs  little  from  that  of 
the  adjacent  part  of  the  Punjab,  consisting  as  the  litter  does 
of  a  scrub  jungle,  composed  chiefly  of  such  plants  as  FLacour- 
tia  sapida,  F.  sepiaria,  several  species  of  Grewia  sizyphus 
nunimularia,  Acacia  Jacqiiemontii^  A.  lencophlcea,  Alhagi 
camelorum,  Crotalaria  biirhia,  Prosopis  spicigera,  several 
species  of  Tamarix,  Nerium  odorum,  Rhazya  striata,  Calotro- 
pis  procera,  Periploca  aphylla,  Tecoma  undulata,  Lyciinn 
Eiiropceum,  Withania  coagidanSy  W.  somniferay  Nannorrhops 
Ritchieanay  Fagonia  iribulus,  Peganum  harmala,  Calligonufti 
polygonoides,  Polygonum  aviculare,  P.  plebeizim,  Rximex  vesi 
car  ins,  Chrozophora  plicata,  species  of  Arisiida,  Anthisliria, 
Ctnchrus  and  Perinisetum." 

The  wild  animals  include  the  wolf  [gurk),  jackal  {iolagh)^  Fauna, 
hyena  [aftdr],  fox  {liimaf),  porcupine  {sekun),  wild  pig  {sidh 
rastar),  straight  horned  mdrkhof  (sanddn),  oorial  or  wild  sheep 
[gadh)  and  ravine  deer.  The  leopard  {dihar)  and  the  ?namh  or 
small  black  bear  are  also  occasionally  found  in  the  Marri 
hills. 

Among  the  game  birds  are  the  lesser  bustard  {kajinjar)^ 
partridge,  pigeon,  sisi  and  quail. 

Reptiles  include  the  tortoise,  several  genera  of  lizards  and 
many  varieties  of  poisonous  snakes. 

No  figures  are  available  in  connection  with  either  the 
rainfall  or  the  temperature  of  these  tracts.  The  conditions 
of  the  higher  parts  of  the  Marri  country  resemble  those  of 
Sh^lhrig,  and  possess  a  climate  intermediate  between  the 
extremes  of  the  plams  and  the  highlands.  In  the  lower 
hills  in  both  the  Bugti  and  the  Marri  country  the  heat  in 
summer  is  great  ;  the  rainfall  is  scanty  and  precarious,  and 
the  country  is  subject  to  periodical  droughts.  The  most 
useful  rain  falls  in  the  summer  months  between  June  and 
August. 

The  census  of  1901  in  this  part  of  the  District    was   carried    Population, 
out  through  the  tribal  headmen  on  the    "family  system  "    of 
enumeration,  and   the   results  thus   obtained   showed  a   total 


Climate, 
temperature 
and  rainfall. 


268 


CHAP.    V.—MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 


POPULATION,  population  of  38,919*'  ;  Marris  20,391  and  Bugtis  18,528. 
The  incidence  of  population  was  about  6  per  square  mile  in 
the  Marri  and  5  per  square  mile  in  the  Bugti  country. 
Further  details  of  the  principal  census  statistics  are  given  in 
table  II,  Vol.  B.  Previous  to  1891  rough  estimates  were 
made  from  time  to  time,  and  in  1&67  the  fighting  strength  of 
the  two  tribes  was  computed  at  2,070  for  the  Marris  and 
1,600  for  the  Bugtis.  In  1870  I\lr.  Bruce  estimated  the 
numbers  of  the  Marri  fighting  men,  including  the  Mazardnis, 
at  about  4,000  and  those  of  the  Bugtis  at  about  2,200.  In 
189 1  the  total  strength  of  the  Marris  w^as  shown  as  9,578 
(men  ,090,  women  2,830,  boys  1,605  and  girls  1,053)  and 
of  the  Bugtis  13  709  (men  5,325,  women  4,264,  boys  2,520 
and  girls  1,600).  Compared  with  1891,  the  total  population 
in  1901  shows  an  increase  of  67  per  cent.,  Marris  113  per 
cent.,  and  Bugtis  35  per  cent.  This  large  inciease  may 
chiefly  be  accounted  for  by  the  more  satisfactory  methods  of 
enumeration,  but  it  may  also  be  assumed  that  the  actual 
numbers  have  increased  owing  to  a  more  settled  government 
and  the  cessation  of  raids  and  internal  feuds. 

The  following  table  shiws  the  age  statistics  and  the  com- 
parative number  of  the  sexes  as  far  as  information  is 
available  from  the  census  records  : — 


Total. 

Males. 

Females. 

Tribal  area. 

Males 

Females 

Adults. 

under  12 
years. 

Adults. 

under  12 
years. 

Marri  country 

20.391 

6,877 

4,614 

5,403 

3,497 

MarrH 

19,161 

6,478 

4.374 

5.037 

3.272 

Hamsd3as     

1,091 

349 

221 

322 

198 

Hindus           

140 

50 

•9 

44 

27 

Bugti  country 

18,528 

6-228 

4,028 

5,139 

3.123 

Bugtis            

'7.548 

5,869 

3,832 

4,846 

3,001 

Hamsdyas 

708 

259 

152 

199 

98 

Hindus           

272 

no 

44 

94 

24 

These  figures  include  Hamsdyahs  and  Hindus. 


MARRIAGE  CUSTOMS.  269 

The  very  great  majority  of  the  population  are  nomads,  and    Population. 

there  are    only  a    few  permanent   villajjes.      In  addition    to   X'"-^^^if  ^ 
J  r  »  their  char- 

Quat  Mandai.  and  Badra,  which  are  now  included  in  the  acter. 
Sibi  tahsil,  the  only  villages  in  the  Marri  country  are  Kahan, 
the  tribal  head-quarters,  and  MAwand  ;  while  in  the  Bugti 
country  the  villages  are  Ddra  Bugti,  Sangsila  and  L.oti. 
Both  Kahcln  and  Dera  Bugti  are  surrounded  by  walls,  and 
the  chiefs  and  principal  members  have  good  houses,  but  for 
the  rest  the  dwellings  consist  chiefly  of  small  mud  hovels. 

Both  Marris  and  Bugtis  migrate  periodically  to    the  adjoin-    aviation 
ing  districts   of    Dera    Ghdzi  Khdn,  Jacobdbad   and  Sibi  and 
more    especially  in  yenrs  of  drought  and    famine.     A  number 
of  the  Marris  regularly  spend  half  the  year  in  the  Kohlu  valley 
with  tlieir  flocks  and  herds. 

In  the  time  of  Sard^r  Bibrak  800  Shambdni  Bugtis  migra- 
ted permanently  to  Rohri  in  Sind  ;  and  about  forty  years 
ago  250  men  of  the  Sundrdni  section  of  the  Perozdni  clan 
settled  down  in  Ldrkdna.  A  considerable  migration  of  the 
Marris  took  place  in  the  time  of  Sardar  Mub<4rak  Khdn,  the 
son  of  Bahawahin,  when  about  5,000  tribesmen  are  said  lo 
have  permanently  removed  to  Mirpur  in  Sind.  Several 
Marri  and  Bugti  families  have  also  settled  from  time  to  time 
in  the  Jacobabdd  district.  The  Dcimanis,  a  predatory  and 
nomad  tribe  living  in  the  Persian  Sarhad  on  the  borders  of 
Chdgai,  claim  their  descent  from  the  Marris,  but  it  is  not 
known  when  they  separated  from  the  parent  stock. 

The  social  customs  of  ttie  Marris  and  Bugtis  in  most  essen-  ;\iarria"-e 
tials  follow  the  general  customs  of  the  Baloch,  which  have  customs, 
already  been  described  in  detail  in  Ciiapter  I,  Population. 
Among  the  Marris,  the  Bahdwaldnzais  or  the  ruling  family 
[sarddr  khet)  do  not  give  their  girls  to  other  Marris  or  to  any 
other  tribesmen  except  those  who  belong  to  families  of  a 
similar  standing  among  the  Mazjiri,  Drishak  and  Dombki 
tribes.  Tney  have,  iiowever,  no  objection  to  taking  their 
brides  from  the  Marri  clans,  from  other  Baloch  tribes  and 
sometimes  even  from  the  Jats.  Among  tlie  BaliawaUinzais 
bride  price  i>;  neiihei  paid  nor  demanded. 

The  Rah^jas  hold  a  similar  position  among  the  Bugtis,  and 
only  give  their  girls  to  the  members  of  the  sarddr  khcl  of  other 
tribes  ;  they  are  stricter  as  regards  tlieir  brides  and  do  not 
intermarry  with  tribes  of  an  admittedly  inferior  social  status. 


270         CHAP.    V.—MARRI-BUGTI    COUNTRY. 

Population.  Among  the  other  tribesmen  bride  price  [lah)  is  generally 
paid,  the  amount  varying  frcm  Rs.  lOO  to  Rs.  500  according 
to  the  position  of  the  parties.  Exchanges  of  girls  between 
families  [tnattan)  are  common.  The  dower  [haq-i-mahr) 
varies  from  Rs.  10  to  Rs.  15,  and  in  rare  cases  sometimes 
amounts  to  Rs.  70.  Children  among  friends,  and  especially 
in  the  Lohardni  tribe,  are  sometimes  betrothed  {sang)  at  an 
early  age,  but  marriage  does  not  usually  take  place  until 
after  puberty.  Polygamy  is  permitted,  but  is  rare  except 
among  the  well-to-do.  Custom  allows  cohabitatitn  with 
concubmes,  but  their  offspring  do  not  inherit.  Divorce  is  rare, 
and  adultery  and  misconduct  are  usually  punished  by  death. 
In  this  respect  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  are  perhaps  stricter 
than  most  other  tribes,  mere  suspicion  on  the  part  of  a  hus- 
band being  sufficient  and  tribal  custom  does  not  demand  any 
proof.  If  the  seducer  effects  his  escape,  the  case  is  settled 
hyjt'fora  and  compensation  is  awarded,  the  amount  being 
determined  on  the  merits  of  each  case  ;  the  usual  rate  among 
the  Marris  being  Rs.  i.coo,  a  girl,  a  sword  and  a  gun,  and 
among  the  Bugtis  one  or  two  girls  and  from  Rs.  200  to  Rs.  500. 
Within  the  tribal  areas  no  punishment  is  awarded  for  killing 
the  i^'uilty  parties,  but  outside  these  limits  the  tribesmen 
cannot  claim  the  privilege  of  tribal  custom,  and  are  liable  to 
whatever  punishment  may  be  awarded  by  the  law  of  the  land 
within  the  limit  of  which  the  offence  has  been  committed. 

Language,  The  Marris  and  Bugtis  speak  the  eastern  dialect  of  Baluchi, 

which  contains  a  large  percentage  of  Sindi  and  Punjabi  words  ; 
the  Hindus  and  Jats  living  in  the  tribal  areas  speak  Jatki. 

The  Marri  According    to  the  census    of   1901   the  population    of   the 

Marri  country  was  20,391,  which  included  19,161  tribesmen, 
1 ,090  hamsdyas  and  140  Hindus.  The  hamsdyas  chiefly  consist 
of  Jats  (both  cultivators  and  camel  gfraziers),  artisans  and 
servile  dependants.  The  Hindus,  who  are  mostly  traders  and 
have  been  settled  in  the  country  for  some  generations,  are  of 
the  Arora  caste  and  originally  came  from  Harand,  D^ijal  and 
Kachhi. 

The  Marris  are  the  most  numerous  of  all  the  Baloch  tribes 
in  Baluchistan.  Like  the  rest  of  the  Baloch  tribes,  the  tribe 
was  originally  a  confederacy  of  heterogeneous  elements,  many 
of  them  outlaws  and  exiles  from  other  tribes.  This  con- 
federacy first  clustered  round  a  Baloch  nucleus,  which  is  said 


tribe. 


ORIGIN  OF  NAME.  271 

to  be  connected  with  the  Puzh  section  of  the  Rinds  of  Marris— 
Kuldnch  in  iMakrdn.  The  original  settlements  of  this  nucleus 
were  situated  round  Mawand  in  the  hills  to  the  east  of  Sibi, 
but  they  gradually  spread  out  acquiring  the  country  of  the 
Hasnis  on  the  east  and  taking  Quat-Mandai  from  Afghdns  on 
the  north. 

The  tribe  is  divided  into  three  main  takkars  or  clans,  the 
Ghazani  (8,117)  ;  the  Lohar;ini-Shirdni  (6,369)  and  the  Bijardni 
(4,675).  Each  of  these  clans  is  divided  into  a  number  of 
phallis  or  sections,  and  these  sections  are  again  divided  into 
sub-sections  called  para  ox  firqah.  The  formation  of  the  tribe 
into  the  main  clans  was  carried  out  by  Sarddr  Doda  Khdn, 
the  cliief  ot  the  Marris,  five  generations  ago,  and  a  list  of 
the  clans  and  their  sections  with  their  numbers  and  the 
names  of  the  headmen  is  given  in  appendix  VI. 

The  early  history  of  the  tribe  centres  round  Mir  Chdkar  Early 
Khcin,  the  Rind  hero  of  Baloch  romance.  After  his  quarrels  "'s^°''>- 
with  the  Ldshdris  and  after  he  had  been  driven  out  of  Sibi  by 
the  Arghuns,  Mir  Chdkar  took  refuge  in  what  is  now  the 
present  Marri  country  near  the  Manjara  river,  a  defile  on 
which,  the  Chakar  Thank,  still  bears  the  name.  Shortly 
afterwards  the  main  body  of  the  Rinds  migrated  to  the  coun- 
try e;ist  of  the  Indus,  but  a  small  section  o{  the  Puzh  Rinds 
detached  itself  from  Mir  Chdkar  and  elected  to  remain  behind 
in  the  Sewistdn  hills.  The  leader  of  this  section  was  Bij.-ir 
Khan,  and  he  had  with  him  AH  Khdn,  Maiulo  Khdn 
and  Khalu  Khdn,  Rinds,  a  blacksmith  [lohdr),  a  gar- 
dener called  Kangra,  and  a  negro  (Sidi)  named  Shah^ja. 
These  men  were  the  founders  of  the  Marri  tribe,  which  thus 
commenced  to  gather  within  the  first  quarter  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  The  particular  spot  where  Bijdr  Khan  j-eparated 
from  Mir  Chakar  is  known  as  Bijar  Wad  to  the  present  day. 

The  previous  history  of  this  part  of  the  country  is  unknown,    ,        .•        r 
'  •'  '  •'  '    Location  of 

but  it  would  seem  to  have  been    wandered  over   by  the  Kal-   the  tribe  and 

mati  Kupchdni  and  other    Baloch  tribes,  all  traces  of   whom   °u'?'"  °' 

■^      _  tlieir  name. 

have  now  disappeared  with  the  exception  of  their  tombs.  It 
would  appear  that  their  movements  had  been  caused  by 
their  own  quarrels  and  it  is  probable  that  the  Marris  in  the 
first  instance  settled  in  deserted  lands.  The  Marris  first  held 
the  Tadri  mountain,  Bijar  Wad,  Mando  Thai  and  Kach 
Murai,   and  it   is  stated   that  from   their  residence  at  the  last 


of  the  clans. 


272  CHAP.    V.—MARRT-BUGTI  COU:^TRY. 

Marris—        named  place  they  acquired  the  name  of  Marai,  by  which  they 
History.         ^^^  ^^Ul  j^pj^^^p,  among  the  Pathdn  tribes,  but  which  for  com- 
mon use  has  been  shortened  down  into    darri. 
r°tT/,o°nc  '^he  Bijardni  clan  were  founded  by   Bij^ir  KhAn,   the   Lohd- 

rani  by  the  blacksmith  [lohdr),  and  the  Gliazani,  who  were 
the  last  formed  division,  by  G  izzo  or  Ghazaii,  a  Boi^di  boy 
who  had  been  adopted  by  Ali  Kh^n.  The  Bijardni  are  found 
principally  in  the  northern  portion  of  the  country,  the  Ghazani 
in  the  centre  and  west,  and  the  Lohardni  10  the  south  and 
south-east.  These  small  groups  gradually  increased  and 
began  a  career  of  raiding  and  conquest,  but  later  on  as  their 
strength  became  constantly  lessened  by  raids  and  incursions, 
it  became  necessary  to  recruit  from  outside  ;  and  thus  Brd- 
huis,  Baloch  from  other  parts  of  Balucliistan,  Kli^trdns, 
Afghans  and  Jats,  all  gained  easy  admission  to  the  tribe.  As 
ins<;ances  of  the  heterogeneous  character  of  the  Marris,  it  may 
be  mentioned  that  the  Shirdnis,  now  a  branch  of  the  Lohd- 
rdnis,  were  Afghans  from  Zhob  ;  the  Baddani,  a  section  of 
the  Ghazani  clan,  were  Brdhuis  from  Khurdsan  ;  the  Mnza- 
lani  were  Khetrdns  ;  the  Zhing  the  descendants  of  a  slave  of 
Ghazan  ;  and  the  Mehkdni.  who  are  held  to  be  a  sacred 
class,  mendicants  from  the  Zarkun  tribe. 

As  soon  as  a  man  joined  the  tribe  permanently  he  became  a 
participator  in  good  and  ill.  Then  having  shown  his  worth, 
he  was  given  a  vested  interest  in  the  tribal  welfare  by  acquir- 
ing a  portion  of  the  tribal  lands  at  the  decennidl  division,  and 
his  admission  was  sealed  with  blood  by  a  woman  from  the 
tribe  being  given  to  him  or  his  sons  in  marriage.  As  the 
members  .)f  the  tribe  increased  and  new  lands  were  conquered 
from  the  Hasnis,  the  Bdriizai  Afghans  and  others,  Doda's 
arbitrary  division  into  clans  became  necessary  ;  and  about 
the  same  lime  all  the  tribal  land  was  permanently  divided. 
The  division  into  clans  and  the  distribution  ot  the  tribal  land 
were  both  matters  of  practical  expediency,  and  the  clans,  thus 
constituted,  made  useful  and  easily  commanded  units  for 
predatory  expeditions. 

The  composition  of  the  Marri  tribe  is  fully  illustrated  in 
Subsidiary  Table  VI  (page  141)  of  the  Census  Report  for 
1901. 


I 


BIJARAnI  and  ALIAnI  SARDARS.  273 

Local   tradition    assigns  the  follo\\ing"  order  to  the  Marri    Mabeis— 
Sard.-irs  :  History. 

Bijan'nii  mid  A/idiii  Sun/drs.^''  List  of  Sar- 

ddrs  and 

1.  Bijdr  Khiin  (probably  died  about  1550).  their  history, 

2.  Salar  Khjin. 

3.  Darw^sh  Khfin. 

4.  Jalalan  Aliani  Sard;ir. 

GJiasaiii  Sarddrs. 

1.  Sahtak  Khiin  son  of  Ghazan  Khiin. 

2.  Nasar  Khan  son  of  Sahtak  Khjin. 

3.  M.-inak  Khiin  son  of  NAsar  Khdn. 

4.  Ghazan  Kh;in  son  of  Mdnak  Khiin. 


0- 


Nasar  Khan  son  of  Ghazan  Khjin. 

6.  Durre  Khan  son  of  Ndsar  Khdn. 

7.  Habib  Khan  son  of  Ndsar  Khdn. 

8.  Ghazan  Khdn  son  of  Durre  Khan. 

9.  Mib;irak  Khdn  son  of  Durre  Khdn. 

10.  Dost  Ali  son  of  BahAwaldn  Kh<in. 

11.  Bahdwalan    Kh.'in    son    of   Dost    Ali    Khcln    (died 

about  1805). 

12.  Mubarak  Kh^in  son  of  Bahdvvalfin  Khan. 

13.  Doda  Khdn  son  of  MubArak  Khan. 

I.].    Din  Muhammad  Kh.-in  son  of  Doda  Khan. 

15.  Nur  Muhammad  Khan  son  of  Doda  Khdn. 

16.  Ghazan    Khan     son     of    Nur    Muhammad    Khan. 

(died  1876). 

17.  Naw.'ib  Mehrulla  Khan  (died  March  1902). 

18.  K.B.    Nawab    Khair   Rakhsh    Khan,   the   present 

chief. 

Bijjir  Khdn,  who  was  killed  in  a  fight   with  the    Boledis,    The  Bijanlni 

was  succeeded  by  his  son  Sal^r  Kh.-in.     During  the   time  of   and  Aliam 

Sardars. 
this  chief  the  Boledis  were  expelled  from    the  Kahiin  valley 

which  was  occupied  by  the  Marri s.  It  is  related  that 
whilst  out  shooting  Saldr  Khfln  found  a  little  Bol^di  boy 
who  had  been  deserted  by  his  parents  ;  tlie  child  was  sit- 
ting under  a  gazox  tamarisk  tree  and  from  this  circumstance 
was  called  Gazzo  or  Ghazan.     He  was  adopted  by  Ali  Khdn, 

•  The   Marris,  as  a  whole,  do  not  recognise  these  Bijarani    Sard.-irs 
as  chiefs   of  the    tribe.     The  first    chief  acknowledered    by  the    whole 
tribe  was  Sahtak  Kh.-in,  the  first  of  the  Ghazani  Sardrirs. 
18 


274  CHAP.    V.—MARRI'BUGTI  COUXTRY. 

Marris—         the    Rind,    and    became  the  ancestor  of   the  present  ruling- 

History.         family  and  the  founder  of  the  powerful  Ghazani  clan. 

Saldr   Khiin   was  succeeded   by  his  son    Darwesh    KliAn, 

who    seems    to   have    displeased    the    Marris  by  his   foolish 

behaviour  ;    he  anticipated  his  forcible   deposition  by  sellinij 

his    birthright   to  Jaldlan,  the  son  of  AH   Khdn,    Rind,   and 

the  SardArship  of  the  tribe  thus  passed  into  the  hands  of  the 

Aliani  section. 

Ghazani  Sar-        On    his   deathbed  Jaljildn  nominated  his  nephew  Sdhtak, 

J,  ***  .       ..       the  son  of  Ghazan,  as    his    successor,    passing   over   his  own 

SAh  -'k,  5tli  '.  _  .         . 

Sard/ir  son  who  was  a  minor.     Sahtak  was  absent  in  Sind  when 

Jalaldn  died,  and  serious  quarrels  arose  between  the   Alianis 

and  the  BijArdins  with  regard  to  the  succession. 

Finally  Sdhtak  was   appointed,   but,    before    agreeing    to 

hold  the  chieftainship,  demanded  and  obtained  the  following 

conditions  among  others  '.—firstly  that  the  Sardar  should   be 

given  a  sheep  or  goat   every    year   from  each  flock  as   his 

right  or  ^/^a/ ;    and  5^co?i^/v  that  whenever  either  he   himself 

or  any  member  of  his  family  visited  any  section  of  a  tribe  en 

business,  they  should  be  entitled  to  receive  a   sheep  or  goat 

without  payment      The   rights  are   still   enforced,    but  in   a 

modified    degree,    and    the   glial  is    not    taken    if    the   flock 

consists  of  less  than  40  animals. 

Kah;i\valAn  ''''"  Bahdwaldn's   sarddrship  marked  a  new  point  of  depar- 

or  Kahdwal     ture  in  the  relations  between  the  Marris  and  their  chief,   and 
Khdn,  nth  .,,  r       i  ,.-,..  ,■  -.■  11/^  > 

Sardcir.  still  further  accentuated  the  pecuhar  position   which   Gazzo  s 

son  Sdhtak  had  acquired  for  his  family.  In  a  tiibe  devoted 
to  theft  and  robbery  as  is  or  was  the  Marri  tribe,  there  must 
naturally  spring  up  certain  relations  with  traders  and  sur- 
rounding tribes,  which  are  dependent  on  the  payment  of 
black-mail.  The  Marris  have  always  held  to  the  laws  of 
honour,  which  regulate  such  relations,  with  the  greatest 
stringency.  If  a  Marii  of  position  gives  his  shield  or  ring 
or  any  other  token  to  a  traveller,  he  will  avenge  with  the 
fiercest  determination  any  infringement  by  other  members  of 
the  tribe  of  the  protection  thus  afforded.  In  the  same  way 
the  tribe  will,  as  a  rule,  act  as  one  man  in  supporting  the 
chief  in  the  restoration  of  any  property  which  he  may  be 
responsible  for  under  arrangements  made   by  him  with   the 

•  A  historical  and  descriptive  report  on  the  District  of  Thal-Chotidli 
and  Harnai  by  Surgeon-Majcr  O.  T.  Duke,  Calcutta,  18S3. 


CONSTITUTION  OF  TRIBE.  275 

approval  of  the  jirga.  The  possession  of  this  authority  has  Marris— 
led  to  the  acquirement  by  the  family  of  the  Marri  chief  of  History. 
peculiar  privileges  which  are  not  possessed  to  the  same 
extent  by  the  chiefs'  families  in  any  other  Baloch  tribe  ;  but 
the  chief  cannot  be  ubiquitous  and  the  Marris  regard  any 
descendant  of  Bahdwaldn  as  being  more  than  their  sidl  or 
equal,  and  as  one  to  whom  it  is  no  disgrace  to  surrender 
property  or  yield  themselves  as  prisoners.  In  former  days 
this  privilege  was  enjoyed  by  any  Ghazani  Marri,  but  the 
latter  are  very  numerous  and  the  privileges  above  alluded  to 
have  therefore  become  gradually  confined  to  the  Bahdwa- 
Idnzai  family.     *'  •''  ^'  *'  •* 

Bahdwaliin  was  considered  a  saint  by  the  Marris,  and  thus  a 
superstitious  reverence  was  added  to  the  respect  claimed  by 
him  as  a  chief." 

In  Bahawaldn's  time  were  commenced  the  quarrels  between 
the  Hasnis  and  the  Marris,  which  resulted  in  the  eventual 
expulsion  of  the  former  from  their  hills  and  lands.  The 
Marri  tribe  now  established  its  head  quarters  permanently 
at  Kahan. 

Doda  Khdn,  the  grandson   of  Bahawalan,   carried  on  the    Doda  Khdn. 

I  "^th     ^3.rd3.r 

contest  with  the    Hasnis  until  they  were  completely  quelled,    (about  180-). 
Under  this  chief  the  tribe  greatly  increased   in   numbers   and 
wealth,   and  it  was  near  the  end   of  his  long  rule  that  the 
Marris  first  came  into  collision  with  the  British  (1840). 

It  was  also  Doda  Khan  who  divided  the  various  sections  Constitution 
of  the  tribe  into  the  three  main  clans  which  have  been  men-  °^  'he  tribe, 
tioned  above.  At  the  same  time  the  land  belonging  to  the 
whole  tribe  was  divided  into  three  portions,  the  chief  being 
assigned  certain  plots  in  the  centre  of  each  tract.  Each  clan, 
which  consisted  of  a  group  of  sections,  then  distributed  the 
portion  allotted  to  it,  the  land  being  divided  into  five  shares 
and  one  or  more  shares  being  assigned  to  a  group  of  sections 
according  to  their  numerical  strength.  Arrangements  were 
also  made  for  the  redistribution  after  every  decennial  period 
of  the  land  apportioned  to  each  share. 

Doda  Khan  was  followed  by  his  son  Din  Muhammad,  who    oin  Muham. 
was  an  imbecile  and  was  practically  set  aside  by  his  younger   "i^*^- 
brother   Nur   Muhammad.     During  Din   Muhammad's    time 
the  Marris  suffered  a  severe  defe   t  at  the  hands  of  the  Bugtis, 
and  were  greatly    reduced  in      trength    and  reputation.     On 


276  CHAP.    V.—MARRI-BUGTl  COUNTRY. 

Marris—         his   death   he   w  s   succeeded    by  Nur  Muhammad,  in  whose 

History.         time  tlie  Marris  finally  annexed  the  valleys  of  Quat   Mandai 

Ndr  Muham-   ^^^  j,., ^^^  ,^^^^  ravaged  Sangiin,  Zawar  and  Sibi. 

Gazan.  Niir  Muhaminad's  son,  Gazan,  succeeded  him,  and  ruled  the 

tribe  with  considerable  success  and  ability  until  his  death 
which  occurred  in  1876.  He  was  crei^ited  by  the  Marris  with 
great  supernatural  powers,  and  thus  a  still  further  develop- 
ment of  influence  accrued  to  the  Bahiiwaldnzai  family. 

Mehrulla  Gazan  wa?  followed  by  bis  brother  Nawab  Mehrulla  Khan, 

Khdn.  ^ho  died  in  1902. 

Khair  The    present  chief  is   Mir   Khair  Baklish  Khiin  who  was 

^     "^  *  made  a  Khan  Bahadur  in  1896  and  a  Nawab  in  1903. 

General  his-        Both  the  Marris  and   Bugtis    were  claimed  as  subjects  by 

°'^^''  the  Khans  of  KaUit,  and    during    the  reign  of  Nasir  Khan  I, 

better  l^nown  as  the  great  Nasir  Khjin  (1750-1794),  were 
kept  well  in  hand  and  in  good  order.  They  were  not  per- 
mitted to  carry  on  intestine  wars  and  feuds,  and  under  his 
powerful  rule  occupied  and  cultivated  their  respective 
countries,  which  they  held  revenue-free,  their  only  obligation 
being  to  send  a  deputation  of  their  headmen  to  attend  his 
court  once  a  year  and  to  pay  a  small  tribute.  The  tribes 
were  also  held  responsible  for  the  protection  of  the  caravans 
within  their  respective  boundaries. 

On  Nasir  Khan's  death  the  reins  of  authority  were  relaxed, 
and  during  the  effete  rule  of  his  successor,  the  tribesmen  ex- 
tended their  devastations  in  all  directions,  and  were  at  the 
same  time  engaged  in  a  constant  round  of  intestine  wars  and 
blood  feuds.  This  unsatisfactory  state  of  affairs  continued 
till  the  British  Government  first  came  into  contact  with  the 
tribes  in  1839.  The  tribesmen  gave  much  trouble  to  Lord 
Keane's  force  on  its  way  to  Afghclnistan  ;  and  after  the  army 
had  passed  through  the  Bolan,  a  small  force  was  despatched 
under  Major  Billamore  to  punish  the  principal  offenders. 
After  chastising  the  Dombkis,  Jakhranis  and  Bugtis,  Major 
Billamore  proceeded  against  the  Marris  and  occupied  Kahan 

1840  A.D.  without  any  serious  opposition.  The  British  force  left  the 
hills  in  February  1840,  and  in  the  month  of  April  a  detach- 
ment was  sent  under  the  command  of  Captain  Lewis  Browne 
to  occupy  Kahan  permanently.  The  detachment,  which  con- 
sisted of  300  bayonets  of  the  5th  Bombay  Infantry,  one  gun, 
50  sabres  of  the  Scinde   Horse  and  50    Pathan  cavalry    under 


OCCUPATION  OF  KAHAN.  277 

Lieutenant  Clarke,  left  Phult^ji  on  the  2nd  of  May,  and   after    Marris — 

ijreat  hardships,  owing  to  the  heat,  the  difficult  nature  of  the    History. 

country  and  constant  attacks  by   the  Marris   occupied  Kalidn 

on  the  1 2th  of  the  same  month.     The  cavalry  and   about  160 

infantry  then  staited  back  for  Phuleji,  but  were  ambushed  in 

the  Sdrtcif  Pass,  and  after  desperate  fighting  the  whole  of  the 

infantry,  with  the   exception  of  12  men,  were  cut  up,  the  5th 

Bombay   Infantry  losing  2  native   officers  and    144  rank  and 

file.      Lieutenant   Clarke   was    also    killed.      Captain  Browne 

was  thus    left  with   only    14.0   men   and   one   gun   to  hold   the 

fort. 

On  the  31st  of  August  a  relieving  force,  consisting  of  464 
bayonets  of  the  ist  Bombay  Grenadiers,  3  guns  and  200 
sabres  of  the  Poona  Horse  and  Scinde  Horse  under  the  com- 
mand of  Major  Clibborn,  reached  the  Nafusk  Pass,  where  it 
was, attacked  by  large  numbers  of  Marris  and  other  Baloch. 
The  fighting  lasted  for  the  whole  day,  and  in  the  evening 
the  small  force,  worn  out  by  the  heat  and  rendered  frantic 
by  the  want  of  water,  was  obliged  to  retreat  after  having 
lost  4  British  officers,  2  native  officers  and  178  men  killed 
and  92  wounded.  The  guns  were  also  abandoned,  together 
with  the  whole  of  the  transport. 

The  relief  having  thus  failed  and  his  provisions  being 
exhausted.  Captain  Browne  was  compelled  to  agree  to  the 
terms  of  Doda  Khan,  the  Marri  chief,  and  to  abandon  Kahdn. 
The  Marri  chief  held  himself  personally  responsible  for  their 
safe  conduct  to  the  plains,  and  on  the  ist  of  October  the 
little  garrison  reached  Phuleji  after  many  hardships,  but 
without  any  opposition  on  the  part  of  the  Marris,  who  loyally 
fulfilled  their  contract. 

From  the  date  of  the  evacuation  of  Kahan  there  was  little  1845  A.D. 
communication  between  the  British  and  the  Marris  till  1845, 
when  Sir  Charles  Napier  undertook  the  chastisement  of  the 
Jakhranis  and  Bugtis  and  entered  into  negotiations  with  the 
tribe  througn  Captain  Jacob--'  to  close  the  line  of  retreat  to 
the  north.  This  co-operation  was  eventually  given,  and  the 
Jakhrdnis  and  Bugtis  were  hemmed  in  and  obliged  to  surren- 
der. Sir  Charles  Napier  treated  the  Marri  chiefs  with  great 
favour  and  gave  them  handsome  presents. 


•  General  John  Jacob,  Founder  of  Jacob/ibad. 


278  CHAP.    V.—MARRI-BVGTI  COUNTRY. 

Marris—  After  this  the    Martis  remained   nominally  allied  with  the 

s  oR\.  British,  but  they  continued  to  plunder  throughout  Kachhi 
and  laid  waste  the  whole  province  ;  for  some  time  they 
abstained  from  outrages  on  the  British  border,  and  their  law- 
less pursuits  were  consequently  unchecked  by  the  British 
troops  within  whose  range  they  took  care  never  to  come.  On 
the  14th  of  September  1848,  Captain  Jacob  reported  that  *'  the 
whole  province  of  Kachhi  was  being  overrun  by  the  Marris, 
and  the  peaceable  inhabitants  are  fast  leaving  the  country 
with  their  families  and  property  to  reside  in  Sind.  The  tract 
of  the  country  in  the  Nari  river  is  almost  entirely  deserted. 
The  Kalat  authorities  do  nothing  whatever  to  protect  the 
people." 

In  May  1849  ^  fi&ht  took  place  between  the  Marris  and 
Brahuis  at  Bibi  Nani,  at  the  foot  of  the  Bolan  Pass,  in  which 
the  former  were  defeated  with  a  loss  of  about  750  killed  and 
wounded  out  of  a  total  force  of  1,300  engaged.  This  was 
foil  1  wed  by  several  raids  into  Sind  and  Kachhi,  ending  with 
an  attack  m  force  on  the  town  of  Lahri,  which  was  repulsed. 

In  January  1852  Kahan  was  much  damaged  by  an  earth- 
quake, the  details  of  which  have  already  been  given  in 
Chapter  I.  The  following  years  were  fully  occupied  by 
raids  and  forays  in  all  directions. 

The  tribe  was  subsidized  by  the  Khan  of  Kalat  after  the 
treaty  of  1854,  but  its  conduct  showed  no  improvement,  and 
in  1857  the  Marris  made  a  formidable  attack  on  the  town  of 
Asni  on  the  Rdjanpur  frontier,  the  regular  garrison  of  which 
had  been  called  away  to  serve  against  the  mutineers  in  India. 
The  Drishak  Baloch,  who  attempted  to  defend  the  place, 
were  defeated,  and  the  Marris  returned  to  their  hills  with 
a  large  amount  of  plunder. 

In  1858,  Ghulam  Murtaza,  the  Bugti  chief,  with  700  of  his 
tribesmen,  made  a  successful  raid  into  the  Marri  country,  and 
carried  off  a  considerable  amount  of  booty. 

The  condition  of  affairs  in  the  tribal  areas  became  so 
unsatisfactory  that  in  1859  Mir  Khuddd^d  Khan  was  com- 
pelled to  lead  an  expedition  against  the  Marris  and  Bugtis. 
The  force,  which  consisted  of  4,000  foot  and  4,000  horse,  was 
accompanied  by  Sir  Henry  Green,  General  Jacob's  successor 
at  Jacobdbdd,  and  successfully  occupied  D^ra  Bugti  and 
Kahdn.     But  the  permanent    result   does   not  seem  to  have 


MITHANKOT  CONFERENCE.  279 

been  very  great,  and  a  second  expedition  had  to  be  made  in    Marris- 
1862,  apparently  again  without  much  beneficial  result,  as  the    History. 
raids  were  continued  and  British  territory  itself  was  frequent- 
ly violated. 

It  was  in  connection  with  these  foiays  that  Captain  Sir  Kobert 
Sandeman,  as  Deputy  Commissioner  of  D6ra  Ghdzi  Khdn,  ^^"  eman. 
was  first  brought  in  contact  with  this  tribe.  His  policy  was 
that  the  frontier  tribes  should  be  gradually  brought  under 
the  influence  of  the  Government,  and  to  effect  this  he 
enlisted  20  Marri  sowars,  and  proposed  that  both  the 
Marris  and  Bugtis  should  be  subsidized  on  a  tegular 
system. 

It  was  proposed  to  enlist  50  Bugti  and  100  Marri  horse- 
men at  a  charge  of  Rs.  32,040  per  annum  on  the  Sind  side 
and  30  Bugtis  and  30  Marris  on  the  Punjab  side,  and  to 
distribute  this  force  along  the  Punjab  and  Sind  borders. 
These  proposals  were  supported  by  the  Bombay  and  Punjab 
Governments,  but  were  strenuously  opposed  by  Sir  William 
Merewether,  the  Commissioner  in  Sind,  who  considered  that 
all  arrangements  for  the  peace  of  the  border  should  be 
conducted  jointly  with  ihe  Khrin  of  Kalat,  and  that  the 
latter  should  be  strengthened  in  every  way  by  the  British 
Government.  A  conference  w«s  held  at  Mithankot  in  1871  Mithankot 
between  the  Punjab  and  Sind  authorities,  with  the  result  that  Conference, 
Captain  Sandeman's  proposals  received  t!ie  provisional  sanc- 
tion of  the  Government  of  India.  The  fiist  service  granted 
to  the  Marri  tribe  amounted  to  Rs.  2,545  per  mensem  and 
included  allowances  to  the  Marri  chief  and  the  leac'ing 
Ghazani  sard^rs.  The  immediate  result  was  the  cessation 
of  raids  on  the  Punjab  and  Sind  borders;  but  although  the 
Marris  were  staved  off  from  British  territory,  they  continued 
to  be  a  scourge  in  every  other  direction,  and  their  raids 
extended  as  far  as  the  precincts  of  Kaldt  itself.  The  trade 
of  the  Bolan  and  Thai  Chotidli  routes  was  stopped,  and  their 
last  feat  was  to  destroy  the  town  c  f  Kirta  in  the  Bolan. 

Such  was  the  condition  of  affairs  when  Major  Sandeman 
was  deputed  on  his  first  mission  to  Kaldt  in  1875.  ^^ 
marched  through  the  Marri  and  Bugti  hills  and  was  joined 
by  the  principal  chiefs  who  accompanied  him  to  Kalat. 
Then  followed  his  second  mission  in  1876,  which  resulted  in 
the  establishment  of  the  Baluchistdn  Agency  at  Quetta. 


28o 


CHAP.    V.  —  MARRl-HUGTI  COUNTRY 


Marris  — 
History. 

Formation  of 

Baluchistdn 

Agency. 


Kuchali  raid. 


MacGregor's 
Expedition. 


After  the  formation  of  the  Baluchistan  Ag"ency,  Sardar 
MehruUa  Khan,  the  Marri  chief,  offered  his  services  to  the 
British  Government  ;  these  were  accepted  by  Sir  Robert 
.Sandeman,  and  an  assurance  was  g^iven  that  the  internal 
affairs  of  the  Marri  country  would  not  be  interfered  with  so 
long  as  there  were  no  disturbances  and  the  tribe  remained 
loyal  to  the  British  Government.  Henceforth  the  improve- 
ment in  the  conduct  of  the  Marris  was  rapid  and  remarkable, 
and  during-  the  first  stage  of  the  Afghan  war  they  continued 
to  render  excellent  service. 

The  extension  of  the  railway  was  in  the  meantime  being 
pushed  on  with  great  rapidity,  and  as  the  mass  of  the  British 
troops  were  fully  occupied  on  the  long  line  of  communication 
between  Sind  and  Kandahar,  it  became  necessary  to  trust 
more  to  the  protection  of  the  local  levies,  and  accordingly 
additional  service  was  given  to  the  tribe.  Unfortunately  the 
reverse  at  Maiwand  and  the  consequent  siege  of  Kandahar 
rendered  it  necessary  for  the  work  on  the  railway  line  to  be 
suspended  and  for  the  troops  to  be  entirely  withdrawn 
from  the  whole  line.  This  operation  was  carried  out  with  the 
greatest  possible  expedition,  and  many  valuable  stores  were 
left  behind  owing  to  the  lack  of  transport.  The  reverses  of 
the  British  in  Afghanistan  were  exaggerated,  and  this  hasty 
retreat  led  the  tribesmen  to  believe  that  the  country  was  to 
be  abandoned  as  it  had  been  in  1842. 

These  events  contributed  to  throw  the  Marris  o?i  their 
balance,  and  on  the  6th  of  August  1880  a  band,  composed 
of  the  Thingi^ini,  Chhalgari  and  Bijardni  sections,  attacked  a 
convoy  near  Kuchali.  Forty-two  men  were  killed  and  a 
large  amount  of  Government  and  private  property,  including 
treasure  amounting  to  Rs.  1,25,000,  was  looted.  After  this 
the  tribe  became  openly  hostile  and  several  raids  were  made 
in  different  parts  of  the  countr}-.  In  consequence  of  this 
misconduct,  the  Government  of  India  determined  to  send  a 
military  expedition  to  punish  the  whole  tribe  ;  and  advantage 
was  taken  of  the  return  of  the  Kabul-Kandahar  force  to 
despatch  a  brigade  under  the  command  of  General  Mac- 
Gregor  through  the  Marri  country.  This  force  left  Quetta 
in  September  1880  and  marched  through  Harnai,  Quat 
Mandai,  the  Sembar  pass,  Thai  and  Kohlu  without  opposi- 
tion.     Kahan     was    occupied     without     any    fighting,     and 


MODERN  EVENTS.  281 

Mehrulla  Khdn,  the  Marri  chief,  and  the  leading  headmen  Marris— 
tendered  their  submission.  A  fine  of  Rs.  2,00,000  was  History. 
imposed,  of  which  Rs.  1,25,000  were  paid  up  at  once, 
Rs.  25,000  remitted,  and  the  Quat  Mandai  lands  were  held 
as  security  for  the  balance.  Hostages  were  also  taken  from 
each  of  the  three  clans.  Writing  of  the  Kuchali  raid  Sir 
Robert  Sandeman  says: — "The  son  of  Sardar  Mehrulla 
Khan,  Khair  Bakhsh,  was  also  in  the  immediate  neighbour- 
hood ;  but  he  appears  to  have  taken  no  part  in  the  raid  and 
immediately  reported  its  occurrence  to  me.  He  is  said  to 
have  communicated  the  news  to  his  father  in  a  characteristic 
manner,  having  sent  to  him  a  piece  of  paper  smeared  black 
on  both  sides,  with  the  remark  that  the  tribesmen  had  thus 
blackened  the  faces  both  of  himself  and  of  his  father.''  The 
loot  was  divided  according  to  tribal  custom,  and  the  chief 
received  his  panjuk  or  sardar's  share  which  amounted  to 
Rs.  3,000  in  cash  and  45  bullocks. 

In  January  1881  the  entire  charge  of  the  Marri  tribe  was 
made  over  to  the  Political  Agent  of  the  Thai  ChotiAli 
District,  and  the  tribal  service  was  reorganized  at  a  cost  oi 
Rs.  2,990  per  mensem  in  addition  to  a  sum  of  Rs.  430  per 
mensem  allotted  to  the  levies  employed  for  the  protection 
of  the  telegraph  line  to  Kuchiili. 

At  the  close  oi  1881  a  small  column,  designated  the  The  Buzdar 
Buzdar  column,  under  the  command  of  General  Wilkinson, 
was  sent  to  Dera  Ghazi  Khan  through  the  Kakar,  Tarin, 
.Marri  and  Luni  districts.  The  march  was  successful  and 
this  part  of  the  country,  which  had  hitherto  been  only 
partially  explored,  was  thoroughly  opened  out. 

In  January  1883  a  teud  broke  out  between  the  Marris  and    Bugti  raid  of 
Bugtis,  and  the  young  Bugti  chief,  Shahb^z   Khdn,  invaded    '^^3- 
the  Marri  country  with  a  force  of  1,200  horse   and  foot,    and 
carried  off  700  head  of  sheep  and  cattle. 

The  affairs  of  the  Kohlu  valley,  and    its   ultimate    occupa-    Kohluvalley. 
tion  by  Government  in  1892,  have  already  been   described  in 
Chapter  IV. 

Among  modern  events  of  importance    may   be   mentioned    Modern 
1      »*       •  T   »    •  ,,/-•.  •        ,    events, 

the  Marri-Luni  case  and    the   fanatical   outrages  committed 

by  the  Jadwdni  Thingicini  Marris  on  the  railway  line  in  1896 

and  1899. 


282 


CHAP.    V.—MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 


Marris— 
History. 

The  Marri- 
Luni  case, 


Sunari  raid, 


Second  out- 
rage   at  Su- 
nari, 1899. 


There  had  been  constant  disputes  and  fighting  between 
the  Luni  and  Marri  tribes  in  connection  with  the  grazing-  on 
the  Chamalang  plain,  and  these  culminated  in  April  1895 
in  a  raid  by  the  Loharani  Marris  into  the  Luni  country, 
when  fourteen  Lunis  were  killed.  A  counter  raid  was  made 
by  the  Lunis,  which  resulted  in  the  death  of  eight  Marris. 
The  case  was  heard  by  the  Quetta  Shdhi  Jirga,  and  com- 
pensation to  the  amount  of  Rs.  18,420  was  awarded  against 
the  Marris  and  Rs.  8,800  against  the  Lunis.  Four  Marris 
and  six  Lunis  were  sentenced  to  transportation  for  life,  and 
others  of  both  tribes  to  shorter  terms  of  imprisonment.  The 
Marri  and  Luni  chiefs  were  required  to  furnish  heavy 
securities  for  their  future  good  behaviour,  and  the  rate  oi 
blood  money  between  the  tribes  was  raised  from  Rs.  600 
to  Rs.  1,000. 

On  the  14th  of  October  1896,  five  Thingi^ni  Marris, 
headed  by  one  Hdji  Kala  Khiln,  commonly  known  as  the 
"  Mast  Fakir,"  attacked  the  railway  station  at  Sunari  and 
killed  seven  men,  including  a  European  platelayer  and  the 
Muahammadan  station  master.  On  the  following  day  the 
fanatics  murdered  four  Hindu  labourers  at  the  Kharapani 
gang  hut,  and  on  the  i6th  set  fire  to  another  hut.  The 
Marri  tribesmen  were  called  out  by  Colonel  Gaisford,  then 
Political  Agent,  and  finally  the  "  Mast  Fakir  "  and  two 
of  his  companions  were  surprised  and  captured  in  the 
Dungdn  hills  on  the  24th  of  October  by  General  Gatacre,* 
and  a  small  party  of  the  124th  Baluchistjin  Infantry.  The 
fanatics  were  tried  under  the  Murderous  Outrages  Act  and 
executed  at  Sibi  on  the  2nd  of  November  1896.  The 
remaining  three  men  were  captured  by  the  Marris  them- 
selves ;  these  were  also  similarly  tried,  and  two  of  them 
hanged  at  Sibi  on  the  loth  of  November,  the  third,  who  had 
assisted  in  the  capture  of  his  comrades,  being  released  on 
certain  conditions.  Tribal  responsibility  was  enforced,  and 
a  fine  of  Rs.  6,000  was  imposed  on  the  Marri  chief  and 
his   tribe. 

In  October  1899,  two  ThingiAni  Marris  attacked  a  gang 
hut  near  Sunari  and  wounded  two  coolies,  both  of  whom 
subsequently    died.     The    culprits    were    tried    under    the 

*  The  late  Sir  William  Gatacre,  K.C.B.,  D.S.O.,  who  then  com- 
manded  the  Quetta  District. 


MIGRATION  TO  KABUL.  283 

Murderous  Outrag-es  Act,  sentenced  to  death  and  hanged.  Marris— 
A  fine  of  Rs.  2,000  was  imposed  on  the  Jddwtini  section  Histor\. 
of  the  Thingidnis  to  which  the  fanatics  belonged  ;  all  sec- 
tions of  the  Thingianis,  with  the  exception  of  the  Zaverdnis, 
were  required  to  give  hostages  ;  and  the  Marris  were  pro- 
hibited from  carrying  arms  along  the  Railway  line  or  in 
British  territory. 

In    August    1900,  a    Mehkdni    Marri    fanatic    murdered  a   Murderous 
Khoja  shopkeeper   in    the    Sibi   bazar.     The    murderer  was   sib[^f^o^ 
captured  and  sentenced  to  transportation  for  life  under   the 
Murderous   Outrages  Act.     The  Mehkcini    section  were  also 
fined  Rs.  800,  and  certain  of  the  fanatic's    relations  and    the 
headmen  were  detained  as  hostages  in  the  Sibi  jail. 

An  important    point    in  the  political    administration  of  the    Relations  of 
,      •  r^  .  ,.1  .        c    ^\        c  I.  the  Marri 

country    durmg-    1892-3   was    the    settlement    or    the    tuture    ^-hiefwith 

relations   of  the    Marri    chief  with    his   headmen,    between    \\\%  7Dasir. 

whom  ill  feeling-  had  long  existed.     Owing  to  his  great   age 

and    ill-health,   MehruUa    Khdn's    hold   over   his    tribe    had 

become  relaxed,  and  the  actual    power  had    been   gradually 

usurped  by  the  wasir  of  the  tribe,  Mir  Hazdr  Khdn,  Ghazani, 

and  the  headmen  of  the  various  sections.      According  to  the 

agreement  arrived  at  between  the  sarddr  and  his   headmen, 

the  position  of  the  former  was  clearly  defined  as  the  head  of 

the  tribe,  while    Mir  Hazir    Khdn  retained  his    standing-  as 

wasir,  but  was  held  to  be  subordinate    in  all    matters  to  the 

chief  and  his  son  Mir  Khair  Bakhsh  Khan. 

Owing  to  a  dispute  which  existed  between    Nawdb   Shah-    Migration  to 

,  Kabul. 

b;iz  Khan,  the  Bugti  chief,  and  his    son-in  law  Miran    Khdn, 

Raheja,  the  latter  fled  to  Kandahdr  in   1897  and  was  joined 

by  several  discontented  Bugtis  and    Marris.     Among    these 

was    one    AW    Muhammad,    Masori    Bugti,    the    head   of  his 

section,  and  two  Ghazani  Marris  named  Gulbeg  ai  d  Malgu- 

zdr.     AH  Muhammad  subsequently  returned  from  Kandahjir 

in  order  to  induce  others   to   follow   his   example   and  leave 

British  territory.      He  was  so  far    successful,    that    in    1898 

K.  B.  Mi'r  Khair  Bakhsh,  son  of  the  Marri  chief,  accompanied 

by  the  headmen  of  several   sections  of  the   Marris,  left  their 

homes  and  went  to  Kiibul.     Their  example  was  followed  by 

the  Dumar  chiefs,  the    Kh^trans    and    others^   and    also  by 

a  few  men  of  the    D^ra  GhAzi    Khdn    District   living  on    the 

border,     such    as    the    Gurchanis    and    the    Laghjiris.     By 


284  CHAP.    V.-MARRI.BUGTJ  COUNTRY. 

Marris  assumiiiij  this  attitude  the    Marris    had   fostered  a  hope  that 

they  would  be  enabled  to  force  the  hands  of  Government 
and  obtain  additional  services  and  concessions.  But  they 
were  disappointed  in  their  hopes,  and,  no  notice  being- taken 
of  their  absence,  returned  quieth  to  their  country. 

Levy  service.  The  grant  of  levy  service  to  the  Marri  tribe  dates  from 
the  Harrand  raid  which  occurred  in  1867.  Sir  Robert 
Sandeman  was  then  brought  in  contact  with  the  border 
tribes,  and  a  small  service  was  given  to  the  Marris,  Bugtis 
and  Khetrans.  The  Marri  service  consisted  of  i  jamadir 
and  10  sowars,  who  were  stationed  at  Rajanpur,  and  whose 
duties  were  to  provide  escorts  along  the  routes  leading  into 
their  hills,  and  to  keep  up  communication  between  the  tribal 
chief  and  headmen  and  the  authorities  at  Dera  Ghiizi  Khjin. 
After  the  Mithankot  conference  the  service  granted  to  the 
tribe  amounted  to  Rs.  2,545  P^*"  niensem  and  included  allow- 
ances to  the  Marri  chief  and  the  leading  Ghazani  sarddrs. 
In  1881,  when  the  charge  of  the  Marri  tribe  was  made 
over  to  the  Political  Agent  of  Thal-Chotidli,  the  tribal  service 
was  reorganised  at  a  cost  of  Rs.  2,990  per  mensem  in  addition 
to  a  sum  of  Rs.  430  per  mensem  allotted  for  the  protection 
of  the  telegraph  line  to  Kuchali.  Since  then  there  have 
been  several  changes  and  additions  from  time  to  time.  The 
present  distribution  of  the  Marri  levies  is  given  in  table 
XXII,  Vol.  B;  they  hold  17  posts,  and  their  total  strength 
consists  of  I  chief,  2  headmen,  8  risaldars,  12  jamaddrs,  17 
dufFaddrs,  139  sowars,  8  footmen  and  5  clerks.  The  total 
cost  is  Rs.  4,842  per  mensem  or  Rs.  58,104  per  annum. 
The  principal  duties  of  the  levies  are  to  assist  the  chief  in 
the  administration  of  the  country  and  in  the  maintenance  of 
discipline  and  order,  to  g^uard  the  communications  and 
supply  escorts.  They  are  responsible  for  the  railway  line 
between  Ndri  and  Sunari  and  supply  posts  at  Sibi  and 
Quat.  Marri  levies  are  also  stationed  at  Duki,  Kohlu, 
Hosri,  Bc-iladh^ka,  Zaran,  Vitdkri  and  Barkhdn,  but  these 
belong  more  properly  to  the  Loralai  District  and  are  not 
included  in  the  numbers  g-iven  atove. 

Kahan.  Jhe  only  place  of  importance  is  Kahan  (29°  18'  N.  and  68° 

54' E.),  the  head  quarters  of  the  Marri  chief.  It  is  situated 
in  an  open  plain  on  the  southern  banks  of  the  Sohrab  nullah, 
an  affluent  of  the  Nal  river,    and   has   an  elevation  of  about 


BrG77S.  285 

2,350  feet.  The  present  Kahdn  is  some  miles  from  the  site  m arris— 
of  the  old  town  which  was  built  by  BahAwaldn  and  was  History. 
destroyed  by  an  earthquake  in  January  1852.  It  is  a  small 
walled-in  town,  forming-  an  irreg^ular  hexag-on  about  900 
yards  in  circumference  with  six  bastions  and  one  gateway. 
The  walls,  which  are  built  of  mud,  are  in  a  state  of  bad 
repair,  and  in  some  places  are  falling-  down  altogether.  It 
is  inhabited  by  the  Marri  chief  and  members  of  his  family, 
their  hereditary  dependants,  who  are  known  as  Maretas, 
and  a  few  Hindu  shopkeepers.  The  total  population  is 
about  300  souls.  Drinking  water  is  obtained  from  wells 
sunk  in  the  bed  of  the  Sohrdb.  The  villages  of  Mir  Hazdr 
Khdn,  the  hereditary  wasir  of  the  Marris  and  of  Akhtardn 
Ghazani,  are  situated  in  the  neighbourhood. 

The  Kahan  valley  is  a  fine  open  plain  about  12  miles  in 
length  and  3  miles  broad.  The  soil  is  fertile,  and  in  favour- 
able years  is  well  cultivated,  the  irrigation  being  supplied 
by  flood-water  brought  down  by  numerous  hill  torrents. 
In  former  days  caravans  from  KhurasAn  to  India,  after 
passing-  through  the  Boldn  Pass,  usually  proceeded  through 
Mai,  Tratdni,  Mihi  Khand  and  Kahdn  to  Harrand.  The 
town  of  Kahan  is  chiefly  memorable  for  the  gallant  defence 
made  by  the  small  detachment  o^  native  troops  under  the 
command  of  Captain  Lewis  Browne  in  1840. 

"  Definite  information  as  to  the  country  whence  the  R„gtis. 
original  nucleus  of  the  Bugtis  sprang  is  not  available  ;  but 
it  is  asserted  to  have  come  from  Bug  in  Persian  Baluchistan. 
Like  the  Marris,  they  appear  to  have  originally  consisted  of 
a  small  nucleus  which  gradually  gathered  strength  and  ex- 
pelled the  Bult^dis  from  the  country  which  they  now  occupy. 
The  tribe  is  probably  not  more  homogeneous  than  other 
Baloch  tribes,  the  Pirozani  Noth;inis,  which  is  the  largest 
clan,  being  acknowledged  to  be  of  dift'erent  stock  to  the 
original  nucleus,  whilst  the  Shamb;inis,  who  came  from  the 
Magassis,  were  a  distinct  tuman,  but  found  themselves  too 
weak  to  stand  alone,  and  at  length  amalgamated  with  the 
stronger  community.  "* 

According  to  Mr.  Dames  the    Bugti    tribe   is    made    up    of 
various  elements,   mainly   of  Rind   origin,   descended   from 

*  Census  of  Inriin,  I'o/s.   V  nnd  VA,  Baluchistdn  (1901),  Chapter  VIII, 
page  96. 


286  CHAP.    V.-MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 

BuGTis—         Gydnddr,      the    cousin    of    Mi'r     Chrikar.       Gyinddr's    son, 

History.         Rah^ja,  is  said  to  have  g-iven  his  name   to  the   Rah^ja  clan, 
but  the  name  appears  to  be  of  Indian  origin. 

In  1901  the  tribe  numbered  15,159  souls,  the  number  of 
adult  males  being  5,126.  It  is  divided  into  seven  clans  :  the 
Raheja  (840),  of  which  the  Bibrakzai  section  {w^  is  the 
sarddr  khel  or  ruling  family  of  the  tribe,  the  Masori  (2,928), 
the  Khalpar  (1,537),  the  Mondrani  (510),  the  Shamb^ini 
(2,841),  the  Durragh  Noth^ni(i.772),  and  the  Pi'rozdni  (4,731). 
Each  clan  is  again  divided  into  various  sections.  Appendix 
VI  contains  a  list  of  these  sections,  the  localities  which  they 
occupy  and  the  names  of  the  headmen.  The  genealogy  of 
the  chief's  family  is  also  given  in  the  same  appendix. 

.\ccording  to  the  local  tradition  these  clans  have  descend- 
ed from  Raho,  Masor,  Khalpar,  Mondar,  Shambe,  Durragh 
and  Piroz,  all  of  whom  are  said  to  have  been  Rinds  and 
compatriots  of  Mir  Chakar.  Durragh  and  Piroz  were 
brothers,  but  the  others  were  not  related  by  blood.  When 
Mir  Chdkar  crossed  the  Indus  into  the  Punjab  with  the  main 
body  of  the  Rinds,  these  men  elected  to  remain  behind  in  the 
Sewistan  hills  with  their  families  and  households,  and  thus 
formed  the  nucleus  of  the  tribe. 

Historical.  The  Bugtis    appear  to  have   followed  the  fortunes   of  the 

Marris  in  their  earlier  history.  Though  claimed  by  the 
Khan  of  Kaldt  as  his  subjects,  they  paid  no  revenue  and 
maintained  a  more  or  less  distinct  form  of  independence  in 
their  rocky  fastnesses. 

Bugti  Sar-  The  ruling  family  belongs  to  the  Bibrakzai  section   of  the 

Raheja  clan,  and,  according  to  local  information,  the 
following  is  the  list  of  the  chiefs  {tumanddrs)  from  the  time 
of  Palwdn  : — 

1.  Palwiln. 

2.  Badi. 

3.  Akif,  also  known  as  Dapil  Khan. 

4.  Badi. 

5.  Kasim  (killed  at  Harrand). 

6.  Bibrak  I  (brother  of  Kasim). 

7.  Sfirang. 

8.  Haibat  (killed  by  the  Marris). 

9.  Das^l. 

10.    Soba  (killed  by  the   Drishaks) 


RELATIONS  WITH  OTHER  TRIBES.  287 

11.  Mitha.  BuGTis  — 

12.  Bibrak  II.  HisTOBY. 

13.  Islam  I  (poisoned  by  Shehddd,  the  Dombki  chief). 

14.  Bibrak  III. 

15.  Islam  II. 

16.  Ghuldm  Murtaza  (died  1900). 

17.  Nawab  Sir  Shahbiiz  Khan,   K.C.I.E.    (the  present 

chief). 

The  tumanddr  is  the  acknowledged  head  of  the  whole 
tribe,  though  the  Shambanis  at  one  time  claimed  to  be  a 
distinct  tiiman.  They  were,  however,  always  too  weak  to 
stand  alone  and  were  considered  as  forming  one  of  the 
divisions  of  the  Bugtis  and  joined  them  in  war. 

The  Bugtis  are  the  ancient  and  hereditary  foes  oi  the  ^vkh  tlTeMar- 
Marris,  and  the  interminable  wars  between  these  tribes  first  ri  tribe, 
began  in  the  time  of  Bibrak  I.  There  was  a  temporary  truce 
when  Haibat  Khan  married  the  daughter  of  the  Marri  chief, 
but  as  Haibat  himself  was  shortly  afterwards  killed  by  the 
Marris,  the  feud  was  renewed  with  increased  vigour.  At  the 
same  time  the  Bugtis  were  at  constant  war  with  the  Maz^- 
ris,  Drishaks,  Dombkis  and  Bul^dis,  and  it  was  in  connec- 
tion with  these  inter-tribal  fights  that  Bibrak  III  gained  a 
great  name  as  a  leader  of  successful  forays. 

The  hostilities  with  the  Mazaris  date  from  the  time  oi  The  Mazdris. 
Akif,  the  third  Sardar,  who  first  raided  the  Mazari  country, 
and  whose  two  sons  were  killed  in  a  counter-raid.  Raids 
and  retaliations  continued  at  intervals  and  with  varying 
success  up  to  the  time  of  Bibrak  III  when  a  peace  was  con- 
cluded with  Bahram  Khan,  the  Mazari  tumanchir. 

There  were  also  constant  feuds  with  the  Drishaks,  and  The  DrJ- 
the  most  noticeable  raid  occurred  in  1837  when  a  body  of 
Bugtis  and  Jakhranis  invaded  the  Drishak  country,  carried 
off  a  large  amount  of  booty  and  severely  defeated  the  pur- 
suing Drishaks,  killing  their  chief  Fdroz  Khan  and  his 
nephew  Pain  Khan. 

In  the  lime  of  Bibrak   III  a  large  force  of  Brahuis,    who   The  Brahuis. 
had  been  sent  by  the   Khjin  of  Kalat  to  punish  the  tribe  for 
their  depredations  in  his  territory,  was   routed  in  the  Marav 
plains  with  considerable  loss. 

During  the  time  of  the  Sikh  rule  in  the  Punjab,  the  Bugtis    The  Sikhs, 
under  their  chief,  Isldm  Khdn  II,  made  a  raid  in  force  against 


288 


CHA  P.    J  \  -  M.  I  RRf-  BCGTI  CO  UXTR  J " 


BfGTIS— 

History. 


Billamore's 
expedition, 
1839  A.D. 


Napier's 
campaign. 


the  Mazaris  near  Umarkot.  They  were  encountered  by 
Harsa  Shig-h,  the  Sikh  commander,  with  a  body  of  Sikh 
troops  reinforced  by  the  Mazdris.  The  Sikhs  were  defeated, 
and  Harsa  Sing-h  and  over  fifty  of  his  men  were  killed.  The 
Bugtis  captured  the  Sikh  banners  and  kettledrums  which 
they  fixed  over  the  shrine  o(  Sori  Kushtak,  where  they  are 
still  to  be  seen. 

The  connection  of  the  Bug"tis  with  the  British  commenced 
in  1839.  The  predatory  attacks  by  the  Baloch  on  the  com- 
munications of  the  British  Army  in  Afghanistan  were  so 
dangerous  and  frequent  that,  after  all  other  measures  had 
failed,  a  force  was  sent  in  October  1839  under  the  command 
of  Major  Billamore  to  punish  the  offending'  tribes.  On  the 
arrival  of  the  force  at  Phuleji,  it  was  found  that  tiie  Kachhi 
plunderers  had  deserted  their  country  and  taken  refuge  in 
the  Bugti  hills.  They  were  followed  by  Major  Billamore's 
detachment,  and,  as  the  troops  approached  Dera,  the  Bugtis 
seemed  at  first  to  be  submissive  and  friendly,  but  the  small- 
ness  of  the  force  tempted  them  to  hostilities,  and  they  at- 
tacked Major  Billamore  with  their  whole  strength.  The 
Bugtis  were  twice  signally  defeated  with  great  loss,  their 
chief,  Bibrak,  was  captured  and  sent  as  a  prisoner  to  Sind* 
and  great  losses  were  inflicted  on  the  tribe  generally. 
Major  ''Billamore  remained  in  the  hills  for  nearly  three 
months,  when,  having  accomplished  the  object  of  his  expedi- 
tion, he  returned  by  the  Nafusk  pass.  The  plundering  ex- 
cursions of  the  Bugtis  were  thus  checked  for  a  time,  but 
they  soon  recommenced  their  raids  and  forays,  and  in  April 
1840  Lieutenant  Clarke,  with  a  detachment  of  180  men,  made 
an  unsuccessful  effort  to  surprise  a  party  of  the  Khalpar 
Bugtis  in  the  hills. 

At  length  in  1845,  provoked  by  the  repeated  acts  of  law- 
lessness on  the  part  of  the  Dombkis  and  Bugtis,  Sir  Charles 
Napier  undertook  a  campaign  with  a  view  of  breaking  their 
power.  The  force  at  his  disposal  consisted  of  over  7,000 
troops  as  well  as  a  large  body  of  Baloch  auxiliaries.  The 
campaign  was  conducted  frorri  two  sides,  one  force  operating 
from  Uch  as  its  head-quarters  and  marching  across  the  Sori 
Kushtak  and  Jaonk  ranges,  while  another  worked  up  from 
Phuleji  and  threatened  the  flanks  of  the   predatory   tribes. 

*   He  was  released  after  two  years. 


RAIDS  289 

As  already  described,  the  line  of  retreat  to  the  north  was  Bugtis- 
closed  by  the  Marris.  The  Dombkis  were  thus  driven  into  History. 
the  famous  stronghold  of  Taraki,  where  they  were  forced  to 
surrender.  The  mass  of  the  Bug^tis,  however,  managed  to 
effect  their  escape  into  the  Kh^tr^n  valley,  and  though  the 
movements  of  Sir  Charles  Napier's  force  extended  over  a 
considerable  area  of  their  country  and  Dera  was  occupied, 
the  expedition,  as  far  as  this  tribe  was  concerned,  would 
only  appear  to  have  been  a  qualified  success.  Immediately 
after  the  force  left  the  hills,  the  Bugtis  returned  to  their 
country  and  continued  their  depredations  in  Sind  and 
Kachhi. 

In   1846  a  body  of  1,200  tribesmen   penetrated   into  the    Mirpurraid. 
plains  of  Sind,  and  plundered  the  country  round   Mirpur  to 
within  about  16  miles  of  the   city  of  Shikdrpur  and  carried 
off  an  immense  booty  consisting  of  nearly   15,000  head   of 
cattle. 

In  October  1847,  the  Bugtis  raided  the  village  of  Kundrdni  Kunri  raid, 
in  Kachhi,  and  while  returning  to  the  hills,  were  attacked 
near  Kunri  by  Lieut,  (afterwards  Sir  William)  Merewether 
with  130  men  of  the  ist  Scinde  Horse.  The  Bugtis  were 
completely  defeated,  and  are  said  to  have  lost  nearly  500 
killed  and  120  prisoners.  While  the  tribe  was  paralysed  by 
this  blow,  their  country  was  successfully  invaded  by  the 
Marris.  After  this  the  whole  tribe,  broken  and  disheartened, 
fled  for  refuge  to  the  Kh^tr^ins,  the  chief  of  which,  Mir  Hdji, 
had  given  his  sister  in  marriage  to  the  Bugti  tumandcir. 
The  Bugtis  and  the  Khetrans  then  united  and  attacked  the 
Marris,  killing  70  of  them  and  carrying  off  a  large  herd  of 
camels.  They  again  united  with  the  Musa  Kh61  Pathrfnsand 
penetrated  into  the  Marri  country  as  far  as  Piirb,  when 
they  encountered  the  Marris.  Here  the  united  tribesmen 
suffered  a  severe  defeat,  the  Bugtis  alone  losing  over  500  Defeat  of  the 
men.  About  the  end  of  1847,  IslAm  Khdn,  the  Bugti  chief,  ^J^^J'^  *^ 
surrendered  to  Major  Jacob  ;  and  868  Bugtis,  including 
women  and  children,  were  settled  down  in  Larkdna,  but  the 
majority  shortly  afterwards  contrived  to  effect  their  escape 
into  their  hills.  Notwithstanding  their  reverses  the  tribes- 
men continued  their  raids,  and  the  history  of  the  follow- 
ing years  consists  of  a  series  of  forays  into  Sind  and 
Kachhi. 
19 


290 


CHA  P.    V.  —MA  RRT-B  UG TI  CO UNTR  V. 


Blgtis— 

HlSTORV. 

Battle  of 
Chambri. 


Ghul.im  Miir 
taza,      1861 
A.D. 


In  1858,  GhuK-im  Murtaza,  who  had  been  elected  as  chief 
in  the  place  of  his  father  Islam,  made  a  raid  on  the  Marris 
with  700  of  his  clan.  He  passed  by  Kahiin  itself,  and 
attacked  the  Bijardnis  who  were  encamped  in  Kohlu,  killings 
13  of  them  and  carrying-  off  an  immense  booty,  consisting 
of  sheep,  goats,  cows  and  camels.  While  returning  by  the 
Gazbor  road  he  was  intercepted  by  the  Marris,  and  the  two 
tribes  came  within  sight  of  each  other  on  the  northern  side 
of  the  Sham  plain.  Islam  Khan  and  some  of  the  Bugtis 
proposed  that  they  should  return  the  Marri  property  and 
make  a  truce,  or  that  they  should  retreat  to  the  Kh^tran 
country  ;  but  Ghulam  Murtaza,  who  was  supported  by  many 
of  his  chiefs,  steadily  refused  either  to  return  the  cattle  or 
to  retreat.  In  the  morning  the  Bugtis  attacked  the  Marris 
at  a  place  called  Chambri,  where  a  hand-to-hand  conflict 
took  place,  w^hich  lasted  throughout  the  greater  part  of  the 
day  and  ended  in  the  v'ictory  of  the  Bugtis.  The  Marris 
retreated,  leaving  130  dead  on  the  scene  of  the  action,  while 
many  more  died  of  their  wounds.  The  Bugtis  lost  40  men 
killed  and  a  greater  number  wounded,  but  they  succeeded 
in  taking  home  their  booty  which  was  increased  by  the 
addition  of  84  mares  and  the  arms  of  the  Marris,  who  had 
fallen  in  the  fight.  This  victory  completely  wiped  out  the 
defeat  of  Purb. 

After  the  battle  of  Chambri,  the  w-ar  of  retaliation  was 
carried  on  from  year  to  year  with  var}ing  success,  until  the 
influence  exercised  over  both  tribes  by  Sir  Robert  Sandeman 
brought  an  end  to  this  state  of  affairs. 

Till  the  latter  part  of  1861,  the  conduct  of  the  Bugtis, 
as  far  as  the  British  Government  was  concerned,  w-as  most 
exemplary.  The  chief,  Ghuldm  Murtaza,  was  a  man  in 
every  way  fitted  for  his  position  ;  he  secured  the  respect  and 
fear  of  the  members  of  his  own  tribe,  and  succeeded  in  keep- 
ing the  numerous  sections  under  control.  His  political 
relations  with  the  surrounding  tribes  were  admirably 
managed,  and  on  two  or  three  occasions  he  was  able  to 
inflict  severe  punishment  on  his  hereditary  enemies,  the 
Marris,  who  were  thus  prevented  from  attempting  raids  on 
the  low^er  portions  of  the  country.  In  1861  Ghuliim 
Murtaza's  mind  became  affected,  and  under  the  influence  of 
monomania  his  conduct  became  so  outrageous  that  the  tribe 


ZARKUN  EXPEDITION.  291 

proposed  to  depose  him  and  appoint  his  son  in  his  stead.  Blgtis- 
Thecase  was  referred  to  the  Khdn  of  Kaldt,  but  no  settle-  History. 
ment  was  made  ;  and  with  the  loss  of  individual  control,  the 
tribe  soon  became  broken  up  into  sections,  each  commanded 
by  its  own  headman,  and  complete  disorganization  was  the 
necessary  result.  In  1864  a  scheme  for  locating  a  portion 
of  the  Bugtis  in  British  territory  was  considered,  but  was 
opposed  by  the  Commissioner  in  Sind,  who  was  of  opinion 
that  the  tribe  should  be  dealt  with  as  a  whole,  and  as  much 
as  possible  through  the  Kh^n  of  Kaldt,  whose  subjects  they 
nominally  were. 

The  proposal  was  allowed  to  fall  through,  and  in  January  The  Harrand 
1867  occurred  the  great  Harrand  raid  by  a  combined  force 
of  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  under  Ghuldm  Husain,  the  Masori 
headman.  The  raiders  were  defeated  by  a  detachment  of 
the  5th  Punjab  Cavalry  and  a  body  of  the  Gurchani  tribes- 
men, and  lost  over  200  men  killed,  including  their  leader 
Ghuldm  Husain. 

On  the  3rd  of  February  187 1  a  conference  was  held  at  Mithankot 
Mithankot,  with  the  result  that  the  management  of  the  ^syif^^"*"^' 
Marri  and  Bugti  tribes  was  centred  in  the  hands  of  the 
Political  Superintendent  of  the  Upper  Sind  Frontier,  and  the 
Deputy  Commissioner  of  Dera  Ghazi  Khdn,  as  regards  these 
tribes,  was  placed  under  the  orders  of  the  Political  Super- 
intendent, and  not  under  those  oi  the  Commissioner  of 
D^rajat,  who  was  relieved  of  all  responsibility  as  far  as 
these  tribes  were  concerned.  Levy  service,  the  amount  of 
which  has  varied  from  time  to  time,  was  also  given. 

In  Januarv  J876  a  small  partv  of  Masori    Bugtis  attacked    Expedition 
ji  1'  ^      s    >  rT'iii^  "  1  .     «Kainst    the 

and  looted  some  Zarkuns  or  Kohlu,  but    were    pursued    and    Zaikuns. 

lost  14  of  their  number.  A  few  months  afterwards  another 
body  of  Bugtis,  who  had  come  to  avenge  the  death  of  their 
comrades,  were  attacked  by  the  Zarkims,  and  their  leader 
Haider  Khdn  killed  together  with  28  others.  The  Bugtis 
were  greatly  exasperated  by  the  death  of  Haider  Khiin,  who 
was  looked  upon  as  the  best  and  the  bravest  leader  in  the 
Baloch  hills,  and  immediately  fitted  out  an  expedition 
against  the  Zarkiins.  The  Marris  appear  to  have  fomented 
the  strife,  and  gave  a  passage  through  their  country  to  the 
Bugti  force,  which  consisted  of  almost  all  the  Bugti  fight- 
ing   men    led    by    their    chief.     This    force    passed  into  the 


292 


CHAP.   V.—MARRI'BUGTI  COUNTRY. 


Blgtis— 
History. 


Sir   Shahbaz 
Khan. 


General. 


Kohlu  valley  over  the  Bibur  Tak  pass  and  fell  on  the  village 
of  Oridni  ;  this  was  stormed  after  a  brave  defence,  in  which 
the  Zarkuns  lost  over  70  killed,  and  the  valley  was  sacked. 

In  1882  the  management  of  the  Bugti  tribe  was  handed 
over  to  the  Political  Agent,  Thal-ChotiAli.  In  1887  GhulAm 
Murtaza  formally  resigned  the  Sardarship  of  the  tribe  in 
favour  of  his  son  Shahbdz  Khan,  the  present  chief,  who  was 
created  a  NawAb  in  1890  and  a  K.C.I.E.  in  1901.  Shahbaz 
Khdn  has  proved  himself  a  strong  and  capable  chief,  and, 
since  his  assumption  of  power,  the  behaviour  of  his  tribe  has 
been  exemplary. 

The  arms  of  the  Bugtis  were  swords  and  match-locks, 
about  one-third  of  the  tribesmen  being  armed  with  the 
latter.  In  times  of  peace,  when  scattered  over  the  country, 
the  tribe  could  collect  at  any  given  point  and  place  their 
families  and  property  in  safety  in  about  four  days.  In  times 
of  war,  when  less  scattered,  they  could  mobilize  in  about 
two  days. 

The  Bugtis  are  reported  to  be  the  bravest  of  the  hill 
tribes.  Physically  they  are  some  of  the  finest  men  among 
the  Baloch,  and  intellectually,  perhaps,  they  are  the  least 
bigoted.  Like  the  Marris  they  are  active  and  hardy  and 
capable  of  traversing  great  distances  without  fatigue. 
Lew  service.  As  was  the  case  with  the  Marris,  the  grant  of  the  first 
service  to  the  Bugti  tribe  dates  from  1867,  when  a  small 
body  of  sowars,  consisting  of  i  jamaddr  and  10  sowars,  were 
enlisted  by  Sir  Robert  Sandeman  and  stationed  at  Rdjanpur. 
After  the  Mithankot  conference  of  1871,  50  Bugti  sowars 
were  enlisted  for  service  on  the  Sind  borders,  and  30  sowars 
for  the  Punjab  side.  In  1882  the  levy  service  was  reorga- 
nized at  a  total  cost  of  Rs.  1,775  P^''  mensem.  There  was 
a  further  reorganization  in  1883,  and  Rs.  2,140  per  mensem 
were  sanctioned  for  the  political  or  tribal  levies  and  Rs.  1,390 
per  mensem  for  the  border  posts  at  Shdhpur,  Gordndri  and 
Gandoi,  which  relieved  the  military  detachments  and  were 
placed  under  the  orders  of  the  Superintendent  of  Levies. 

In  1 89 1  the  levies  were  placed  on  a  new  footing  and  the 
monthly  expenditure  was  increased  to  Rs.  3,730.  Since 
then  several  minor  changes  have  been  made  in  the  con- 
stitution oi  the  levies,  and  at  the  present  time  (1905)  the 
Bugtis  hold  II    posts,  and  their  strength   consists   of  three 


PLA  CES  OF  INTEREST.  293 

chiefs  and  headmen,  3  risjildars,    5  jamaddrs,    12    dufiaddrs,    Bugtis. 
I  19  sowars,  4  footmen  and  5  clerks   and    menials  ;    the   total 
cost  being-  Rs.  3,796  per  mensem  or  Rs.  45,552  per  annum. 

The  further  details  are  given  in  table  XXII,  Volume  B. 

The  only  places  of  interest  are  Dera  Bugti  and  Uch.  Places  of 

Dera  Bugti,  which  is  also  known  as  the  Dera  Bibrak  after    interest, 
the  name  of  its  founder,  is  the   head  quarters  of  the   Bugti        ^^     "^  ' 
tribe  and  is  situated  in  29°2'  N.,  and  69°9'  E.  at  an   elevation 
of    1,478    feet.      It    is    78    miles    from    Jacobdbdd,    36  miles 
from  Sui,  125  miles  from  Sibi  and  64  miles  from    Rojhan  in 
the  Dera  Ghdzi  KhAn  District. 

It  is  rather  picturesquely  situated  on  the  banks  of  the 
Si^haf  water  course,  and  commands  a  g'ood  view  of  the 
Sidhdf  valley.  The  village  is  an  irregular  collection  of  mud 
houses,  surrounded  by  a  mud  wall  built  in  the  form  of  a 
square  with  a  small  round  bastion  in  each  corner.  The 
present  chief,  Nawab  Sir  Shahbdz  Khdn,  K.C.I.E.,  has 
greatly  improved  the  place,  which  has  three  fine  gardens, 
and,  in  addition  to  the  houses  of  the  chief  and  members  of 
his  family,  a  darbar  hall,  masjid  and  guest  houses.  There 
is  a  good  supply  of  water  from  the  Sidhdf  stream.  The 
population  (1905)  consists  of  about  1,500  souls,  including 
nearly  300  Hindus.  The  exports  are  chiefly  wool,  potash 
and  dwarf-palm  leaves,  while  the  imports  include  grain, 
sugar,  oil  and  piece-goods,  the  annual  value  of  which  is 
estimated  at  about  Rs.  3,000.  The  approaches  to  the  north 
and  south  are  difficult,  and  are  capable  of  being  easily  held 
against  an  enemy.  The  fort  was  captured  in  1839  by  the 
force  under  Major  Billamore,  and  again  in  1845  by  General 
Simpson's  column  of  Sir  Charles  Napier's  Army. 

The  following  interesting  account   oi  Uch  was  written  by  Uch. 

Mr.  R.  Hughes-BuUer,  who  visited  the  locality  in  1903  : — 
"  Uch  is  a  small  oasis  in  the  hills  lying  in  the  low  and 
irregular  range  oi  hills  composed  of  soft  sand-stones  and 
sand  which  skirt  the  foot  of  the  Z^n  hills  on  the  south  of 
the  Bugti  country  and  between  it  and  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil. 
Among  these  hills  lies  a  small  valley  about  2  miles  long  by 
about  500  or  600  yards  broad,  through  which  runs  the  bed 
of  a  mountain  torrent  filled  from  the  north-west  by  the 
junction  of  the  Mazardan.  Lallo  and  Chot  streams.  There  are 
gaps  in  the  sand-stone  hills  between  the  valley  and  the  plain 


294         CHAP.   V.—MARRI-BUGTl  COUNTRY. 

BuGTis.  through   which   the   water  passes.     On  the  northern  side  of 

the  valley  is  a  low  bank  containing  an  incrustation  of  effer- 
vescent salt.  On  the  top  of  the  bank  are  a  few  date  and 
other  trees.  From  this  bank,  at  different  places,  water  is 
continually  exuding,  but  the  largest  supply  is  from  two 
springs  about  three  quarters  of  a  mile  apart,  in  which  the 
water  is  constantly  bubbling  and  bringing  up  loose  sand. 
The  water  bubbles  at  short  intervals  and  generally,  at  or 
near  the  same  spot  each  time.  It  is  fairly  good  for  men 
and  animals  who  are  accustomed  to  it,  but  has  a  taste  of 
sulphuretted  hydrogen.  An  attempt  was  once  made  by 
one  Dilmurtld  to  use  the  water  which  is  fairly  plentiful 
for  cultivation,  and  he  is  said  to  have  been  fairly  successful. 
He  was  shortly  afterwards,  however,  found  to  be  implicated 
with  the  mutineers  of  1857,  and  was  imprisoned,  and  no 
further  attempt  has  ever  been  made  to  utilize  the  springs. 
The  w^ater  is  said  to  increase  in  the  cold  weather  and  to 
diminish  at  the  time  of  rain.  It  was  here  that  Major  Bil- 
lamore  arrived  in  1839,  and  came  upon  a  number  of  Bugti 
horsemen  and  footmen.  Some  hundred  men  were  unable 
to  make  their  escape  with  the  horsemen,  and,  taking  up  a 
position  on  the  sand-stone  range,  held  out  until  20  men 
were  killed  when  they  surrendered.  The  Bugti  horsemen 
meanwhile  had  disappeared,  but  next  morning  were  pursued 
without  result.  On  the  return  of  the  British  in  dejection  to 
Uch  the  Bugtis  suddenly  made  their  appearance  from  a  cleft 
of  the  hills  not  half  a  mile  away.  Billamore's  men  at  once 
advanced  to  the  charge,  but  as  soon  as  they  were  in  a  gallop 
the  ground  gave  way  and  they  were  bogged  to  the  saddle- 
girth.  A  single  officer,  probably  General  John  Jacob 
himself,  got  across.  He  was  absolutely  at  the  mercy 
of  the  enemy,  but  the  leader  of  the  Bugtis  waited,  as 
the  solitary  officer  rode  towards  him,  and  turning  reins 
followed  his  men  who  had  disappeared  among  the  sand 
hills. 

Some  Lotfini  Bugtis  live  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  Jat 
camelmen  bring  their  camels  to  water  here.  Before  the 
Sind  canals  were  made,  large  quantities  of  sand-grouse  and 
pigeons  were  to  be  met  with  in  the  locality,  but  since  water 
has  become  plentiful  in  the  Nasirdbdd  tahsil  they  are  not 
now  numerous." 


TREATMENT  OF  WOMEN.  295 

The  Mariis  and  Bugtis  are  nominally  Muhammadans  of  Social  life. 
the  Sunni  sect,  but  are  by  no  means  strict  in  their  Religion, 
religious  observances,  and  set  but  scanty  value  on  the 
orthodox  times  of  prayer,  on  pilgrimages,  alms  or  fasting. 
On  the  other  hand  they  are  superstitious  and  place 
implicit  belief  in  omens,  charms  and  spirits.  Many  of 
their  religious  and  social  characteristics  have  already  been 
described  in  Chapter  I,  and  resemble  those  of  the  other 
Baloch  tribes  in  most  essentials.  Saiads  and  mullds  and 
sacred  classes  play  an  important  part  in  the  tribal  areas, 
and  their  amulets,  charms  and  blessings  are  constantly 
invoked.  The  superstitious  reverence  paid  by  the 
Marris  to  their  chief  and  the  family  of  the  Bahdwaldnzai 
Ghazanis  has  already  been  alluded  to.  The  Mehkanis  are 
also  considered  a  sacred  sect,  while  among  the  Bugtis  the 
same  position  is  accorded  to  the  Nothdnis,  who  are  the 
descendants  of  Pir  Sori,  and  to  the  Jaskhdnis,  a  sub- 
section of  the  Masori  clan.  These  are  credited  with  the 
power  of  being  able  to  cure  diseases  and  turn  aside  the 
bullets  of  the  enemy. 

Ordeals  by  fire  and  water  were  frequently,  and  are  still 
occasionally,  resorted  to  to  determine  the  guilt  or  innocence 
of  a  suspected  person.  An  ordinary  trial  was  to  compel  the 
accused  to  walk  over  seven  red-hot  stones  which  were 
placed  in  a  row  a  yard  apart,  each  being  covered  with  a  leaf 
of  the  akk  plant.  If  the  suspect  was  able  to  perform 
this  test  without  hurt  or  damage,  he  was  declared  to  be 
innocent. 

From  their  mode  of  life  it  is  not  possible  for  the  tribes-  Treatment 
men  to  seclude  their  women.  The  chiefs  alone  consider  it  of  women, 
necessary  to  do  so,  and  even  in  their  households  the 
women  are  allowed  to  mix  in-doors  with  the  men  of  their 
own  family,  over  whom  they  often  exercise  considerable 
influence.  In  the  treatment  of  their  women  the  Baloch 
are  more  chivalrous  than  is  usually  the  case  with 
Muhammadan  races.  Women  and  children  are  never 
molested,  and  women  may  go  out  safely  when  their  male 
relations  are  in  the  midst  of  war.  Boys  are  only  con- 
sidered a  fair  prey  when  they  have  assumed  the  shahvdr 
or  trousers.  Unfaithfulness,  on  the  other  hand,  is  very 
severely  punished.     A    woman    taken    in  adultery  must  by 


296 


CHAP.   V.—MARRI'BUGTI  COUNTRY. 


Hospitality. 


Food. 


Social  life.  Baloch  law  and  custom  hang-  herself;  if  she  does  not  do 
this  she  is  killed  by  her  husband,  and  her  paramour 
cannot,  if  caught,  escape  death  at  the  hands  of  the 
woman's  relatives. 

The  tribesmen  are  lavish  in  their  hospitality,  which  is 
considered  one  of  the  most  important  duties.  Even  among 
the  poorest  of  them,  all  who  arrive  during  a  meal  are 
welcome  to  a  share,  and  the  chiefs  spend  a  great  part  of 
their  income  in  entertaining  guests.  All  tribesmen  who  come 
to  a  chiefs  village  on  business  or  on  the  occasion  of 
some  ceremonial  are  the  chief's  guests  and  are  fed  at  his 
expense. 

The  staple  food  is  Judr  or  bdjra  flour  baked  into  chapdtis 
or  a  kind  of  cake  called  kdk ;  the  method  of  cooking  the 
latter  is  simple.  A  stone  is  made  red-hot  and  a  lump  of 
dough  is  pasted  round  it,  and  it  is  then  placed  in  the 
embers  of  the  fire.  A  speciality  among  the  hill  Baloch  is 
the  sajji  or  mutton  roasted  before  a  wood  fire.  This  is 
used  on  all  ceremonial  occasions  and  is  given  to  all 
honoured  guests. 

The  dress  of  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  resembles  that  of 
the  Baloch  tribes  generally,  and  has  been  described  in 
Chapter  I.  Each  tribe  has,  however,  some  little  peculiarity 
in  the  cut  of  the  clothes  and  in  the  way  of  tying  the 
turban  ;  and  among  the  initiated  the  diff"erent  tribes  are 
readily  distinguishable  the  one  from  the  other.  The 
Baloch  wears  nothing  but  white,  and  in  this  respect  the 
Marris  and  Bugtis  are  even  more  particular  than  their 
brethren  of  the  plains.  It  is  on  account  of  this  prejudice 
against  colours  that  they  are  still  averse  to  accepting 
service  which  involves  wearing  uniform. 

The  very  great  majority  of  both  tribes  are  nomads  and 
have  no  fixed  dwellings  or  habitations.  They  usually  live 
in  blanket  tents  {giddn)  or  shelters  [kiri)  made  of  mats 
of  the  dwarf  palm. 

Social  precedence  among  the  Baloch  has  been  described 
in  Chapter  I.  These  rules  and  observances  are  strictly 
followed  by  both  Marris  and  Bugtis,  and  the  members  of 
the  chiefs  families,  namely  the  Bahawalanzais  and  the 
Rah^jas,  take  precedence  before  all  others. 

The    Baloch    custom    of   giving    and    taking    the  hdl  (or 


Dress. 


Dwellings. 


Social 
precedence 


B  A  LOCH  METHOD  OF  WARFARE.  297 

news)  is  also  rig-idly  enforced,  and  the  procedure  is   adhered   Social  life, 
to  strictly  in  accordance  with  the  order  of  precedence. 

The  murder  of  a  member  of  one  tribe  by  the  member  Reprisals 
of  another  tribe  must,  in  theory,  always  be  avenged  by  the  ^"jJ^j^j^^J 
murdered  man's  relations.  Of  recent  years,  however,  these  for  murder, 
inter-tribal  cases  are  usually  settled  by  the  Shdhi  Jirgas  at 
Sibi  and  Fort  Munro,  and  compensation  in  money  and 
kind  is  awarded  to  the  heirs  of  the  murdered  man.  The 
system  of  reprisals  also  holds  g-ood  amongst  the  members  of 
the  same  tribe,  but  a  murder  may  be  commuted  by  wanni 
i.e.,  the  bestowal  of  a  girl  in  marriage  to  one  of  the 
murdered  man's  relations,  or  by  banni,  the  gift  of  a  band 
or  field,  or  by  the  award  of  compensation  fixed  by  the 
UxhdX  Jirga.  Among  the  Marris  the  usual  rate  of  this  com- 
pensation is  Rs.  1,000,  a  girl  {nek),  a  sword  and  a  gun. 
Among  the  Bugtis  arms  are  not  usually  given,  though 
otherwise  the  rates  are  similar.  Rs.  600  are  awarded  for 
the  loss  of  an  eye,  Rs.  300  for  a  limb  and  Rs.  60  for  the 
loss  of  a  tooth.  These  rates  are  not,  however,  always 
rigidly  enforced,  and  each  case  is  determined  on  its  merits. 
Blood  feuds  and  reprisals  are  less  common  than  they  were, 
but  an  occasional  outbreak  shows  the  ferocity  which  is  still 
latent  in  the  people. 

In  fighting  the  Baloch  tactics  were  comprised  in  the  Baloch 
simple  principle  that  an  attack  was  never  to  be  made  unless  |^^^f°  ^ 
the  enemy  could  be  surprised  or  was  inferior  in  numbers. 
Battle  once  g-iven,  the  fight  was  carried  on  hand-to-hand 
with  sword  and  shield  and  not,  as  is  the  case  with  the 
Pathcins,  by  a  desultory  match-lock  fire  at  long  ranges.  It 
was  not  often  that  the  Baloch  met  each  other  in  fight, 
tribe  to  tribe.  The  ordinary  rule  was  for  small  parties  of 
a  tribe  to  go  out  on  a  marauding  expedition  ;  these  parties 
were  called  chapaosy  and  their  object  was  to  murder  and 
plunder  only  those  enemies  whom  they  could  surprise.  The 
members  oi  a  chapao  travelled  long  distances  by  night  and 
lay  concealed  during  the  day,  and  for  this  reason  they 
always  rode  mares,  as  a  mare  is  easily  tied  up  and  is  less 
likely  to  betray  her  master  than  a  horse.  Their  larger  and 
distant  expeditions  were  also  usually  made  on  horseback 
and  consisted  of  from  200  to  300  men.  In  a  raid  of  this 
description  the  best  cattle  were  driven  rapidly    off"   under    a 


2 98  CHA  P. .  I '.  —MA  RRI-B  UG TI  CO  UNTR  V. 

Social  life,  strong  guard  ;  the  weaker  ;jnd  worthless  were  kept  in  the 
rear  with  the  main  body,  and  if  hard  pressed,  a  few  wee 
allowed  to  drop  behind  from  time  to  time  in  order  to 
delay  the  pursuit. 

Shrines.  As    in  other  parts  of  the  District   shrines    are  ubiquitous, 

almost  every  graveyard  having  a  special  patron  saint. 
These  shrines  generally  consist  of  little  more  than  a  heap 
of  stones,  or  a  rough  mud  or  stone  enclosure,  surmounted 
by  some  poles,  to  which  rags,  horns  and  metal  bells  are 
attached.  In  the  Marri  country  the  important  shrines  are 
those  of  Bahawalan  Khan,  Haidar  Shiih  and  Buzh^r  in 
Kahcin  ;  Nihal  at  Khatgi,  6  miles  from  Kahan  ;  Dhiiru  on 
the  Thadri  hill  and  the  shrine  of  the  Tawakali  Mast  Fakir 
in  Kohlu.  The  Marris  also  have  their  female  saints  who 
include  Mai  Khairi,  a  Bahawalanzai  lady  ;  Mii  Sado,  to 
whom  a  shrine  has  been  erected  in  the  Nesau  plain,  and  Mai 
Natro,  a  Ghazani  saint,  whose  shrine  lies  close  to  Buzh6r. 
The  shrine  of  Bahawalan,  the  progenitor  of  the  present 
ruling  family,  is  held  in  the  greatest  reverence  by  the 
tribesmen  ;  and  prayers  offered  at  the  shrine  of  Pir 
Haidar  Shah  are  said  to  avert  cholera  and  other  epidemic 
diseases. 

The  most  important  shrines  in  the  Bugti  country  are 
those  of  Pir  Sori  and  Mazaro,  the  former  being  situated  on 
the  Pir  Koh  mountain  and  the  latter  in  the  Z6n  hills.  Pir 
Sori,  who  had  acquired  a  great  reputation  for  sanctity  during 
his  life  time,  was  mortally  wounded  by  the  Buledis  ;  and  in 
accordance  with  his  dying  request  his  body  was  tied  on  to  a 
camel,  which  was  allowed  to  wander  where  it  pleased,  the 
shrine  being  erected  by  his  followers  at  the  place  where  the 
camel   eventually   stopped  of  his  own  free  will. 

Economic  Writing  in   1887  Lieutenant  (now   Colonel)   Longe,   R.E., 

Agriculture  vvho  surveyed  the  Marri  and  Bugti  country,  said  :  "Taken 
as  a  whole  I  should  say  that  a  more  miserably  supplied 
and  inhospitable  area  does  not  exist,  except,  of  course, 
uninhabited  deser<  s.  The  culturable  ground  does  not  exceed 
3  per  cent,  of  the  area  ;  and  though  the  soil  in  some  places 
seems  rich,  the  great  scarcity  of  water  prevents  proper 
advantage  being  taken  of  it.  As  an  example  of  this,  I  would 
quote  the  Nesau  plain,  and  plain  north  of  Makki  nullah 
in  the  Marri    country,  and    the  Marav    in    the    Bugti    which 


AGRICULTURE.  299 

is  only  partially  cultivated.      About    Kahan   and  D^ra  Bug-ti    Economic. 

there   is  a    certain  amount   of  cultivation,  but    except    these 

places  nil  "     The  Quat    Mandai    and   Badra  valleys,    which 

belong    to  the  Marris   and   now  form  part  of  the    Sibi  tahsil, 

have  a  permanent  supply  of  water,  and  there    is  also  a  small 

amount  of  perennial    irrigation    in    the    Kohlu    district,    and 

at  Kd'ian  itself  from  wells  ;  in  the  Bugti  country  the  springs 

at  D6ra  Bugti    and    Sangsila  taken   together  irrigate    about 

150  acres   of  ground.      But   be5'ond    these    the    rest    of  the 

cultivation  in  both  tracts  is  dependent  on  the    rainfall  in  the 

hills,  and  the  area  actually  under  cultivation    varies    greatly 

from  year   to  year.     This   cultivation  is  chiefly  irrigated   by 

flood    water    brought    down    by    the    numerous    small     hill 

torrents.      The  summer  rains  which  occur  in  the    months   of 

July  and  Aug-ust  ate  the  most  important,  as  on  them  depend 

both  the  rahi?ix\di  khai'if\\^r\Q.^\.s,  w^hich  are  locally  known  as 

the  chctri  and  sdni&ri. 

The  best  known  khushkdba  tracts  in  the  Marri  country 
are  :  the  Kahcin  valley,  owned  principally  by  the  Ghazanis  ; 
Mawand,  owned  chiefly  by  the  Bijardnis  ;  the  Bdmbor,  Dul 
and  Thadri  tracts,  which  are  held  jointly  by  various  sections  ; 
and  Pheldwagh,  the  question  of  the  possession  of  which 
is  still  under  consideration  (1905).  In  the  Bug"ti  country,  the 
best  grounds  are  the  D^ra  valley,  owned  by  the  Rah6jas, 
Loti,  owned  by  the  Khidzai,  and  Sangsila,  which  is  shared  by 
the  Rah^jas  and  the  RAm^zai  Nothdnis  ;  and  Marav  and 
Matt.  The  soil  of  some  of  the  valleys  and  shams  (plains)  is 
fertile  and  chiefly  alluvial,  being  formed  by  the  silt  brought 
down  by  the  floods  ;  it  is  known  as  happa  or  latar  and 
is  well  suited  for  all  crops.  An  inferior  soil  is  known  as 
zahren  digdy  or  bitter  soil.  The  gravelly  soil  which  abounds 
in  the  hilly  tracts  is  z^aW^di  ghala-war^  and  grows  but  poor 
crops.  The  majority  of  the  tribesmen  till  their  own  land, 
and  the  poorer  among  them  and  the  Jats  also  work  as 
tenants  for  the  well-to-do  families.  These  are  tenants-at- 
will  and  are  known  as  rdhak  The  Machohar  and  Pcihi  form 
the  bulk  of  the  tenants  in  the  Bugti  country. 

The  principal  harvest  is  the  rabi  or  spring  harvest,  and 
the  most  important  crop  is  wheat,  which  is  generally  sown 
in  October  and  November  and  reaped  about  the  end  of  May 
or  beginning  of  June.     The  chief  crop  of  the  autumn  harvest 


300  CHAP.    V.—MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 

Agricul-  \sjudt%  which  is  sown  in  July  and  August  and    harvested  in 

October  and  November.  Melons  and  jud?-  are  also  grown 
in  the  summer  months. 

No  fruits  or  veg-etables  are  grown  except  in  a  small  way 
at  Kahdn  and  Dera  Bugti. 

The  domestic  animals  are  camels,  horses,  cows,  bullocks, 
donkeys,  sheep  and  goats,  and  the  following  table  gives 
a  rough  estimate  prepared  during  the  census  of  189 1  : — 

Horses.         Donkeys.       Cattle.  Sheep.  Goats. 

Marris*  ...     1,023  1,315         9,575  13,900         5,860 

Bui^tis  ..        634         2,180         7,612  16.390       16,460 

In  the  census  of  iqot  no  estimates  of  domestic  animals 
were  obtained.  The  following  years  have,  however,  been 
years  of  drought  and  scarcity,  and  according  to  local 
accounts  there  has  been  a  general  decrease  all  round,  but 
more  especially  in  the  numbers  of  the  horses  and  cattle. 

The  Baloch  ponies  of  the  hills  are  noted  for  their  endur- 
ance ;  they  are  light  in  limb  and  body,  but  are  well  bred  and 
can  cany  heavy  weights,  unshod,  over  the  roughest  ground. 
In  former  times  the  Baloch  never  rode  a  horse,  and  the 
colts  were  killed  as  soon  as  foaled.  The  prejudice  is,  how- 
ever, passing  away,  and  the  horses  are  kept  for  sale  and  are 
often  ridden  by  the  tribesmen. 

Sir  William  Napier  gives  the  following  account  of  the 
horses  possessed  by  the  Marris  and  Bugtis  in  the  earlier 
days  when  they  were  famous  for  their  raids  and  forays  : — 

"  These  tribes,  like  the  Bedouin  of  the  Arabian  desert, 
were  born  horsemen.  They  reared  a  hardy  breed  of  horses, 
and  especially  trained  them  to  dispense  with  drinking, 
except  at  long  intervals.  Their  horses  were  said  to  have 
been  taught  besides  to  eat  raw  meat,  which  temporarily 
increased  their  strength  and  alleviated  thirst  «  *  • 
*  *  'In  any  case  such  a  training  gave  an  immense 
advantage  in  a  country  where  water  was  scarce  and  where 
the  sole  vegetation  was  stunted  tamarisk.  The  hill  tribes 
had  also  their  breeds  of  ponies,  but  these  wiry  little  animals, 
like  those  of  the  border  Scots,  were  chiefly  used  to  transport 
them  from  place  to  place.  After  a  raid  on  the  plains, 
whether  they  had  been  baulked  or  gathered  loot,  they 
hasten  to  rejoin  the  steeds  left  under  a  horse  guard.     Sure 

*  These  figures  do  not  include  the  animals  in  possession  of  the 
Marris  in  Kohlu. 


CATTLE  AND  GRAZING.  301 

footed  as  goats,  and  scrambling  over    rocks    and    in    river   Agricul- 
channels,  these  eluded  pursuit,  giving  Jacob  no  little  trouble    '""'^^• 
afterwards     when    he    established    his    frontier     watch."* 
Less  attention  is   paid   now-a-days  to  breeding  horses   and 
the  numbers  are  gradually  decreasing. 

Camels  are  kept  principally  for  breeding  and  sale,  and  Camels, 
the  tribesmen  do  not  engage  to  any  great  extent  in  transport 
trade.  The  best  camel  breeders  among  the  Bugtis  are  the 
Piroz^nis,  Shambanis  and  the  Phadlani  section  of  the 
Khalpar,  and  the  Loh^rdnis  among  the  Marris.  Male 
camels  fetch  from  Rs.  80  to  Rs.  100,  the  best  known  breeds 
being  the  kachhela  or  the  camels  of  the  plain  and  the 
khjirdsdni  or  hill  camels. 

The  cattle  are  small  in  size,  thickset  and  suited  to  the  hilly    Cattle, 
nature  of  the  country.     The  price  of  a  pair  of  plough-oxen 
varies  from  Rs.  60  to  Rs.  100,  and  that   of  a   cow  is   about 
Rs.  30. 

Sheep  and  goats  are  found  in   great    numbers   and   thrive    Slieep  and 

on  the  herbs  and  bushes,    with   which   the  extensive   waste 

lands  of   the  district  are    studded       The    indigenous    breed 

of   sheep    are   of   the    thick-tailed    variety,    and    are    known 

as  bdtnbori  and   khetfdni^    the   former   being   considered   the 

most  valuable  ;    they  are  white  in  colour  with  black   muzzles 

and    ears.      The  goats    are   generally    black   and   have   long 

ears.        Large    quantities     of    wool    are    exported    in    good 

seasons,   but  the  hair  of  goats  and  camels  is  chiefly  kept  for 

domestic  use.      It  is  a  point   of  honour   among  the    Baloch 

tribesmen  not  to  sell  milk  and  butter,   which   they   keep   for 

themselves  and  their  guests. 

Good  grazing   is    obtainable    in    nearly    all    parts    of   the    Pasture 

1  11.  ^  1      •       11         •  erounds  and 

country,  but  the  best  pasture  grounds   m    Hugti  country  are    feedine 

found  on  the  skirts  of  the  Z^n  range,  the  principal  localities    cattle. 

being   known   as  T^ghiif,    Landai,    Laghar,    Pusht,    Muzai, 

Uch,  Darkin,  Gazzi,  Asr^li,  Goh,  Si'ii  and  T^rchar.      In  the 

Marri   country    the    best     pastures     are    the    Kahan    valley, 

Nisdu  and  Makhmar. 

There  are  two  water-mills  on  the  Pir  Chhatta  stream  near    Water-mills. 

Dera  Bugti,  both  of  which    belong   to   the   tumanddr ;  there 

are  also  two  corn  mills  at  Kahdn  worked  by  bullocks.      But 

•  Life  of  General  John  Jacob  by  Alexander  Innes  Shand  (London), 
page  19. 


302  CHAP.    V.—MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 

Agricul-         in  all  other  parts  of  both  the   Marri  and   Bugti  country,   the 
TURE.  duty  of  grhiding  corn  devolves  on  the  women  of  the  house- 

Hand-mills,      hold    who    use    the    ordinary    hand-mill    locally    known    as 

jaiithar. 
Rent,  Xo  revenue  is  levied  on  khnshkdba  cultivation,   either  by 

Prices    ^^^   tribal   chiefs    or    by   Government.      When   tenants   are     em- 
Rent,  ployed,  the  landlord  first  takes  his  rent  [bohal)  which   varies 
from  one-tenth  to  one-fifth  of  the  whole  of  the  produce,   the 
expenditure    incurred  in  purchasing-  seed   and    in    repairing 
the  embankments  is  then  deducted,  and  the  tenant,  who  has 
to  supply  the  bullocks,  receives   from   one-third   to  one-half 
of  the  balance. 
Wages  Yx\    the    Marri    country,    the   men,     women    and  children 
employed  in  gathering-  the  harvest  receive  from  one-fortieth 
to  one-twentieth  of  the  produce  ;  in  the    Bugti  country  it   is 
usual  to  employ  men  only  for   this    work,    and   they   receive 
daily  wages  in  grain  valued  at  about  4  annas. 
Shepherds,           The    Marri    shepherds    receive,    in    addition   to   food   and 
and  caule       clothes,  a  certain  share  of  the  lambs,  and  one-sixth    to  one- 
herds,              fourth  of  the  wool.     The  division  of  the  lambs  is  carried  out 
in  the  following  manner  : — The  shepherd  receives  one  lamb 
for    the    first    eighteen    of   every   flock,    one     for    the    next 
seventeen,  one    for    the    next  sixteen,   and  so  on  until  the 
number  is  reduced  to  five.     Thus  in  a  flock  of  ninety  lambs 
the  shepherd  would  be  entitled  to  six  lambs.      In  the  Bugti 
country  the  shepherd  receives  from  Rs.  2  to   Rs.   3   in  cash 
per  mensem,  his  food   and  a  change  of  clothes  every   half- 
year.      He  is  also  sometimes  engaged  on  a  contract  system, 
in  accordance  with  which  the  flocks  of  sheep  and   goats  are 
enumerated  every  fourth  year,  and  he  receives  one-fourth  of  all 
the  animals  in  his  charge  at  the  time  of  the  division.      Camel- 
herds  are  usually  remunerated  at  the  rate  of  Re.  i  per  camel 
per  annum,  and  also  receive  their  food  and  clothes. 
Carpenters           The  carpenters  and  blacksmiths  are  invariably   Loris  ;   the 
sm^ths'^'^'^"      same  man  usually  combines  both  trades  and  is  generally  paid 
a  fixed  wage  in  kind,  the  rate  varying  in  different  parts  of  the 
country.      He    is  generally  given  a  fixed    amount    for    each 
plough  or  one  kdsa  (12  seers)  for  every  60  kdsas  of  produce  at 
each  harvest. 
Prices.                 The  prices  vary  in  accordance  with    the   condition    of   the 
seasons,  and  as  the  greater  part  of  the  cultivation  is  depend- 


WEIGHTS  AND  MEASURES.  303 

ent  on  rain,   the   rates   are   liable  to  very  considerable    flue-    Rent, 

tuations.      Of   later    years,    since     the  openin"-    out    of  the    Wages  and 

■'  .  Prices. 

country,    the    prices    are,   to    a    modified    extent,    governed 

by    the     rates     prevailing-     in     the     neighbouring     districts 

of  the   Punjab  and  Sind,  but  no  reliable  figures  are  available 

showing  the  rise  and  fall  in  prices  during  past  year. 

The  seer  at  Kahan  consists  of  80  tolas  and  at  Dera  Bugti    Weights  and 
of  84  tolas,   but  generally  throughout  the  country  grain  is 
sold  by  the  measure  and  not  by  weight.     The  lowest  unit  is 
the^/"«^z  and  the  measures  in  common  use  are  : — 
I      pinki  =  \  seer 

4     pinkis        =  I  topa  or  3  seers 

4     topas         =  I  kdsa  or  12  seers 

80     kasas         =  i  kharwar  or  24  maunds. 

Bulky  articles,  such  as  firewood  and  straw,  are  sold  by 
the  camel,  donkey  or  bullock  load,  or  by  the  bhari  ox  the 
load  which  a  man  can  carry  on  his  back. 

Cloth  is  generally  measured  by  the  harish,  which  is  of  an    Linear 
indefinite  length,  and  varies  with  the  stature  of  the  customer  ;    measures. 
it  is  measured  from  the  projecting  bone  of  the  elbow,   round 
the  end   of  the   middle  finger   when   extended  straight,   and 
back  to  the  second  or  lower  knuckle  joint. 

There    are    no    recognised    measurements     for    land.      In    Superficial 
ordinary  life  the  usual  terms  for  measuring  distances  are  : —    measures. 

(i)  \h&  gwd7ik  pa7td  or  as  far   as  the   voice  can  reach  ;   (2) 

the  topak-tirkash  ox  as  far  as  a  bullet  can  carry  ;  and  (3)  the 

pahr  paud,  nemrosh  paiid,  and  rosh  pand,  or  distances  which 

can  be  travelled  in  three,  six  and  twelve  hours  respectively. 

Both  the  Hindu  and  lunar  months  are   recognised  by  the    Measures 
..,.,,  ,  .      .,  ,      ,  ^,  of  time, 

more  civilised,  but  the  great  majority  only  know  the  seasons 

w-hich    are     Zimistdn     ^winter),     November    to     February  ; 

bJidrgdh  (spring),  March  to    May  ;    tirmag   (summer,,    June, 

July,    August    and    part  of  September  ;  and  sohcl  (autumn), 

which  includes  part  of  September  and  October. 

The  days  of  the  week  are    those    recognised    by    Muham- 

madans,    Friday    being  considered  as  the  first  and  holy  day. 

The  divisions   of   the    day    and    night    are    as    observed    by 

other   Baloch  tribes  and  have  been  described  in  Chapter  II  ; 

the    principal    divisions    being    those     connected    with     the 

Muhammadan  hours  of  prayer,  such  as  ntimdsh,  pcshin,digar, 

shuvi  and  khujtan. 


Currency. 


manufac- 
tures 


304         CHAP,    V.—MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 

CiRRENCY  TViQ  coinage  in  use  is  that  of"  British  India,  the  local  names 

for  the  different  coins  beingf  as  given  below  : — 

paisa  or  dig-  =  i   pice 

takka  =  half-anna 

shdhi  =  2-anna  piece 

paoli  or  pao         =  4      ,,       ,, 

abbdsi  or  adh      =  8      ,,       ,, 

Arts  and  There  are    no   arts    or    manufactures    of  any    commercial 

value.      Embroideries    in    silk    are    done  by    the    women  as 

already  described  in  Chapter  II.     Carpets  of  a  coarser    kind 

known  locally  as  darri  and  kharar,  saddle  bags,  nose  bags, 

felts    and    mats    of  dwarf  palm  are  also  made,  but  these  are 

usually  kept    for   household  use   and  seldom  find  their    way 

into  the  open  market. 

Commerce  In  addition  to  live  stock  the  only  articles  of  export  from 

an    tra  e.        ^^^    country    are  wool  and  dwarf  palm  leaves.     The  imports 

are  principally  from  Sind  and   include   piece-goods,    sugar, 

oil,  gur  and  spices  and  occasionally  grain.     Both  the  import 

and  export  trades,  with  the  exception  of  the   live   stock    and 

pish,    are    in  the  hands  of  the  local  Hindus,  who  have  shops 

at  Kahdn  and  Ddra  Bugti. 

Octroi  and  The    chiefs    levy    no    octroi    or    transit    dues    from     their 

transit  dues,         .,  ,  ,,     ,•  .  1     1       /•  n        •         j 

tribesmen,  but  all  aliens  are  charged  the  toUownig  dues  :  — 

(i)  In  the  Marri  country  :  8  annas  per  camel  on 
exports  and  imports,  and  4  annas  per  camel  load 
oi  pish  leaves. 

(2)  In  the  Bugti  country  :  i  kdsa  of  corn  on  each 
camel  load  of  grain  imported  or  exported  ;  i  kdsa 
(about  13  seers)  on  each  camel  load  of  salt  ;  Rs,  2-4 
on  each  camel  load  of  wool,  piece-goods,  sugar, 
oil,  etc.;  5  annas  per  camel  load  o^ pish,  sand  and 
building  stone  ;  and  Re.  i  per  camel  load  of  tim- 
ber. Live  stock  purchased  by  alien  dealers  in,  or 
passing  through,  the  Bugti  country  is  taxed  at  the 
rate  of  i  anna  per  sheep  or  goat,  8  annas  per  bul- 
lock and  Re.  I  per  camel.  For  the  safe  conduct  of 
kdfilas  through  the  country  an  escort  duty  of  4 
annas  per  camel  load  of  grain  and  8  annas  per 
camel  load  of  wool  and  piece-goods  is  charged  ; 
of  this  25  per  cent,  is  appropriated  by  the  chief  and 
the  balance  is  paid  to  the  tribesmen  who  form  the 
escort. 


ROADS.  305 

About  34  miles  of  the    Sind-Pishin    section    of  the   North-    Means  of- 
Western    Railway   line   between    Nari   Goriie  and  Spintantfi    Communica- 

t>  1  &.        TION. 

lie  in  the  Marri  area,  and  the  country  throug^h  which  the  line 
passes  belong-s  to  the  Lang-h;ini,  Chhalgari  and  Thin<;iani 
sections  of  the  tribe.  For  administrative  purposes  the 
railway  line  within  these  limits  is  known  as  the  Kohlu  Rail- 
way tahsil. 

The  only  made  roads  in  the  country  are  {a)  from  Sibi  to 
Tratdni,  and  [b)  from  Sibi  to  Spintang-i  and  Thai  via  Kandi 
and  Sembar  with  a  branch  from  Babar  Kach  to  Khattan, 
the  extension  of  which  to  Kohlu  via  Mawand  is  now  under 
construction  ;  and  (r)  from  Babar  Kach  to  Thai  via  Tung, 
Gamboli  and  Pazha.  There  are,  however,  movuitain  paths 
or  tracks  in  all  directions,  the  following-  being-  the  most 
important  :  — 

.  I . — From  Kahdn. 

(i)  To  Dera  Bug-ti  by  Kala  Koh,  Marav  (about  55  miles). 
This  is  known  as  the  Bor  Bozh  route. 

(2)  To  Rojhan  by  Kala    Koh,    Pdtr,  Tuso,  Sori,  Jantro 

and  Bhandowala  (about  100  miles). 

(3)  To  D^ra  Ghazi  Khan  (about  173  miles)  by  Kala  Koh, 

Kalra  Kumb,  Chhat  Sunt,  Kalchas,  Sham,  Bakhsha 
B6nt,  Thoba,  Harand,  Kangihan  and  Choti. 

(4)  To  Barkhan  (about  71  miles)  over  the  Dojamak  Pass 

and  by  Kumb,  Kahar  and  \'itakri. 

(5)  To  Kohlu  (about  60  miles)  by  Khauren  Awaren,  Siah 

Mardaf,  and  Kiila  Buha. 

(6)  To    Badra    (about    99    miles)  by   Triman,    Kharod, 

Wazhi,     Chakar    Thank,     Mir   Dad    Kumb,    Quat 
Mandai  and   Bdbar  Kach. 

(7)  To    Sibi  (about  90  miles)  throug-h  the   Gandar   Pass 

by  Triman,  Djihu,  M^hi,  Tratdni  and  Mai. 

(8)  To  Lahri  (about  70  miles)  by  Sartaf,   Sori,   Sari   Sor 

and  Gori. 

(9)  To  Lahri  by  Sdrtaf  and  Rekhani. 

(10)  To  Mciwand  (about  47  miles)  by  Mozhag-  and  Dn's. 

B. — From  Dera  Biigti. 
(i)  To  Sibi  (about  125  miles)  through    the   Siahaf  pass 

by  Sangsila,  Sori  Daf,  Sari  Sor,  Lahri  and  Mai. 
(2)  To  Jacobdbad   (about  78  miles  )  by   Duz  Kushtagh, 

Sori,  Sohri  Kushtagh  and  Gorandri. 


3o6 


CHAP.  IV.  —  MARRI-BUGTI  COUNTRY. 


Means  of 
Communica- 
tion. 


Famine. 


{3)  To   Kashnior   (about    53  miles)    by   Ouz  Kushtag-li, 
Herdii  and  Sori. 

(4)  To   Rojhcin  (about   74  miles)    by    Loti,    Rekho    and 

BhandowAla. 

(5)  To    D6ra  Ghazi   Khan  (about    162    miles)    by    Siali 

Thank,  Nalgaz,  KalchAs,  Bakhsha  Bent,  Thoba, 
Harand,   Kang-ihan  and  Choti. 

(6)  To    Barkhan    (about    120    miles)    by     Siah     Thank, 

Sag-hlra,  Chat,  Gandidab,  Vjisala  and  Ndhar  Kot. 
There  is  an  alternative  route  over  the  Bar  Bozh  pass 
by  Marav,  Kechi  KalAt  and  Chat  which  is  somewhat 
shorter. 

The  nearest  post  and  telegraph  office  to  Dera  Bugfti  is 
Kashmor  in  the  Jacobabad  District  ;  but  letters  can  also  be 
forwarded  through  the  post  office  at  Rojhjln.  The  ordinar} 
official  correspondence  with  the  chiefs  and  headmen  is  car- 
ried by  the  tribal  levies. 

The  causes  of  famine  and  scarcity  have  already  been 
described  in  Chapter  II.  The  tribal  areas  are  more  liable  to 
scarcity  than  other  parts  of  the  District,  as  the  coimtr\ 
depends  almost  entirely  both  for  its  cultivation  and  grazing 
on  a  scanty  and  precarious  rainfall.  The  people  can  tide 
over  one  or  two  years  of  bad  rainfall,  but  a  more  prolonged 
drought  reduces  them  to  great  distress  and  poverty.  A 
succession  of  unfavourable  seasons  causes  great  mortality 
among  the  flocks  and  herds,  which  form  the  sole  support  o'i 
the  majority  of  tribesmen,  and  it  takes  the  latter  several 
years  before  they  can  recover  from  the  effects.  The  great- 
est safeguard  against  actual  famine  consists  in  the  mig-ratory 
habits  of  the  people  and  to  proximity  of  the  protected  areas 
of  Nasirabad  and  Sind. 

The  nearest  approach  to  famine  that  has  been  experienced 
since  the  country  came  under  the  British  protection  occurred 
in  1899-1900,  which  was  the  third  year  of  drought.  The 
Marris  and  Bugtis  were  reduced  to  extreme  destitution  ; 
they  had  no  autumn  crops,  and  at  the  same  time  there  was 
an  almost  total  absence  of  grazing.  The  majority  of  the 
tribesmen  migrated  to  Sind  and  the  Punjab,  and  several 
hundreds  were  supported  by  the  generosity  of  the  late 
Nawilb  Sir  Imam  Bakhsh  Khan,  the  Maziri  chief.  A  grant 
of  Rs.  1 8, 000  was  sanctioned  for  the  purchase  of  grain,  and 


.  I  DM  I  MS  TRA  TION.  307 

the  construction  of  roads  was  taken  in  hand  as  relief  works,    p'amink. 
and  in  the  following'  year  Rs.  7,000  were  distributed  among 
the    tribesmen  for  the  purchase  of  seed  grain  and  bullocks. 
A  similar  scarcity  was  ag'ain  experienced  in  1905-6. 

The  Political  Agent,    Sibi,   exercises   control  through   the    Administrj*.- 
Extra  Assistant  Commissioner,  Sibi,  over  the  Marri  and  Bugti    "*^"* 
tribes  ;  but  as  little  interference  as   possible  is  exercised   in 
their  internal  affairs,  which  are  managed  by  their  own  chiefs 
and  headmen.     But  all   murders,  disputes,   in   which    resort 
is  had  to  fighting,  other  quarrels  which  are  likely  to  lead  to 
a  serious  breach  of  the  peace,  and  cases  in  which   the  inflic- 
tion of  the  punishment  of  imprisonment  is  considered  neces- 
sary by  the  chief,  are  reported  to   the    Political    Agent,   and 
are    eventually    referred    to    the    tribal  jirga    for     decision, 
provided  that  both  parties  in  the   case  belong   to  the   same 
tribe.      Cases  in  which  the  parties  belong  to   different   tribes 
are  also  reported  to  the  Political  Agent,  and  are  referred    to 
a  joint  jirga  composed    of  the  chiefs    and    headmen   of  the 
tribes  concerned.     The  awards  in  all  cases  are  submitted  for 
confirmation  to  the  Political  Ag^ent  through  the  Extra  Assist- 
ant Commissioner,  Sibi.     Similarly  if  one  party  in  the    case 
is  a  Marri,  Bugti,  Dombki  or  a  Kaheri,  and  the  other  party  a 
tribesman  of  the  Loralai  District,  the   case   is    referred   to   a 
joint  ///'ovj',   which  usually  assembles  at  Gumbaz  or  Bdrkhdn 
and  the  awards  of  these  joint  jirgns  are  subject  to  confirma- 
tion   both    by    the    Political    Agent,    Sibi,  and    the   Political 
Agent,  Loralai.      Important  cases  which    cannot    be   decided 
by  the  tribal  or  joint  jirgas  are  referred  to  the  Shahiy»^c/  at 
Sibi  and  sometimes  to  the  Fort  Munro  jiigiiy   which  is   com- 
posed of  the  leading    Baloch    chiefs    of  the   Punjab,    and  the 
decisions   Kii  which   carry    great    weight    in    cases   affecting" 
Baloch    customs     and   traditions.       Both     these    jirgas    are 
attended  by  the  Marri  and  Bug-ti  chiefs  and  headmen.   Cases 
between  the  Sibi  and  Dera  Ghjizi  Khdn  tribes  are  referred  to 
the  Fort  Munro ;/V>^«,  the  awards  in  such  cases  being  subject 
to  the  approval  of  both   the    Political   Agent,    Sibi.   and    the 
Deputy  Commissioner,  D^ra  Ghjizi  Khdn. 

The  constitution  of  the  tribes  dates  from   the  days   when    Tribal     con- 
facility    of    combination    for    semi-military    or     predatory   stitutton 
purposes  was  the  primary  object  of  their  organization. 

The  tribal  officers  comprise   the   iumaiidar  or   chief,    with 


3oS         CHAP.   IV.  —  MARRI-BVGTI  (OCX TRY. 

Adminis-  whom  are  associated  the  vwkaddams  or    heads  of  the  clans 

TKATioN.  ^y  ^  council  of  war.     Their  office,  like  that  of  the  tunuiuddr, 

is  strictly  hereditary.  In  former  days,  when  an  expedition 
was  decided  upon,  the  duty  of  collecting-  the  clansmen,  or  so 
many  as  were  required,  devolved  on  the  mokaddanis,  who 
also  chose  the  commander  of  the  men  supplied  from  their 
respective  clans.  To  perfect  the  organisation  between  the 
heads  of  the  clan  and  the  sub-sections,  there  is  a  ivadera 
at  the  head  of  each  section,  whose  office,  like  that  of  the 
head  of  the  clan,  is  hereditary,  the  whole  section  combining^ 
to  place  the  pagri  on  his  head,  just  as  the  whole  tribe 
combines  in  nominating  a  new  chief.  With  the  wadcra  is 
sometimes  associated  the  mokaddain  of  a  section,  who  acts 
as  the  ivaderas  executive  officer,  his  business  being  to 
communicate  the  ivaderd's  orders  to  the  inotabars  or  the 
headmen  of  sub-sections.  The  office  of  inokaddam  of  a 
section  is  not  necessarily  hereditary,  a  man  oi  judgment  or 
ability  being  generally  selected.  Among  the  Marris  there 
was  also  the  rdhzau,  whose  rank  was  hereditary,  and  whose 
duties  were  to  accompany  all  expeditions  and  kill  any  tribes- 
men who  fled  from  the  line  of  battle.  Besides  an  extra 
share  of  the  plunder,  his  principal  privilege  was  that  he  in- 
curred no  liability  to  blood  feud  or  payment  oi  compensa- 
tion. The  names  of  the  principal  tribal  headmen  are  given 
in  appendix  \T. 

The  organization  still  holds  good,  but  the  duties  oi  the 
chiefs  and  headmen  are  now  c:)nfined  to  the  management  of 
the  internal  affairs  of  the  tribes.  The  near  relations  of  the 
tumanddrs  and  the  members  of  the  chiefs'  families  or  sarddr 
khel  are  also  associated  with  them  in  the  management  of 
their  tribe  and  act  as  their  executive  officers.  The  chiefs 
are  further  assisted  in  the  maintenance  of  order  and  disci- 
pline by  the  tribal  levies,  who  are  paid  by  Government. 

The  motabar  or  the  headman  of  a  sub-section  is  responsible 
for  the  conduct  of  his  tribesmen  and  has  the  authority  to 
decide  all  ordinary  cases.  More  important  cases  and  feuds 
are  referred  to  the  ivadera  and  yyiokaddams^  and  if  these 
officers  cannot  settle  the  dispute,  it  is  referred  to  the  chief  or 
tiunanddr.  Cases  in  which  the  parties  belong  to  different 
clans,  and  important  cases  such  as  adultery  and  murder,  are 
invariably  referred  to  the  chief.     All  proceedings  are  verbal, 


STArisrics.  309 

and  the  awards  of  the  chief  are  i^iven  in  open  darbdr  after  Adminis- 
consultation  with  headmen  of  the  chins  and  sections,  who  "^-^tion. 
are  also  responsible  for  the  execution  of  the  sentence.  The 
sentences,  except  in  cases  of  adultery,  generalh*  consist  of 
fines  and  payment  of  compensation.  If  security  cannot  be 
furnished,  the  offender  is  confined  until  the  fine  and  compen- 
sation have  been  discharg"ed  in  full. 

In  the  year  1901,  as  there  were  frequent  complaints  from 
the  Barkhiin,  Kohlu  and  Duki  tahsils  of  the  crimes  commit- 
ted by  Marris  in  that  part  of  the  country  and  of  the  great 
difiiculty  of  tracing-  offenders  who  would  flee  from  the 
district  of  one  section  to  that  of  another  as  the  chase 
after  them  grew  hot,  Major  F.  Macdonald,  then  Deputy 
Commissioner,  Thal-Chotiali,  on  the  8th  of  August  1901,  in 
consultation  with  the  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner,  Sibi, 
Khan  Bdhadur  Mir  Khair  Bakhsh  Khan,  the  Marri  Mukad- 
dams  and  Ghazani  amalch'ws,  drew  up  a  Dastur-ul-amal  for 
dealing  with  cases  in  which  Marris  were  concerned. 

According  to  this  Dastur-ul-amal,  the  Ghazani  (tDui/ddn, 
in  charge  of  the  Marri  Thanas  at  BArkhdn,  Kohlu  and  Duki, 
were  chosen  to  act  as  representatives  of  the  Marri  chief. 
When  a  crime  is  committed  by  a  Marri,  the  Ghazani  amalddy^ 
in  charge  of  the  Thdna  within  whose  jurisdiction  the  occur- 
rence takes  place,  is  bound  to  arrest  the  ofi^"ender  or  offenders 
within  6  days  if  the  offender  is  found  within  his  ildqa  and 
within  10  days  if  the  criminal  goes  out  ot  his  jurisdiction, 
no  excuses  to  the  effect  that  the  criminals  are  living  in 
the  jurisdiction  of  some  other  (tmaldt'ir  are  to  be  enter- 
tained. 

Headmen  of  clans  and  Ghazani  atna/ddrs  have  orders  to 
help  each  other  in  arrest  of  offenders.  Since  these  rules 
were  made,  very  little  difficulty  has  been  experienced  in 
securing  offenders. 

The  number  of  Marri  and  Bugti  cases  decided  by  the  Statistics, 
tribal  jirii'as  between  1899- 1900  ^"^  1904-5  is  given  in 
table  XV,  Volume  B.  The  annual  average  number  of 
cases  disposed  of  between  1899-1900  and  1902-3  was  2^2, 
while  in  1904-5  there  were  only  4  such  cases.  These 
figures  do  not,  however,  include  the  cases  disposed  oi  by 
the  tribal  chiefs  themselves,  cases  with  other  tribes  in  the 
Agency,    or    cases    in    which   the    tribes    of  the  D^ra  Ghdzi 


;io 


CHA  P.  I V.  -  MA  RRI-B  UC  TJ    CO  UXTR 1 '. 


llRGAS. 


Fanatical 
outrages. 


Finance. 


Share  of 
plunder. 


Division  of 
land  in  the 
Marri 
country. 


Khdn  District  are  concerned  ;  of  these  no  classification  is 
available.  Of  the  cases  which  g-o  before  jirgas,  cattle 
lifting-,  adultery  and  murder  in  connection  with  adultery 
are  the  most  numerous. 

No  fanatical  cases  have  occurred  among  the  Bugtis  ; 
but  the  Marris  have  gained  some  notoriety  in  this  respect 
since  the  Sunari  case  of  1896,  an  account  oi  whicli  and  of 
subsequent  cases  has  already  been  given. 

The  Marris  and  Bug^tis  of  the  tribal  areas  have  never  paid 
revenue  to  the  Government.  In  the  time  of  Nasir  Khdn  I, 
the  tribes  were  compelled  to  send  an  annual  deputation  to 
Kaldt  and  pay  a  small  yearly  tribute.  This  was  disconti- 
nued on  the  decline  of  Ahmadzai  power,  and  until  they 
came  under  the  sphere  of  British  influence,  both  tribes  were 
practically  independent.  1"he  chiefs  also  levy  no  land  re- 
venue, and  their  sources  of  income  are  mainly  derived  from 
their  private  lands  and  flocks,  transit  dues  and  Government 
allowances.  The  Marri  chief  also  receives  his  annual  ghaly 
which  consists  of  one  sheep  or  gfoat  from  every  flock  of  over 
forty  animals.  Both  the  Marri  and  Bugti  chiefs  are  entitled 
to  le\y  contributions  [phori)  in  cash  or  kind  from  tribesmen 
and  aliens  on  the  occasion  of  any  marriage  or  death  in  the 
chiefs'  families. 

In  former  days  their  incomes  were  considerably  augmented 
by  their  share  of  the  plunder  obtained  during  the  raids  and 
expeditions.  A  share  of  the  booty  thus  obtained  was  in  the 
first  instance  set  aside  as  the  chiefs />rt«y///(',  which  amounted 
roughly  to  about  one-fifth  oi  the  whole.  The  leaders  of  the 
raid,  the  rdhzan  and  the  families  of  the  killed  and  wounded 
then  received  their  portions  ;  and  the  remainder  was 
divided  among  those  who  took  a  part  in  the  raid,  one  share 
being  given  for  each  man,  one  share  for  a  horse,  and  half  a 
share  for  a  gun.  The  spies  (c/iari),  who  had  run  additional 
risks,  were  each  given  two  shares. 

As  new  lands  were  acquired  by  the  Marris  from  time  to 
time,  their  division  was  effected  in  the  following  manner  : 
The  chief's  share  or  panjiik  was  first  set  apart,  and  the 
remainder  was  divided  into  three  equal  shares  among  the 
three  main  clans  of  the  Ghazani,  Loh^rdni,  and  Biiarani,  the 


DISTRIBUTION  OF  LAND. 


311 


internal  distribution  of  the  shares  among-  the   sections  of  the    Land. 
clans  being  as  under  : — 

I  I.     Thingi;ini,  Badani        ...         ...         ...   i  share. 

Mandcini,  Chhalgari  and  Zhing       ...  i  share, 
Ldngani,  Aliclni  and     Mazard,ni         ..     i  share. 
Ghazaniclan -^  4-     Xodlibandgmii,  Chiiri,    MehkanI  and 

I  Lori  Kush       ...  ..   i  share. 

'  5.      Bahawalanzai,       Murghidni,      Isfani 

•  and  Jarwiir    ...  ...         ...         ...   i  share. 


Loli^rani 


Bijardni 


fShi'rdnis  1.  Mohamadani,  Jangwd.ni.    1  share. 

1  I.ohdrinis  2.  Shambwd.ni  ...         ...    i  share. 

I  Shiranls  v  Saringidni,       Jandwini, 

1  Durkiini  and  Meloliir.   2  shares. 

f  I. 
I  2. 

■13- 


Powdhdi  and   Kungrdni 
Shaheja  and  Khalwani.. 
Kahuid'-;ini,       Saldnini,       .Sonirani, 
Pi'rd^d;inl  and  Ramkd.ni 


1  share. 
I  share. 


...  3  shares. 

These  divisions  are  permanent  and  hold  good  as  regards 
all   .\Iarri  lands. 

.\  periodical  division  oi  land  among  individuals  is  carried 
out  every  ten  years,  the  advantage  of  this  system  being  that 
hamsdya/is,  who  join  the  tribe  from  time  to  time,  are  thus 
given  an  opportunity  of  participating  in  a  share  of 
the  land.  The  land  is  distributed  among  all  males,  the 
choice  being  governed  by  lot.  This  is  effected  by  the 
representatives  of  every  section,  each  marking  a  piece  of 
dried  goat's  dung.  The  pellets  are  then  shaken  in  the 
hands,  and  the  representatives  take  their  choice  according 
to  the  order  in  which  the  pellets  escape  from  the  hands  of 
the  holder.  The  Lohdriinis  formerly  divided  their  lands 
among  the  married  men  of  the  sections,  but  the  .system  was 
discontinued  in  the  time  of  Sardar  Mehrulla  Khan,  and 
they  now  follow  the  practice  of  the  rest  of  the  tribe,  a  share 
being  given  to  each  male,  no  matter  oi  what  age  or  condi- 
tion. 

Among    the    Bugtis    the     lands    are    permanently   divided    Division  of 
among  the  seven  clans  ;   the  distribution   among  individuals   [he'fiuet'is^ 
is    also    permanent,    the    first    division    having    been     made 
among  the   males  originally   belonging   to   the   clans.     The 
Durragh   Nothdni  and   Pirozjini   clans,   however,  follow  the 
Marri  svstem  of  decennial  distribution. 


-312        CHAP.  IV.-MARRI-BUGTl  COUNTRY. 

General.  With   the  exception   of  a  small  primary    school  at   Ddra 

Bug-ti,  which  is  maintained  by  the  But^ti  chief,  there  are  no 
schools  or  dispensaries  in  the  tribal  tracts.  Epidemics 
are  infrequent,  and,  owing  to  the  nomadic  habits  of  the 
people  and  their  scattered  manner  of  living-,  seldom  cause 
any  great  loss  of  life.  Inoculation  is  practised  against 
small-pox,  and  as  regards  this  disease  the  tribesmen  would 
seem  to  have  borrowed  their  ideas  from  their  Hindu  neigh- 
bours of  the  Punjab.  They  look  upon  it  as  a  visitation  of 
the  g-oddess  Kali,  and  during  the  course  of  an  epidemic,  per- 
form the  usual  ceremonies  which  obtain  among  the  Hindus. 


3i; 


Bibliography. 

Ain-i-Akbari  Jarrett's  translation. 

Aitchison  Treaties^  Engagements  and   Sanach,    Vol.  IX,   3rd 
Edition. 
Baluchistan  Agency  Administration  Reports  (annual). 
Baluchistd?t  Blue  Books. 
Baluchistan  Excise  Manual  (1902). 
Baluchistan  Material  Progress  Report,   1891-1901 
Baluchistan  Takdvi  Advance  Manual  (1902;. 
Bruce,  R.  I.,    C.I.K.    The  Forward  Policy    and   its    Results 
(London,  1900). 

History   of  the  Marri  BalocJi  Tribe  and  its  relations  with  tlie 
Bugti  Tribe    1884"). 

Notes  on  the  Dera  Ghdsi  KJidn  District  and  its  Border  Tribes 
(Lahore,  1871). 

Census  of  India,  1901 ,  \'ols.  \',  V-AandV^-B.  Baluchistan, 
by  R.  Hughes-Buller,  C.S. 

Dames,  M.  L.  A  Historical  and  Ethnographical  Sketch  of 
the  Baloch  Race  (1904). 

Duke,  O.  T. ,  Dr.      A  Historical  and   Descriptive  Report  of 
the  District  ot  Thal-Chotidli  and  Harnai  (Calcutta,  1883). 
Elliot,  Sir  H.   History  of  India,  Vol.  i  (London,  1867). 
Gasetieer  of  tlie  Dera  Ghdai  K/idn  District  (1893-97). 
Geological  Survey  of  India,  Memoirs,  Vol.  XX. 
Geological  Survey  oj    India   Records,     Vols.   XIX,   XXIII, 
XXV  and  XXVI. 

Holdich,  Colonel  Sir  T.    H.,    K.C.l.E.     India. 
Horses,  Horse-breeding  and  Horse  Management  in  Baluchh- 
tdn,    by    R.     Hug^hes-Buller,    C.S.,     with    an    appendix     by 
Major  H.  M.  Patterson,  Army  Remount  Department. 

Hug-hes,  A.  W.,  F.R.G.S.,  F.S.S.  The  Country  of  Balii- 
chisldn  (1877). 

Journal  of  tJie  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  Vol.  LXXII,  Part 
III,  No.  2  of  1903.  Notes  about  the  Wanicis  (Wan^chis),  b}- 
R.  S.  D.  Jamiat  Rai. 

Journal  of  the  Linnean  Society,  Vol.  XXVIIL  A  sketch  of 
the  vegetation  of  British  Baluchistdn  with  descriptions  of 
new  species  by  J.  H.  Lace,  Esq.,  F.L.  S.,  assisted  by 
W.  Botting  Hemslev,  F.R.S..  G.L.S. 


314         CHAP,  IV.—MARRl-BUGTI  COLWrRV. 

Life  and  Times  of  General  Sir  fames  (Buster)  Bro7vne. 
A  History  of  Sind  by  Masum  Mahomed,  (Bombay,  1855), 
Captain  G.  G.  Malet's  Translation, 

Minchin,  Captain  C.  Memorandum  on  the  Baloch  Tribes  in 
the  DJra  Ghdzi  Khan  District  (Lahore,  1869). 

Report  on  Survey  and  Settlement  of  Sibi  Mmiicipai  Lands 
(1901). 

Shand,  A.  1.  General  fohn  facob,  Commandant  ot"  the 
Sind  Irreg-ular  Horse  and  Founder  of  Jacobabdd  (London, 
1901). 

Tate,  G.  P,  Kaldf,  a  Memoir  on  the  Country  and  Family  0/ 
the  Ahmadzai  Khans  of  Kaldt  (Calcutta,  1896). 

Thornton,  T.  H.,  C.S.I.,  D.C.L.  Life  of  Colonel  Sir 
Robert  Sandeman. 


SIBI    GAZETTEER 

A  P  P  K  N  D  I  C  K  S . 


APPENDIX   I, 


Botany. 

Botany.  The   following'  account   of  the   botany    of    the    District    is 

extracted  from  an  account  of  the  veg^etation  of  Baluchistan 
written  by  Mr.   J.    H.    Lace,    assisted    by    Mr.   W.    Dotting^ 
Hemsley.  * 
Vegetation  "  The  veg"etation  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Sibi   is  similar 

atSibi^'^'"^  to  that  part  of  the  Punjab  plains  and  Sind  ;  the  unculti- 
vated land  producing-  a  fairly  thick  jung-le  of  Prosoph 
spicigera,  Salvadora  oleoides  and  Capparis  aphylla.  In  the 
low-lying-  lands,  within  the  influence  of  floods,  the  above 
are  replaced  b}-  Tamarix  articnlata  and  T.  gallica,  amongst 
which  Popiihis  euphratica  has  been  introducing  itself  to  a 
small  extent  during-  the  last  few  years,  the  seed  of  this 
species  being-  brought  down  by  floods  from  the  Thal-Chotiali 
District. 

"  Amongst  the  niost  noticeable  shrubs  are  : — Zizyphns 
nnminularia^  which  diff"ers  from  the  type  chiefly  in  having  a 
fleshy  scarlet  fruit  ;  Calotropis  procera,  very  abundant  in 
this  arid  region,  growing-  to  a  large  size,  and  is  used  for 
making  sword  scabbards  ;  Acacia  jacqueinontii,  Calligomim 
polygonoides,  Croialaria  htirhia^  Leptadenia  spariium,  and 
Taveniiera  nuvnmilaria,  very  characteristic  of  the  sandy  and 
shingly  soil  ;  and  Physorrhynchns  brahuicus,  a  large  round 
bush,  4  feet  higfh,  locally  common,  and  the  largest  of  the 
Cruciferce,  found  in  Baluchistdn. 

^^  Al/iagi  camelorum  is  very  abundant,  and  differs  from 
that  species  when  growing  at  higher  altitudes,  in  Pishin  for 
instance,  in  being-  much  taller  and  having  a  greater  number 
of  leaves.  Rhazya  stricta  iApocynacece),  an  erect,  stout, 
gregarious  shrub,  2  feet  in  height,  is  quite  characteristic  of 
the  dry  stony  water-courses,  and  covers  large  areas  in  the 
Bolan,  extending  also  up  the  Harnai  route  to  4,000  feet. 
^rua  Javanica,  Pluchea  lanceolala,  Fagonia  arabica, 
Tribuliis  alatiiSy  Trianthetna  pentavdra,  Mollugo  Glinus, 
*  Linne an  Society s  Journal  of  Botany,  Vol.  XXVIII. 


APPEXDIX  1—BOTAXY.    .  317 

Limenm  iiuiiciim,  Cressa  creiica,  Eclipta  crecia,  on  the 
banks  of  water-courses,  Solanttvi  dulcamara,  Plantago 
amplexiaiuiis  and  Spergularia,  in  corn  fields,  and  Cassia 
obovafa,  the  senna  phmt,  are  some  of  the  most  abundant 
herbaceous  plants.  Amongst  salsolaceous  plants,  Hal- 
oxylon  rcciirvtim  (from  which  a  crude  carbonate  of 
soda  is  manufactured),  H.  multijloriim,  Suacda  vernii'culata, 
and  Salsola  foetida  cover  large  areas  of  land  impreg-nated  with 
salts,  and  form,  with  Salvadora  and  Tamarix,  the  chief 
camel  fodders.  On  the  roots  of  Salvadora  oleoidcs  a  very 
handsome  parasite,  Cistaiiche  tubulosa,  having- golden  colour- 
ed flowers,  is  found. 

"Of  the  grasses  Panictiin  aiitidotale,  called  by  the  natives 
"  Gum,''''  is  the  most  important,  often  forming  large  bushes 
with  the  lower  stems  woody,  and  is  considered  a  good 
fodder.  Eleusine  flagellifera  and  a  species  o'i  Eragrosiis  are 
perhaps. the  most  abundant  grasses  in  fields  and  cultivated 
ground. 

"  The  only  tree  cultivated  by  the  people  near  their  villages 
until  recently  seems  to  have  been  Zizyphus  spina  Christi ; 
but  of  late  years  a  considerable  number  of  trees  of  Acacia 
arabica  have  been  raised  from  seed  in  the  fields  round  Sibi. 

"  On  leaving  Sibi  and  proceeding  up  the  Harnai  route  the  Botany  of 
outer  hills  are  almost,  if  not  quite,  destitute  of  vegetation,  \  \  '^'■"'^' 
and  in  the  valleys  leading  off"  on  either  side  of  the  Xiiri 
river  there  is  little  beyond  a  few  miserable  bushes  or  trees 
of  the  same  species  as  noted  at  Sibi.  Between  Spi'ntangi 
(2,000]  feet)  and  Sunerai,  Vitex  agnus-casltis  is  met  with 
for  the  first  time  and  this  gregarious  shrub,  with  a  tall 
species  of  Arislida  and  Sacchariim  ciliafe,  are  the  character- 
istic plants  of  the  dry,  stony  water-courses  up  to  about  4,500 
feet  beyond  Sh^hrig.  Up  to  3,000  feet  Acacia  jacquemontii 
occurs  with  the  above,  and  Neriiim  odonim,  deadly  poison- 
ous to  camels,  is  found  near  water  up  to  6,000  feet. 

"  In  culti\ation  at  Harnai,  Dalbcrgia  sissoo,  Olen  ciuopcca. 
Moras  alba,  and  a  few  Prosopis  spicigera  trees  are  found. 
On  the  surrounding  stony  ground  Pcriploca  aphylla  is 
abundant,  affording  fodder  for  camels  and  fuel  for  the 
people  ;  Zizyphus  nummularia,  Z.  oxyphylla,  Gytmiosporia 
montana,  and  Capparis  aphylla  also  occur,  and  a  few  misera- 
blg  shrubs  oi  Acacia  modcsta. 


318  APPENDIX  I     BOTANY. 

"  A  little  below  Harnai,  the  dwarf-palm,  Nannoyrhops 
ritchieana,  commences  to  form  dense  thickets,  which  reach 
their  maximum  extent  at  Shrihriij,  whore  they  cover  man} 
acres  of  ground. 

'*  This  palm  extends  up  to  5,500  feet,  and  is  common  on  the 
rocks  in  the  Wiim  and  Mehriib  rifts,  and  at  the  base  o'i  the 
low  hills.     The  date-palm  is  rare. 

"  On  the  low  hil's  and  stony,  tlat  i>round  in  this  region, 
many  species  of  herbaceous  plants  and  grasses  are  found, 
amongst  which  may  be  mentioned  :-/'>/^.sv/'/rt  jucquanoniii^ 
Malcolniia  sirigosa,  Polygala  hohenackeriaiui.,  in  the  shade  o'i 
rocks,  Viola  cinerea,  in  the  nullah  beds,  Argirolobinm  ro'icum, 
Ciinilliis  colocynilitiSy  Psammogcton  biicrnatum,  Aslericits 
Pygmceiis,  Picriduuntingitanutn.,  Solanum  gracilipcs,  S.  xantho- 
cnrpuni,  and  several  species  of  Plantago.  In  or  near 
culti\ated  land.  Althcea  Ludivigii  and  Fumaria  parvijlora  are 
common  ;  on  the  banks  c^\  irrigation  channels,  Lippia 
nodifiora  ;  and  hanging  down  from  the  perpendicular  ston\ 
sides  of  dry  water  courses  Cocculus  Icteha  is  often  seen, 
sometimes  associated  willi  Oc/iradcnns  huccadiis  and 
Pi(  lie  a  I'ia  gla  uccscc ns. 

"  Many  grasses  are  represented,  though  few  occur  in  abund- 
ance, except  Andropogon  lanigcCy  which  often  covers 
larg-e  tracts  on  the  lower  hills  Other  common  species  are 
Aiidropogoii  sclioenauthiiSy  A.  (iiiiiiilaliis,  Hctcfopogon 
hirttiSy  Poll/iiia  iriopoda,  Trislarhytt  s/(>cksi/\  anil  Klcnsinc 
sc  indie  a. 

"  The  common  olive  is  another  small  gregarious  tree,  scat- 
tered o\er  larger  areas  than  the  Pistachio,  and  usually  at  a 
lower  altitude,  its  range  being  between  2,500  and  6,500  feet. 
It  is  abundant  in  the  ravines  and  sheltered  situations  on  the 
south  side  of  the  Khalipat  range,  on  the  cliffs  o'i  the  Warn 
and  Mehrdb  ritts. 

"  Between  the  Wiim  rift  and  Harnai,  at  3,500  feel,  a  broad 
stony,  usually  dry  water-course  is  covered  with  a  curious 
mixture  of  tree-growth,  forming  a  fairly  thick  jungle.  The 
chief  element  is  Dalbergia  sissoo,  which  attains  some  size, 
and  this  is  mixed  with  Tcconia  imdulata,  Olcdy  and  Pislacia  : 
the  principal  underwoods  being  Dodoiuca  viscosa,  Grcivia 
oppositifolia,  Periploca  aphytla.,  Gymiiospon'ei  montana,  Rhain- 
nns  pei'sinis,  Zizyphiis  oxypliylhu  and  Sagcrctia  brand n-fJiiaiui 


APPENDIX  I  ^BOTANY.  319 

"  Ow  reaching  the  Shdhrig  plateau  (4,000  ft.),  18  miles  from    Botany  of 
Harnai,    there  is   a  change   in  the   climate.     Although  very  Shdhnpr 

hot  in  summer,  snow  falls  there  occasionally  in  winter,  and 
many  plants,  such  as  Dalbcrgiu  si'ssoo,  J'lVex  cagjiiis-casiiis, 
Zisypfuix^  etc.,  which  thrive  well  500ft.  lower  down,  reach 
their  limit.  At  Sh.-ihrig  Mcrcndcm  pi'i'sica,  with  clusters  of 
white,  pink,  or  \  iolet  flowers,  is  very  abundant  in  February, 
and  a  little  later  on  the  fields  arc  often  full  of  the  common 
purple  Iris  sisyn'nc/niini. 

"  After  passing  through  the  Chappar  rift  (5,000  ft.),  2  miles 
in  length,  in  which  Lconticc  leontopetalinn,  Crambc  coi'difolia., 
Echinops  griffithianus,  Crcpis  fa'fida^  Salvia  pnviila,  and 
Euphorbia  osyridea  are  common,  the  railway  passes  into  the 
M^ngi  valley  at  5,200  ft.  In  the  bed  of  the  Mangi  stream 
Neriiim  odorum.  and  small  bushes  of  Tamarix  gallica  are  the 
prevalent  plants  ;  and  on  the  neighbouring  hills  Junipcrus 
macropoda  occurs  in  a  more  or  less  stunted  form.  Caragana 
ambigua  and  Othonnopsis  inferniedia  are  common,  and  in  a 
few  places  Capparis  spinosa  occurs.  During  the  summer 
Cartliamus  oxyacantha  is  abundant  locally,  and  Psatnmogi'ton 
hiternatum  extends  over  considerable  areas  ;  and  this  is  the 
lowest  point  at  which  Perowskia  abrotanoides  is  found.  In 
swampy  grass  land  Typha  angustifolia  is  plentiful. 

"Opposite  to,  and  a  short  distance  from,  the  Chappar,  is 
the  Pi'l  rift,  a  narrow  gorge  rising  to  6,500  ft.,  at  the  en- 
trance to  which  are  a  few  bushes  of  Riibus  fruficosiis,  a  verv 
uncommon  shrub,  which  is  said,  however,  to  occin-  in  some 
of  the  ravines  of  the  Khwdja  Amrdn  range 

"The  Juniper  tracts  of  the  District  consist  of  the  countrv  V'egetation 
round  Zidrat  and  the  Pil  range,  the  vegetation  of  which  is  per  tracts! 
similar  to  that  of  the  Zarghun  range,  an  account  of  which 
will  be  found  in  Quetta-Pishin  District  under  the  same 
heading.  The  most  important  and  abundant  species  around 
Zidrat  is  Juuiperus  macropoda^  named  "  Obusht  "  \>\  the 
Pathans  and  "  Appurz  "  b}-  the  Baluchis. 

"  Cohitea  annuta^  a  new  species,  is  a  curious  decumbent 
spiny  undershrub  with  inflated  pods.  It  rarely  grows  to 
any  size  owing  to  its  being  browsed  by  sheep  and  goats, 
and  has  only  been  found  at  Ziarat  and  i:<\\  the  Pi'l  hill  from 
7,500  to  9,000  ft. 


:,2o  APPENDIX  /—BOTANY. 

BoTAj^y.  "The  most  characteristic   small  plants  on   the   limestone 

cliffs  about  Zidratare  Aitchisonia  rosea,  Bupletiriim  falcatmn, 
B.  exaltatnm,  species  of  PifupiJiella  and  Peucedamim,  Rubin 
infundibulariSy  Hemsley  and  Lace.  Scutellaria  petiolata, 
Hemsley  and  Lace,  having-  violet  flowers  and  similar  to  S. 
o^rossa,  but  havinij  a  more  woody  stem,  slenderer  flowering- 
stems  and  slenderly  petiolate  few-toothed  or  entire  leaves, 
is  a  native  of  this  region. 

"Of  the  six  ferns  found  in  British  Baluchistan,  Aspleiiium 
Rxitamiiraria  and  Cystopteris  fragilis  2lXQ.  fairly  abundant  near 
Zidrat,  and  more  rarely  Cheilanthes  Ssovitzii. 

"  Cntnimun  cytninum  (cumin  seed)  grows  wild  after  winter 
rains  and  snow  in  Zarg^hi'mghar  and  Zhizh-tang  valley,  the 
country  lying  between  Mangi  and  Kach,  in  the  Manra  hills 
and  Jandrdn  and  Bhor  hills.  It  also  g-rows  in  a  few  places 
in  Sdngdn,  Narbari  and  Pir  Ismail  in  the  Sibi  tahsil.  It 
likewise  g-rows  in  the  Ziarat  hills. 

"  Nepeta  ciliaris  (hyssop)  grows  in  the  hills  of  Zarghiinghar 
and  Khalifat  in  the  Shdhrig-  tahsil  in  the  years  of  good  rain- 
fall. Asafcetida  and  liquorice  {Glycyrrhiza  glabra)  grows  in 
the  hills  in  Shahrig  and  in  Garmob  in  Sdngdn." 


321 

Alphabetical  list  of  common  trees  and  plants   in  the   Sihi  District. 


Pashtii 
name. 

Jatki 
name. 

Scientific 
name. 

Descrip- 
tion or 

Eng-lish 

name. 

where 

known. 

Locality 
where 
found. 

Brief   remarks 
as  to  local  use. 

Alu  Bu-      ' 
khara. 

Alu  Bu- 
khara. 

Pruiius     Bo- 
kahriensis. 

Plum,  blue 

Nasfrdbdd 
gardens. 

Am 

Amb 

Mangifera 
Indica.Linn. 

Mango    ... 

Sibl      and 
Nasird- 
b^d  gar- 
dens. 

Amrat     ... 

Nishpdti.. 

Tyrus     com- 
munis. 

Common 
pear. 

Gardens  in 
Shihrig 

and  Na- 
sirabid. 

Aniingah.. 

Prunus  cera- 
sus. 

Common 
cherry. 

Zidrat  hills 

The  wild  cherry. 

Anar 

Dalirun  ... 

Punica    gra- 
natum. 

Pome 
granate. 

Gardens.. 

See  also  nargosa. 

Angiir     ... 

Drakh    ... 

Vitis       vini- 
fera. 

Grape     ... 

Nasiribad 
Shah  rig 
and  Koh 
lu. 

)              ••■  .. 

Amlai      ... 

Amli 

Tamarindus 
Indica. 

Tamarind. 

Nasirabd,c 
gardens 

Drug. 

Bad  ;i  111    ... 

Badam    ... 

Prunus 
Amyg  d  a  - 
lus(Amyg. 
dalus  com- 
munis.) 

Almond  ... 

Shahrii^. 

Babiir     ... 

Acacia    Ara- 
bica. 

Indian 
gum  ara- 
ble tree. 

Nasirabdc 
and  Sibi. 

Bakain    ... 

Melia      Aze- 
darach. 

The     Per- 
sian    li- 
lac. 

Nasfribdd. 

Banur     ... 

Euphorbia. 

A  wild 
bush. 

Shdhrig. 

Barar 

Periploca 
aphylla. 

1 1 

Shahrig: 
and  Koh- 
lu. 

Fuel. 

Pashtii 
name. 

Jatki 
name. 

Scientific 
name. 

Descrip- 
tion or 
English 
name 
where 
known. 

Locality 
where 
found. 

Brief  remarks 
as  to  local  use. 

Barau     ... 

Sorghum 
halepense, 
Pers. 

A  grass  ... 

S  h  d,  h  r  i  g 
and 
Kohlu 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep     and 
goats,  etc. 

Barwaz  ... 



Heteropogon 
contortus. 

Spear 
grass. 

,,       ... 

>i             J) 
also    used    for 
roofing  sheds. 

B*r 

Ber 

Zizyphus 
jujuba. 

The  Indian 
jujube. 

All  parts  ol 
Distri  c  t 
except 
high- 
lands. 



Bhattal  ... 



A  grass  ... 

Nasirabid 

Fodder  for  sheep 
and  goats. 



Bhunbak.. 

>  1       ••• 

,,      -. 

> ' 

Chakotra.. 

Citrus   decu- 
mana.Linn 

The    shad- 
dock. 
Paradise 
apple. 

) )      ••• 



Chham- 
kani. 

Cassia     Fis- 
tula. 

The  Indian 
1  a  b  u  r- 
num. 

.,      ••• 

Used   as   a   pur- 
gative. 

Chibhar  ... 

Cucumis     ... 

Small   me- 
lon. 

>) 

Fruit,    also  used 
as  a  vegetable. 

Cranj 



A          wild 
grass. 

,, 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep  and 
goats. 

Datura   ... 

Dhatiira 

Datura    fas- 
tuosa,  Linn 

The  black 
Datura. 

Common... 

Poisonous  plant. 

on 

.\ndropogon. 

A  grass  ... 

1  >      ••• 

Fodder  for  horses. 

Drab       ... 

Drab       ... 

Eragro  s  t  i  s 
cynosuro- 
ides. 

j> 

)  >      '•• 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep        and 
goats,  &c. 

Gam 

P<inicum 
antidotale. 

>■  > 

Nasi'rdbad 
and  Sibi 

>> 
also  seed  used  as 

famine  food. 

Gand^rae. 

Jaur 

Nerium  odo- 
rum. 

Poisonous 
bush. 

Every- 
where. 

323 


Pashtu 
name. 

Jatki 
name. 

Scientific 
name. 

Descrip- 
tion or 
English 
name 
where 
known. 

Locality    i 

where 
found.         I 

Brief  remarks 
as  to  local  use. 

Gandhi!  ... 

Eleustne  fla- 
gellifera. 

A  grass  ... 

Common.  . 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep  and 
goats. 

Gangu    ... 

Othonnopsis 
intermedia. 
Boiss. 

Poisonous 
bush. 

Shdhrig.... 

Cooling  infusion 
made  for  chil- 
drun  from  lea- 
ves. Twigs 
used  as  fuel. 

Ghaz       ... 

Lai 

Tamarix 
orientalis. 

Tamarisk. 

Every- 
vvhere. 

Used  for  fuel  and 
making  wattle. 

Ghoz6ra ... 



Sophora 
Griffith  i  i, 
Stocks. 

Shahrig 
and  Koh- 
lu. 

Fuel. 

Girdae 

butae. 

Althaea  Lud- 
wigii. 

Kohlu     ... 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep  and 
goats. 

Ghunza  ... 

Crataegus 
Oxyacan- 
tha,  Linn. 

Hawthorn. 

Kowds 
circle   ol 
Shdhrig. 

Fruit  eaten. 

Gidarwal. 



A          wild 
plant. 

Nasinibad. 

Used  as  medicine 
for  piles. 

Gul  Gulab. 

Guldb      ... 

RosaDamas- 

cena. 

Rose 

In  every 
garden 

Gurgula... 



Zizyphus 
Oxyphylla. 

Shihrig  ... 

Fruit  eaten. 
Fuel. 

Harnauli. 

Ricinus  com- 
munis. 

Castor    oil  Nasiribad 

plant.           and  Sibi 

*                 1 

Hinja 

Hing 

Ferula  foeti- 
da. 

Asafcetida. 

Zar  g  h  li  n 
hill. 

Condiment. 

Inzar 

Hira  n  j  o  - 
gah. 

Hinji'r      ... 

Ficus  Carica 

A  grass  ... 
Fig 

Nasirdbid 
In  gardens 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep  and 
goats. 

Ikkar      ... 



A          wild 

plant. 

Nasirdbdd. 

Used  as  vegeta- 
ble; also  fodder 
for  cattle,  sheep 
and  goats,  &c. 

3^4 


Pashtil 
name. 


Jatki 
name. 


Scientific 
name. 


Descrip- 
tion Or 
English 
name 
where 
known. 


Locality 
where 
found. 


Brief  remarks 
as  to  local  use. 


Jdmun 


Jhau,   fa- 
rdsh. 


Jhil 

Kab 

Kabbar  ., 

iKachnir 
Kandi     ...JKandi     .. 

Karir       ...  Kari'r 


Eugenia  Black 

jambolana      plum. 


Nasi'rabad 
gardens. 


Tamaris 
I     Indica. 


Tamarisk  .  Sibi       and  Used  for  fuel  and 


Indigofera     |A  wild  Nasirabdd 

j     paucifolia       bush.  and  Sibi 

Del. 


Nasird- 
bad. 


Karkanr.. 


Karoskae. 


Karkanr 


Scirpus    ma- 
ritimus. 

Salvadora 
'     Persica. 

Bauhinia 
acuminata 

Prosopis  spi- 
cigera. 

Capparis  Ap- 
hylla.Roth 


Zizyphus 

Nummularia 

I 

Berberis  vul 
i     garis. 


Karpol    ...j 
K61a        ...iKela 


Musa         sa- 
pientum. 


A  grass 


True   Bar- 
berry. 


making  wattle. 


Fodder  for 
camel  ;      also 
used    as    tooth 
brushes. 

Fodder  for  horses 
and  buffaloes. 


Nasirabid  Fruit  eaten, 
and  Sibi.l     Fuel. 

Nasi'rabad.  Vegetable. 

Nasirabdd  Timber  and  fuel, 
and  Sibi.! 


E  ver y- 
where. 


Ziarat 
hills. 


A  wild  Khalifat 

plant.      1     hill. 

Banana  or  Nasir;'ib;id 
plantain,     and  Sibi. 


Fodder  for 

camels,    sheep 
and  goats. 

Fruit  eaten  by 
people. 

Fuel,  and  fruit 
eaten. 

Roots  boiled  in 
water  and  used 
for  tanning 
skins.  Decoc- 
tion also  given 
to  human  be- 
ings and  cattle 
in  cases  of  in- 
ternal injuries. 
See  also  Zrdlg. 

Drug  for  fever. 


Pashtii 
name. 


Jatki 


Scientific 
name. 


Dcscrip- 
tion  or 

Ensj^lish 
name 
where 

known. 


Locality 
where 
found. 


Brief  remarks 
as  to  local  use. 


Khamazij- 

rae  or  ma- 
khazurae, 

Khar 

Khatol     ... 

Khokhae. 
Khoryas.. 
Khurma 


Khwazha- 
walani 


L^ghunae. 


L6mbu    ., 


Lukha    .. 


Pan6r 


Khdr 


Khattal 


Khajji 


Kurdul 
Drdma 

Ldna 


Lesiira 
L6ma 


Lullar 


Withnania 
Coagulans. 

Suaeda  fruti- 
cosa,  Forsk, 

Tuiipa    stel- 
lata. 


Al  Hum 
spha:roce- 
phalum. 


Pimpinella 
anisum. 


Salsola     fcE- 
tida,  Del. 


Daphne 
Oleoide  s  , 
Schreb. 

CordiaMyxa. 

Limonum  ,,. 


Typha      a  n- 
gustifolia. 


Wild  tulip. 


Wild    gar- 
lic. 

A  i^rass  ... 


Date  palm 

Aniseed  ... 

A      wild 
plant. 


Poison- 
ous  wild 
bush. 


Lemon 


'a  grass 


Sh  a  h  r  i  g 
and  Koh 
lu. 

Kohlu     ... 
Shdhrig ... 

Nasirdbdd 

Sh  ;i  h  r  i  g 
and  Koh 
lu. 


Nasirabdd 
and  Sibi, 


Seed      used      for 
making  cheese. 

Used  for  making 
crude  potash. 

Spring    wild 
flower. 

Fruit  eaten. 

Used    as     vege- 
table. 


Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep,  goats, 
&c. 


Sh  a  h  r  i  gjDrug. 
hills.        i 


Nasirdbdd. 


Nasird.bdd 
and  Sibi 


Fodder  for 
camels. 

Used  for  making 
crude  potash. 
Also  fodder  for 
camels. 


Sh  ;i  h  r  i  gJFuel,      Branches 
and  Koh-      used    for    roof- 
lu  hills.        ing  huts. 


Nasirdbdd 

Nasirdbad 
and  Sibi. 

Shd  h  r  i  g, 
Kohlu 
and  Na- 
sirdbad. 

Nasirdbdd. 


Fruit  eaten. 


Fodder  for 
horses.  Also 
used  for  roof- 
ing huts. 

Fodder  for  sheep, 
goats  and 
cattle. 


[26 


Pashtii 
name. 


Jatki 
name. 


Scientific 
name. 


Descrip- 
tion or 
English 
name 
where 
known. 


Locality 

where 

found. 


Brief  remarks 
as  to  local  use. 


Lunak 


Portulaca 
oleracea. 


Mdkhal  .... 


Malkhuzari 


Caragana 


The  com- 
mon In- 
dian Purs 
lane. 


Mdlta      .. 

Manhar  . 

I 

! 

IManjlian- 

i     dri. 

Manra    ...Suf 

Mdnri     ..."       


G  1  y  cyrrhiza|Liquorice 
I     glabra. 

I 
Citrus      no-  Ma  I  te  s  e 
bilis.  orange. 


Shd  h  r  i  g, 
Kohl  u 
and  Na- 
sinibdd. 

Sh  a  h  r  i  g 

andKoh- 
lu  hills. 

Sii  H  h  r  i  g 
hills. 

Nasi'rdbad 
gardens 


Used     as 
table. 


Used  as  fuel. 
Also  flowers 
eaten  raw. 

Drug  for  cough. 


A      wild 
grass. 


Aculeata         A     wild 

j     Sesbania.    ;     bush. 

!  i 

Pyrus  malus.  Apple 

iWild   tree, 


Nasi'rdbad 
gardens. 

Gardens... 


Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep  and 
goats,  &c. 

Fuel. 


See  also  seb. 


Mara-         [Truh 
ghiini. 


Margha  .. 


Mari'ro 


Mash- 
kanri. 

Maurai   ... 


Citrullus 
Colocynthis. 


Andropogon 
annulatus. 


.Amarantus 
blituni. 


The     colo- 
cynth. 


.A  grass 


Ma^ari    ...  Pish 


.A  grass 


Zizyphora 

clinopodio- 

ides,M.Bieb. 

Nannorhops  Dwarf- 
Ritchieana.       palm. 


Kohlu  and  Fruit  eaten. 
Shdhrig 
hills. 

Every-  Fodder  for  sheep, 
,'here.         goats    and 

camels.      Seed 
used  as  a  drug. 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep   and 
goats,  &c. 

I 

Nasi'ribdd  Used     as     vege- 
and  Sibi      table. 

S  h  a  h  r  ig  Fodder  for  cattle, 
and  Kohlu,  sheep  and  goats. 


Zidrat 
hills. 


Every  - 
where. 


Used  as  drug  for 
typhus  fever. 

Mats  made  from 
it.  Also  used  as 
fuel. 


327 


Pashtii      I       Jatki 


Scientific 
name. 


Descrip- 
tion or 

Englihh 
name 
wliere 

known. 


Locality 
where 
found. 


Brief  remarks 
as  to  local  use. 


Mirwand. 


iMondheri. 

I 

Nal         ...iNar 


Vitex      N  e 
gundo  L. 


Naghora.. 


Phragmites 
communis, 


Ndrangi...  Citrus       au 
rantium. 


Nargosa. 


Ni'm 
Oin 


Pall 


Pannangi 


......       'Papnas 

Parwat  ...j       

1 

Pastawan.       

Pflu         ...Pi'lu 


Pipal       ...jPi'pal 


Palosa    ...  Phulah    .. 


Punica   gra- 
natum. 

Melia  azadi' 
rachta. 


Acacia     mo- 
desta. 


Boucerosia 
Aucheriana. 


jCocculus 
I  leaeba.D.C. 
I 

'Grewia  asia- 
tica. 

Salvadora 
Oleoides. 

Ficus       reli- 
giosa. 


A  wild 
plant. 

Reed 

A    wild 
plant. 

Orange 


Wild  pome 
granate 


A   grass... 


Shdhrig..,. 


Nasirdbdd 


Shdhrig 


Shdhrig 
hills. 

Nasi'rabdd 
and  Sibi 
gardens. 

Sh  d  h  r  i  g 

hills. 

Sibi       and 
Nasi'rabdd 

Nasi'rdbdd 


Shdhrig 
and  Kohlu 

Nasirdbdd 
Sibi  and 
Kohlu. 

Shdhrig  & 
Kohlu. 

Nasirdbdd 

Shdhrig  & 
Kohlu. 


Nasirdbdd, 
Sibi  and 
Kohlu. 

Indian  fig-  Nasirdbdd 
tree.  and  Sibi. 


Fodder  for  sheep 
and  goats. 

A  cooling    drug-. 


Used  for   roofing 
huts. 

Roots  used  as   a. 
famine  food. 


See  also  ajtdr. 


Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep,  goafs, 
&c. 


Timber  good. 


Used      as    vege- 
table. 

A  fruit  tree. 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep  and  goats. 

Fuel. 


Timber  and  fuel, 
Fruit  eaten. 


328 


Pashtii 
name. 

Jatki 
name. 

Scientific 
name. 

Descrip- 
tion or 
English 
name 
where 
known. 

Locality 
where 
found. 

Brief  remarks 
as  to  local  use. 

Puchhra... 
Pui 

Nasi'rdbad 
and  Sibi. 

1 1 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep,      goats, 
&c. 

>  1 

Raghbolae 

Peucedanum 
sp. 

Shihrig 
&  Kohlu 
hills. 

The  plant  is 
eaten    raw    by 
the  people. 

Ramho  ... 

A  grass  ... 

N'asi'ribdd 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep  and 
goats. 

Rangobal. 

A    wild 
plant. 

Sh  i  h  r  i  g 
hills. 

Decoction  is  used 
in  cases  of  sy- 
philis. 

Sdba 



Stipa    capil- 
lata. 

A  grass    .. 

Shdhrig  & 
Kohlu 
hills. 

Fodder  for  sheep, 
goats,       cattle 
and  horses,  &c. 

Samokh... 



II      •' " 

Kohlu     ... 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep,      goats, 
&c. 

Samsok  ... 



A  grass  ... 

Shdhrig  .. 

Leaves     smoked 
in  cases  of    sy- 
philis. 

Sargarae. . 



Grass.     .. 

Shdhrig  & 
Kohlu. 

Fodder  for 
horses,    sheep, 
goats         and 
cattle. 

Sarghasae 

Sar 

Saccharum 
Ciliare. 

, , 

Every- 
where. 

Fodder  for  horses 
sheep,       goats 
and  cattle. 

Sarinh    ... 

Acacia     spe- 
ciosa. 

Acacia     ... 

Nasi'rdbdd 
and  Sibi. 

Timber. 

Sdvvni     ... 

A  grass  ... 

J 1 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep, goats, &r. 

S^b 

Stif 

Pyrus  malus. 

Apple 

Gardens. 

See  also  viajira. 

Shaftdlu... 

Shaftdlu... 

Prunus    Per- 
sica. 

Peach      ... 

Gar  dens 
in  Naslr- 
dbid     & 
Sh^hrig. 

329 


Pashtu 
name. 


Jatki 
name. 


Scientific 
name. 


Descrip- 
tion or 
English 
name 
where 
known. 


Locality 
where 
found. 


Brief  remarks 
as  to  'ocal  use. 


Sliang     ... 


Shdzgi    ... 


Shi'nbiitae. 


Shin  s  h  o  ■ 
bae      or  I 
Velanae. 

Shorae    ...' 


Showan  ...  Kahu 


Shrawan..! 


Sinzalae...' 


Spalmai .. 


Akh 


Spinda  ...  Harmaro. 

I 

Sp6dir   ...'suf6da    .. 


Fraxinus 
xantho- 
xyloides. 

Eremurus 
aurantia 
cus  (Baker) 


Ash 


A      wild 
plant. 


Mentha    Syl- Pepper- 
vestris.  mint. 


Haloxylon      Barilla 
GrifiPithii,    I     plant. 
Bunge. 

Olea     cuspi-:01ive 
data. 


Shdhrig  & 
Kohlu 
hills. 


Kohlu 


Shd  h  r  i  g 

hills. 


Shdhrig  & 
Kohlu 


Every- 
where. 


Fuel  and  timber. 


Cooked  as  vege- 
table. 

Fodder  for 
camels.  Also 
used  in  lieu  of 
soap. 


Used  as  fuel 
Also  for  curing 
skins. 

Fruit  is  eaten  by 
the  people  and 
used  as  fuel. 


Pistacia         [Pistachio    jKohlu  and, Fruit,        much 


Cabulica.        nut  tree.      Shdhrig 


prized  by  the 
people.  Excel- 
lent fuel.  See 
also  watia. 

Elaeagnus      Trebizond  Shdhrig  &' Fruit  eaten   dry, 
hortensis.  I     date     or      Kohlu     good  timber. 
Bohe-       I     gardens, 
mian 
olive. 


Calotropis  Every- 

gigantea.  ,     where. 


Peganum       .Gardenrue  ,, 

harmala. 

Populus  alba  The       alb  Roadside 
or  white      tree  in 
poplar,  Nas{r- 

,     dbdd, 
Sibi  and 
Shihrig. 


Fodder  for  camel 
and  goats  and 
used  as  fuel. 

Seed  used  as  a 
drug. 

Timber. 


330 


Pashtii 
name. 


Jatki 
name. 


Scientific 
name. 


Descrip- 
tion or 
Entjlish 
name 

where 
known. 


Locality 
where 
found. 


Brief  remarks 
as  to  local  use. 


Sp6rkai  ... 

Spina 
Staghnir . 

Surai 
SursAnda , 

Tamand... 


Bahan 


Tindan 


Tirkha    ... 


Carum     cop- 
ticum. 

Populus  Eu- 
phratica. 


Rosa  lace- 
rans. 


Hymenocra- 
ter  sessili- 
folius 
Benth. 


Tasbih 


Lavage  ... 

Poplar     ... 

A  species 
of  asafoe- 
tida. 


Wild  bush 


A     wild 
plant. 


A  tree 


Kand6ra..JAlhagi  Camel 

I    camelorum     thorn. 


Ti  tok 


Tukhum-i- 
ma  1  a  n- 
gydn. 


Turanj    .. 


Artemisia  .. 


Convolvulus 
spinosus 
Burm. 

Zizyphora 
clinopodl- 
oides. 


Citrus 
niedica. 


Citron 


Kohlu  and  A  drug. 

Shihrig.l 

Nasi'rabad  Timber, 
and  Sibi. 


Kach  and 
Zi  d  r  a  t 
hills. 


The  upper  skins 
of  the  stalks 
are  burnt  in 
hot  ashes  and 
eaten. 


Kohlu  and  Fuel. 
Shdhrig 
hills. 

Ziirat  and  Cooling  infusion 
Kach  is    made       for 

hills.  children     from 

leaves. 

Shd,  h  r  i  g  Fodder  for  sheep, 
&  Kohlu.      goats  and 

camels.  Also 
used  in  lieu  of 
soap  for  ^vash- 
ing  clothes. 

Nasirabad  Rosary  made 
garden.       from  its  seeds. 

All    o  V  e  r  Fodder  for  camel, 
the    dis-     see  also  soz. 
trict. 


Shdhrig  .. 


Kohlu 


Fodder  for  sheep, 
goats  and  don- 
keys. Also  used 
as  fuel. 

Fodder  for  sheep, 
goats  and  cattle, 
&c. 

Kowas  &  Seeds  are  a  medi- 
K  a  c  h  cine  for  dysen- 
circles.         tery. 

Nasi'rdbdd 
and  Sibi 
gardens. 


331 


Pashtu 
name. 

Jatki 
name. 

Scientific 
name. 

Oescrip. 

tion   or 

English 
name 
where 

known. 

Locality 
where 
found. 

Brief  remarks 
as  to  local   use. 

Turwa- 
washa. 



A  grass  .. 

Kohlu      ... 

Fodder  for  sheep, 
goats  and   cat- 
tle, &c. 

Tut 

Tiit 

Morus 

Mulberry., 

Gardens 
in  Nasi'r- 
dbd,d  and 
Shdhrig. 

Ubashta 

Juniperus 
excelsa. 

Juniper  ... 

Shdhrig      Timber  and  fuel, 
hills.       1 

Umdn     ... 

,1  „ 

Ephedra 
pachyclada 

1 
Kohlu  and  The     twigs     are 
Shahrig       used     for   tan- 
hills,             ning  m  a  s  h  k 
leather  ;     also 
as   fuel.  Ashes 
mixed  with  to- 
b  a  c  c  o       for 
chewing. 

Urgalami. 

Rhazyastrlc- 
ta,  Dene. 

... 

Shdhrig  & 
Kohlu. 

Leaves      form    a 
cooling     drink 
for    children. 

Ushundr  . 

Ferula     Oo- 
pada,  Boiss 

... 

Shahrig 
hills. 

Variety    of   asa- 
foetida,      eaten 
like  staghnar. 

Uzhgai   ... 
Wana      .. 

Pistacia 
.  Cabulica. 

Wild   tree. 

Pistachio 
nut  tree. 

Shihrig  & 
Kohlu 
hills. 

Fruit  eaten;  also 
used  as  fuel. 

See  shraivan. 

Washta  ... 

Wdnwihri. 

Stipa       pen- 
nata,  Linn 

A  grass  ... 

Nasirdbid 

Sh  d  h  r  i  g 
hills. 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep,       goats 
and  camels. 

Wisdo    ... 

A   wild 
plant. 

Nasi'rdbdd 

Fodder     for    ca- 
mels and  goats. 

VVesakh ... 

)> 

>» 

>  1 

Wi'zha     ... 
Wulla     ... 

Bed 

.Salix 

A  grass  ... 
Willow  ... 

Kohlu  and                ,, 
Shdhrig. 

,,           Timber  and  fuel. 

332 


Pashtii 
name. 

Jatki 
name. 

Scientific 
name. 

Descrip- 
tion or      1 
English    ' 
name 
where 
known. 

Locality 
where 
found. 

Brief  remarks, 
as  to  local  use. 

Zagha     ... 

Tdli 

Dalbergia 
sisoo. 

rhe  Sissu. 

! 

ShAhrig, 
Nasir  d  - 
bad   and 
Sibi. 

Timber. 

Zanddn  ... 
Zardilu  ... 

Zarga     ... 

Zarddlu  .. 

Prunus     Ar- 
meniaca. 

Prunus  ebur- 
nea. 

A  grass  ... 
Apricot   ... 

Small  wild 
almond. 

Kohlu 

Kohlu, 
Shdhrig 
and  Na- 
sirdba  d 
gardens. 

Kohlu  and 
Shahrig 
hills. 

Fodder  for  cattle, 
sheep,  goats, 
&c. 

Fruit  is  eaten  ; 
gum  also  used. 

Zawal     ... 

Achillea  san- 
tolina, 
Stocks. 

Grass 

Kohlu  ana' 
Shihrig. 

Flowers  form  a 
cooling  drink 
for  children. 
Fodder  for 
sheep  and 
goats. 

Zhizh  agh- 
zai. 

A    wild 
plant. 

' ' 

Fodder  for  ca- 
mels, cat  1 1 e  , 
sheep  and 
goats. 

Zira 

Cuminum 
cyminum. 

Cumin 

Shdhrig 
hills. 

Condiment. 

Zmai 

Lini 

Suaeda  fruti- 
cosa,  Forsk 

In  all  tah- 
sils     ex- 
cept 
Shdhrig. 

Used  for  making 
crude  potash. 

Zoz 

Kandera... 

Alhagicame- 
lorum. 

Camel 
thorn. 

>i 

See  tinddn. 

Zral  (Shin- 
gulai). 

Cichorium 
intybus. 

The     wild 
or  Indian 
Endive. 

Shdhrig  ... 

Roots  soaked  in 
water  and 
infusion  used 
as  cooling 
drink. 

Zralg      ... 

Berberis  vul- 
garis. 

True    bar- 
berry. 

Zidrat  hills 

See  karoskae. 

Ziafa 

1    

Hyssopus  of- 
ficinalis. 

Hyssop   ... 

Shdhrig 
hills. 

Drug. 

APPENDIX  II, 


List  of  as^yi cultural  implements  in  use  in  the  Sibi  District. 


Name  in  Pashti'i.  Name  in  Jatki 


Explanation. 


Ara 


Bigi'r    (^Shahrlg    and 
Sangan). 

Chaj 

Charshikha  ... 


Cliilomba 


Ddtri,      A  i  t  a  n 
(^Slbi). 


Muthia   .. 


Chhaj      

Cli^rsnd.kh,  Try- 
ang  (Nasir- 
abid.) 

Khambanri 


Chughul         ...         ...    Tungar 


Dal 


Dhrapae  or  Trapae 


Dhal  (Sibi), 

Dandar  (Xasir- 
abdd). 

Dhalli  ^  (Sibi), 
Karahi  (Nasi'r- 
abad). 


DoshiUha    or       Do-    Biani 
ghdshi. 

Gasi     (Harnal      and 
Sangan.) 


Giiasae  or  Gh6sa  ...  Hariya  (Sibi), 
Hariyan  (Nasi'r- 
ab;id). 


A  small  sickle. 


Plough  handle.  See  also  Uisghalae, 
Icistae  and  mutanal\ 

Winnowing  fan.     See  also  sup. 

Four-pronged  fork  for  winnowing. 


A  sling  generally  used  for  driving 
birds  away  from  crops:  also 
called  pichoghunda  and  soha. 

A  sieve  with  larger  holes  than  the 
ordinary  sieve  called  raghhel 
and  parrvesa. 

A  wooden  spade  worked  by  two 
men  with  a  rope  for  ma  king- 
small  embankments. 

A  wooden  spade  for  winnowing 
grain. 


Two-pronged  fork. 


A  forked  piece  of  wood  with  which 
the  rice  field  is  ploughed  the 
third  time. 

The  shaft  of  the  plougii.  See  also 
shai. 


Hal 


Hur 


Plouuli. 


Name  in  Pashtii.  Name  in  Jatki. 


Explanation. 


Helae  (Harnai)        ...  

Hora  (Sdngan)        ... !  Nali  or  Nari 

Kahai    (Kowds     and  |  Wahola,  Shapinr, 
Kohlu).  Kodar. 

Kdn         

B61  

Kurh(Sibi),Goba 
(Nasirdbdd). 

Muthia 


K6nr,  Khdl 

Kodal  (Shdhrig)      ... 

Kra  or  Kroz 

Kundah  or  Kunra     .. 

Ldsghalae  or  L^stae. 

Lor 

Mdhia  (Kohlu) 
Mdla 

Mutanak         

Ndli     

Oklai  (Shahrig)       .. 
Pada    ...         

Pdli     

Para    


Ddtri  (Sibi), 

Ddtro    (Xasir- 
abdd). 


Plough,   especially   used    for    rice 
cultivation. 


Drill.     See  also  ndli. 
A  hoe.     See  also  kodal. 

A  plank  harrow.     See  also  vinhla. 

A  hoe.     See  also  kahai. 

A  spade. 

Shoe    of   the    plough.     See    also 
rohdnr. 

Plough    handle.      See    also   bigir 
and  mutanak. 

Sickle. 


A  plank  harrow.     See  also  kenr  or 
khdl. 


I  Sohdga       (Sibi),    A   wooden   log     used     as   a 

Sdhar    (Xasi'r-        crusher. 
i      ^bdd.) 


Muthia  ... 

Ndli  or  Xdri 
Ukhri     ... 


Plough    handle.       See  also   bi^ir 
Idstae  and  ldsghalae: 

Drill.      See  also  hora. 

Mortar  for  husking  rice. 


Goba  or  Chuni  .     A  wedge  in  the  plough.     See  also 
sparkhae. 

'  Phdr  or  Phari   ...  \  Plough  share.      See  also  spdra. 


..    Pahora     (Sibi  ),    A  rake. 
Dandari    (Na- 
sirdbdd). 


Par\v6za  (Harnai  and 
Kohlu). 


Sieve,  see  raghbel  and  chnghul. 


335 


Name  in  Pasht 

u. 

Name  in  Jatki. 

Explanation, 

Raghb61 

Gharb^l     (  Sibi ), 
Garchan    (Na- 
sirabad). 

Sieve,  sec  also  parwesa  and  chu- 
ghiil. 

Rambae 

... 

Ramba 

A  short  spade. 

Rohanr  (Kohlu) 

... 

Shoe  of  the  plough.  See  also 
kundah. 

Spara 

... 

Phar  or  Phari  ... 

Plough  share.     See  also  pdli. 

Sparkhae 

Goba  or  Chuni  ... 

A  wedge  in  the  plough.  See  also 
pada. 

Sup  (Harnai) 

Winnowing  fan.     See   also   chaj. 

Tabar 

... 

Kohara   and  Ko- 
hari. 

Axe. 

Tsapar     (Kowas 
Kohlu). 

and 

Forsha    (Nasi'ra- 
brid). 

Weighted  thorny  hurdle,  used  for 
threshing  grain. 

Tsapanrae     ... 

... 

Iron  nail  with  which  the  plough 
share  is  fastened. 

Zagh 

... 

Panjari 

A  yoke. 

Zhandae  (Kowas  and 
Kohlu),    Zhaghara 
(Shahrig>. 

Wedges  in  the  yoke. 

Zhai  (Sangan) 

The  shaft  of  the  plough.  See 
also  ghasae  or  ghesa. 

APPENDIX  III, 


Alphabetical  list  of  ag-riciiltiiral ,  revenue  and  shepherd's  terms  used  in  the 

Sihi  District. 


Term  in  Pashtii.  Term    in    Jatki. 


Explanation 


Adigar  (^Sangdn)     ... 

Adigari         ,, 
Ahdi  ,, 

Allorae  (Shahrig)    ... 
Alor 

Alwoi 

Ambar  (Kohlu) 

Ambdr  khana  (Shdh- 
rig)- 

Ambar    chae    (ShAh- 
rig)- 

Angiir  bagh 

Ashar  


Ahti  or   Ahligar. 
Ahtigari  or  Ahat, 


Olar 


Abun 


Amb;ir,       Kothi, 
Gundi,   Pali. 


Ashargari 

Awloi 

Azgharo  (Kohlu) 


Hashar,      Wan- 
gar. 

Hasharwala, 
Wangdri. 


...  I  Abun 


Village  artisan.  See  also  hddi 
and  kami'n. 

Wages  in  kind  paid  to  an  artisan. 

A  quantity  (^generally  one  kdsa^  of 
grain  given  annually  by  each 
family  to  the  village  blacksmith. 

Servant  engaged  to  water  the 
crops. 

The  refuse  of  the  fodder  after  it 
has  been  eaten  by  the  cattle. 
See  also  hangar. 

Half  ripe  corn.  Also  corn  parched 
in  fire.      See  also  awloi. 

Granary.  See  also  ambdr  khdna. 
In  Sdngdn,  manure. 

Granary,     See  also  ambdr. 


A  servant   engaged   to  watch  the 
granaries.     See  also  darwdn. 

Vineyard. 

Borrowed    labour  for   agricultural 
purposes. 

Labourers     obtained     under     the 
ashar  system. 

Half  ripe  corn.     Also  corn  parch- 
ed in  fire.     See  also  al-woi. 

A  crop  watcher.     See   also  tohae^ 


337 


Term  in  Pashtv'i. 


Bachak  

Bada  (Singdn) 
Bidi  kawal  (Kowds). 

Bddmala   (Kowds) ... 

Badnza  (Kowds)     ... 

Bdgh 

Baghali 

Bighcha 

Bdli  oba      

Banae  (Shihrig) 
Bambal  (Kohlu)      .. 


Term  in  Jatki. 


Explanation. 


Ahdri  or  Arhdri. 

Aitn  (Sibi),  W^l- 
ni  (Nasfrabdd.) 

Angdri  (Si  b  i  ), 
Kdni  ^Nasfrd- 
bad). 

Awindo  or  Wi- 
ron  (Nasfrd- 
bild). 

Thada  (Sibi), 
Tejar  (Nasfrd- 
bid). 


Chdr     s  h  a  k  h  a 
uchhalna. 


Wawri  (Sibi), 
Pi,le  m  a  r  e  o 
(Nasi'rdbdd). 

Ndra       


Bdgcha  

Ad  (Sibi),  r«j  (Na- 
sfrdbdd). 


Bano  or  Banna. 


Judr  crop  sown  in  ahdr  (June). 
Cotton  press. 


A  disease  which  afiects  the  wheat 
crop  and  makes  the  ears  of  corn 
black. 

The  mouth  of  the  wah  or  channel 
from  which  water  is  led  off  to 
the  fields. 

The  second  crop  of  maize  or  Juar 
which  does  not  ripen. 


Bundles  of  millet  stalks. 

To  winnow  the  grain  with  c/idr 
shdhha.  See  also  liivnu  and  orash 
warkawal. 

Ears  of  wheat  withered  by  wind. 


Leather  covered  rope  with  which 
bullocks  are  yoked  to  the 
plough.  See  also  pura,  waletrae 
and  ghorsu. 

Garden. 

A  side  channel  to  lead  oflF  water 
from  a  kares  well  which  has 
been  blocked. 

A  small  garden. 

First  watering  before  land  is 
ploughed.  See  also  nawa  and 
zuke  oba. 

Embankment.  See  also  lath  and 
band. 

Maize  flowers.  See  also  char 
khulae  and  kats  khulae. 


338 


Term  in  Pashtu. 


Band  ..• 


Term  in  Jatki. 


...    Bano  or  Banna... 


Bandobast     

B.ira   (Shdhrig      and 
Sungan). 


Barkat  (T) 


Barshakal 


Safa  bar. 


..|S6r  sail  (Sibj), 
AbAd  s41  (Na- 
si r;i  bid). 


Explanation. 


Embankment.  See  also  lafk  and 
banae. 

Settlement. 

Stone  embankments  or  walls 
made  to  protect  fields  from  en- 
croachment by  hill  torrents. 

A  heap  of  wheat  grain  on  the 
threshing  floor.     See  also  raisa. 

Rainy  season.  See  also  bashakdl 
and  shahdl. 


Bashakdl         (Kowis :  S6r     sali     (Sibi), 
and  Sangan).  Abad   sil  (Na- 

siribid). 


Batdi  ... 
Bazang  (T) 


.    Tind  (Sibi),  Tindo 
(Nasirdbad). 


Bazgar    (Kowas    and 
Sangin). 

B^gar 

B61a  (Shihrig) 
B61wan  (Kohlu)       ... 
B^ta  (Shihrig) 


Biinga  (Harnai   and 
Sdngin). 

Biniwa  (Ko\v4s)     ... 


Bobazh  (Kowds, 

Kohlu  and  Sangdn) 


Rahak    ... 
B^gdr  (Sibi)      ... 


Bhdnra  (Sibi), 
Wdndo  Nasir- 
dbad). 


Abi 
Pdchhdtra 


Division  of  crops. 

A  rope  provided  with  nooses  to 
which  sheep  and  goats  are  teth- 
ered. See  also  tsangai  and 
icandar. 

Tenant.     See  also  kashae. 


Forced  labour  or  labour  supplied 
for  making  a  band. 

Water  channel  of  a  mili. 

Weaning  time.     See  also  telo. 

Open  ground  where  flocks  are 
kept  for  the  night.  See  also 
tvahnah. 

Second  ploughing  of  the  field  pre- 
pared for  cultivation  of  rice 

Irrigated  land.  See  also  tandobe 
and  zindai  inzakka. 

Crop  sown  late.     See  aXso pdtserae. 


339 


Term  in  Pashtu. 


Term  in  Jatki. 


Bogarae        

Boh      (Harnai      and 
Kohlu). 

Bohil  (Ssingin)      ... 
Bohalla  

Bok (Singin) 

Brdimjo  (Shahrig)    .. 
Bnizal  (  T.  ) 

Buchar  (Kowas) 

Bungae  (Sdngan)    ... 
Biitak  (Shahrig)      ... 


Chao  (Kohlu) 
Chap  (Sdngan) 


Bogri  (Sibi),Biro 
(NasirAbdd). 


Bhoh 


To  pa 


Danga 
Blind 
bdd). 


(Sibi), 
(Nasfrd- 


Kanda, 
Burri. 


Diibi, 


Bitr        

Bhdni     

Buji  ndli  (Sibi)... 


Chhib 


Explanation. 


A  piece  of  land  given  to  a  tenant 
or  imiUa  free  of  rent  for  cultiva- 
tion. 

Chopped  straw  {bhiisa)  See  also 
pror. 

Rent  paid  by  a  tenant  to  a  land- 
lord. 

Short  showers  of  rain  during 
spring. 


A  mark  made  on  sheep  by  cutting 
a  part  of  wool  or  applying 
coloured  matter. 

Open  kari's  channel.  See  also 
chao  and  roina. 

To  bring  home  sheep  and  goats  in 
the  morning  to  be  milked.  See 
also  gharmaisi. 

Ears  of  maize  or  judr  from  which 
corn  has  been  extracted.  See 
also  kakm,  tuka,  daridar  and 
ganda  khar. 

A  shepherd's  hut. 

Green  wheat  crop  damaged  by 
cold  about  end  of  March.  See 
also  saro  sazal. 

Newly  formed  cotton  pod. 

Wages  paid  to  cotton  pickers. 

Sowing  wheat  with  drill  in  un- 
ploughed  land. 

Open  kares  channel.  See  also 
brdimjo  and  roina. 

A  dam  made  of  brush  wood  in  a 
stream  to  lead  off  water.  See 
also  gliano  ganda  and  khand. 


340 


Term  in  Pashtu. 


Term  in  Jatki. 


Explanation. 


Charai 


Char     khulae  (Shdh- 
rig). 


Khirya    (Nasird- 
bad). 


Ch6r    (Kowas       and    Gapchhir      (Na- 
Kohlu).  sirabid). 


Chakawal(Kohlu).. 


China .. 


Chimjan 


Chishma  (Kawas  and 
Kohlu). 

Chond  


Churin  (Ko'a-^s) 


Dab  (Kowds) 


Chhang  ... 


Charkhi   (Nasfr- 
dbdd). 


Ch6tri  ... 
Chiinra  ... 
Chhal  (SibI) 


Chhara      (Nasfr- 
ibdd). 

Dhand 


Trench  between  ridges  in  a  melott 
field.     See  also  joa. 

Maize  flowers.  See  also  bambal, 
kats  khulae. 

Cleaning  water  channels  in  spring. 
See  also  warejdn. 

Pruning  of  trees.  See  also  wus' 
hal  and  wurzhang. 

A  spring.  See  also  chishma^ 
khaisi  and  hhdzi. 

Affected  by  chinjai  insects.  Thus 
chimjan  khatakae,  a  melon 
affected  by  insects. 

A  spring.  See  alse  china,  khdsi 
and  khaisi. 

Short  lucerne  plants  grazed  by 
cattle. 

A  single  plucking  oi  pales  produce. 
See  also  sar. 

Method  of  irrigation  by  raising 
water  from  the  canal  branches 
by  Persian  wheel  {charkh).  The 
various  parts  of  the  Persian 
wheel  are  known  as  mal,  lota, 
baity  dhaidi,  nahwar,  pharhi, 
obhara,  •wa7igri,  arra,  chakkar, 
7}iahro,  makra,  katijan,  gddi,  and 
the  place  where  the  bullocks 
revolve  is  called  pir. 

/udr  crop  sown  in  Chetr  (March). 

Picking  cotton. 

To  throw  unthreshed  stalks  in  the 
centre  of  the  threshing  floor. 

.  Husking  rice. 


Stagnant  water.     See    also  dand, 
khumb  and  pandioba. 


Mi 


Term  in  Pashtu. 


Term  in  Jatki. 


Dad    (Kowis 
Kohlu). 


Dam 


Dand  (T) 


Dandar  (Kowds) 


Dandi  piliz  (Singiin 
and    Kowis). 


Dung  (Shahrig) 

Dangar  ranz     (Shah- 
rig and  Sangdn). 

Daror  (Kohlu) 


Darwdn  (Kohlu) 


Darwazh 


Darw6zh  (T) 


D6^dn  (Kohlu) 


and   Gandh 


Explanation. 


Kanda, 
Burri. 


D  ubi, 


Mora 


Wad 


D6hgan  (Sibi) 


Wheat  or  barley  when  knots  have 
appeared  in  the  stalUs.  See 
also  dtid. 

Water  running  slowly  owing  to  a 
block  in  a  kdrea. 

Stagnant  water.  See  also  dab, 
khiimb  and  pandioha. 

Ears  of  maize  or  judr  from  which 
grain  has  been  extracted.  See 
also  buchar,  kakni,  tuka  and 
ganda  khar. 

Pdles  sown  in  plot  of  land,  in 
which  rain  water  has  been  col- 
lected. See  also  wachob  pdlcz 
and  khum  pales. 

Offshoots  of  a  tree.  See  also 
ghurga. 

A  disease  peculiar  to  rice  crop 

Wages  consisting  of  foo